ebola virus disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 65 (04) ◽  
pp. 350-364
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui ◽  
Simal Khan ◽  
Naveed Ahmed Khan

2021 ◽  
pp. 251484862110549
Stefan Treffers ◽  
S. Harris Ali ◽  
Roger Keil ◽  
Mosoka Fallah

A disease outbreak is an emergent product of social and ecological processes. To more fully understand disease outbreaks and their response, we must therefore consider how these dual processes interact in specific locales within the context of an increasingly urbanized world. As such, in this paper we examine the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak and its response in West Africa by adopting the lenses of two approaches that are usually treated separately – namely, urban political ecology (UPE) and urban political pathology (UPP). The UPE approach sheds light on how the material/biophysical basis of the EVD outbreak was influenced by the socio-political-economic and vice versa. The UPP approach gives us insight into how the EVD response was influenced by broader socio-political-economic forces, particularly the historical legacy of colonialism. Through the adoption of this dual lens we are able to gain greater insights and a more comprehensive understanding of the EVD outbreak and response in West Africa.

2021 ◽  
Bert Vanmechelen ◽  
Joren Stroobants ◽  
Winston Chiu ◽  
Joost Schepers ◽  
Arnaud Marchand ◽  

Despite recent advancements in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies for Ebola virus disease, treatment options remain limited. Moreover, management and containment of Ebola virus outbreaks is often hindered by the remote nature of the locations in which the outbreaks originate. Small-molecule compounds offer the advantage of being relatively cheap and easy to produce, transport and store, making them an interesting modality for the development of novel therapeutics against Ebola virus disease. Furthermore, the repurposing of small-molecule compounds, previously developed for alternative applications, can aid in reducing the time needed to bring potential therapeutics from bench to bedside. For this purpose, the Medicines for Malaria Venture provides collections of previously developed small-molecule compounds for screening against other infectious diseases. In this study, we used biologically contained Ebola virus to screen over 4,200 small-molecule drugs and drug-like compounds provided by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (i.e., the Pandemic Response Box and the COVID Box) and the Centre for Drug Design and Discovery (CD3, KU Leuven, Belgium). In addition to confirming known Ebola virus inhibitors, illustrating the validity of our screening assays, we identified eight novel selective Ebola virus inhibitors. Although the inhibitory potential of these compounds remains to be validated in vivo, they represent interesting compounds for the study of potential interventions against Ebola virus disease and might serve as a basis for the development of new therapeutics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. e0009967
Amy J. Schuh ◽  
Jackson Kyondo ◽  
James Graziano ◽  
Stephen Balinandi ◽  
Markus H. Kainulainen ◽  

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu in August 2018. By June 2019, the outbreak had spread to 26 health zones in northeastern DRC, causing >2,000 reported cases and >1,000 deaths. On June 10, 2019, three members of a Congolese family with EVD-like symptoms traveled to western Uganda’s Kasese District to seek medical care. Shortly thereafter, the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Surveillance and Laboratory Program (VHF program) at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) confirmed that all three patients had EVD. The Ugandan Ministry of Health declared an outbreak of EVD in Uganda’s Kasese District, notified the World Health Organization, and initiated a rapid response to contain the outbreak. As part of this response, UVRI and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with the support of Uganda’s Public Health Emergency Operations Center, the Kasese District Health Team, the Superintendent of Bwera General Hospital, the United States Department of Defense’s Makerere University Walter Reed Project, and the United States Mission to Kampala’s Global Health Security Technical Working Group, jointly established an Ebola Field Laboratory in Kasese District at Bwera General Hospital, proximal to an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU). The laboratory consisted of a rapid containment kit for viral inactivation of patient specimens and a GeneXpert Instrument for performing Xpert Ebola assays. Laboratory staff tested 76 specimens from alert and suspect cases of EVD; the majority were admitted to the ETU (89.3%) and reported recent travel to the DRC (58.9%). Although no EVD cases were detected by the field laboratory, it played an important role in patient management and epidemiological surveillance by providing diagnostic results in <3 hours. The integration of the field laboratory into Uganda’s National VHF Program also enabled patient specimens to be referred to Entebbe for confirmatory EBOV testing and testing for other hemorrhagic fever viruses that circulate in Uganda.

2021 ◽  
Vol 61 ◽  
pp. 28-35
Karthick Vasudevan ◽  
D. Thirumal Kumar ◽  
S. Udhaya Kumar ◽  
Aisha Saleem ◽  
N. Nagasundaram ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (12) ◽  
pp. 2988-2998
Mory Keita ◽  
Héloïse Lucaccioni ◽  
Michel Kalongo Ilumbulumbu ◽  
Jonathan Polonsky ◽  
Justus Nsio-Mbeta ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Nnabueze Darlington Nnaji ◽  
Helen Onyeaka ◽  
Rine Christopher Reuben ◽  
Olivier Uwishema ◽  
Chinasa Valerie Olovo ◽  

AbstractGlobally, the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented clinical and public health concerns with increasing morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the burden of COVID-19 in Africa has been further exacerbated by the simultaneous epidemics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Lassa Fever (LF) which has created a huge burden on African healthcare systems. As Africa struggles to contain the spread of the second (and third) waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of reported cases of LF is also increasing, and recently, new outbreaks of EVD. Before the pandemic, many of Africa’s frail healthcare systems were already overburdened due to resource limitations in staffing and infrastructure, and also, multiple endemic tropical diseases. However, the shared epidemiological and pathophysiological features of COVID-19, EVD and LF as well their simultaneous occurrence in Africa may result in misdiagnosis at the onset of infection, an increased possibility of co-infection, and rapid and silent community spread of the virus(es). Other challenges include high population mobility across porous borders, risk of human-to-animal transmission and reverse zoonotic spread, and other public health concerns. This review highlights some major clinical and public health challenges toward responses to the COVID-19 pandemic amidst the deuce-ace of recurrent LF and EVD epidemics in Africa. Applying the One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance and preparedness is essential in mitigating emerging and re-emerging (co-)epidemics in Africa and beyond.

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