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Author(s):  
A. K. Piel ◽  
A. Crunchant ◽  
I. E. Knot ◽  
C. Chalmers ◽  
P. Fergus ◽  
...  

AbstractObserving and quantifying primate behavior in the wild is challenging. Human presence affects primate behavior and habituation of new, especially terrestrial, individuals is a time-intensive process that carries with it ethical and health concerns, especially during the recent pandemic when primates are at even greater risk than usual. As a result, wildlife researchers, including primatologists, have increasingly turned to new technologies to answer questions and provide important data related to primate conservation. Tools and methods should be chosen carefully to maximize and improve the data that will be used to answer the research questions. We review here the role of four indirect methods—camera traps, acoustic monitoring, drones, and portable field labs—and improvements in machine learning that offer rapid, reliable means of combing through large datasets that these methods generate. We describe key applications and limitations of each tool in primate conservation, and where we anticipate primate conservation technology moving forward in the coming years.


Crisis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jennifer D. Runkle ◽  
Margaret M. Sugg ◽  
Shrikanth Yadav ◽  
Stella Harden ◽  
Jaclyn Weiser ◽  
...  

Abstract. Background: Data are scarce on assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people. Aim: To examine changes in crisis text patterns in the United States during the pandemic compared to the prepandemic period. Method: Nonintrusive data from a national digital crisis texting platform were analyzed using an interrupted time series design. Poisson regression with repeated-measures examined help-seeking patterns for stress, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and other mental health concerns in the pandemic (March 13 to July 20, 2020) compared to the prepandemic period (March 13 to July 20, 2019). Results: An abrupt increase in national crisis response texts occurred during the pandemic for stress and anxiety, substance abuse, bereavement, isolation, and abuse compared to the prepandemic period. Similar trends of excess texts for isolation and abuse were reported among children (relative risk [RR]abuse: 1.16, CI: 1.03, 1.31; RRisolation: 1.15, CI: 1.09, 1.21) and adolescents (RRabuse: 1.17, CI: 1.11, 1.24; RRisolation: 1.08, CI: 1.05, 1.11), bereavement among Black (RR: 1.31, CI: 1.12, 1.54) and Hispanic (RR: 1.28, CI: 1.10, 1.49) texters, and isolation and bereavement in female (RRisolation: 1.09, CI: 1.06, 1.11; RRbereavement: 1.21, CI: 1.13, 1.28) or nonconforming youth (RRisolation: 1.19, CI: 1.08, 1.32; RRbereavement: 1.50, CI: 1.08, 2.09) texters. Conversely, the risks of reporting bullying, depression, relationship issues, and suicidal thoughts as reasons for texting were significantly lower during COVID-19. Limitations: Results may underestimate crisis support-seeking in some groups because demographic data were not captured on all texters. Conclusion: Findings illuminated the real-time crisis response of young people across the United States and can inform more responsive interventions to alleviate the mental health consequences brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Asres Bedaso ◽  
Jon Adams ◽  
Wenbo Peng ◽  
David Sibbritt

Abstract Background Antenatal depression and antenatal anxiety adversely affect several obstetric and foetal outcomes, and increase the rate of postnatal mental illness. Thus, to tackle these challenges the need for social support during pregnancy is vital. However, an extensive literature search failed to show a published study on the relationship between domains of social support and antenatal depressive, as well as antenatal anxiety symptoms in Australia. This study examined the association between domains of social support and antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms among Australian women. Methods The current study used data obtained from the 1973–78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH), focusing upon women who reported being pregnant (n = 493). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the 10 item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D-10) scale, and the 9-item Goldberg Anxiety and Depression scale (GADS) respectively. The 19 item-Medical Outcomes Study Social Support index (MOSS) was used to assess social support. A logistic regression model was used to examine the associations between domains of social support and antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Result The current study found 24.7 and 20.9% of pregnant women screened positive for depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, our study found that the odds of antenatal depressive symptoms was about four and threefold higher among pregnant women who reported low emotional/informational support (AOR = 4.75; 95% CI: 1.45, 15.66; p = 0.010) and low social support (overall support) (AOR = 3.26; 95%CI: 1.05, 10.10, p = 0.040) respectively compared with their counterpart. In addition, the odds of antenatal anxiety symptoms was seven times higher among pregnant women who reported low affectionate support/positive social interaction (AOR = 7.43; 95%CI: 1.75, 31.55; p = 0.006). Conclusion A considerable proportion of pregnant Australian women had depressive symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms, which poses serious health concerns. Low emotional/informational support and low affectionate support/positive social interaction have a significant association with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively. As such, targeted screening of expectant women for social support is essential.


Author(s):  
Holden Sparacino ◽  
Kristine F. Stepenuck ◽  
Rachelle K. Gould ◽  
Stephanie E. Hurley

Chlorides (frequently sodium chloride) are used to improve safety and access to roads and other surfaces in winter. However, chlorides also pose risks to aquatic life and raises human health concerns as they move to surface waterbodies and infiltrate groundwater. In response, many government bodies have adopted winter maintenance best management practices (BMPs) that reduce the amount of chlorides used while providing service and safety. Commercial businesses maintaining parking lots, driveways, and other surfaces have been shown to contribute as much as 50% of the chloride loads to local waterbodies in some areas, but less is known about the potential benefits of private contractors to implement similar BMPs. In addition, many existing resources on the topic are designed for municipal audiences, creating a knowledge gap about the feasibility of private companies to adopt these practices. The authors identified 14 BMPs common to municipal plans with the potential to be adopted by private contractors through a literature review. These practices aim to increase the efficiency of salt applications, and/or decrease environmental impacts while delivering a similar level of service and cost over time. The authors considered potential barriers and benefits to private contractors adopting and using these BMPs. Benefits included reduced liability (e.g., risk of lawsuits), costs, environmental impacts, and improved service. Barriers included additional staff time and training, increased materials, equipment, and maintenance costs. Additional research is needed to ground-truth these predicted motivations and barriers; a greater understanding of private contractor behaviors can enhance educational efforts that promote reduced salt practices.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stephanie Dorais ◽  
Daniel Gutierrez

Background: Mental health concerns are climbing steadily on college campuses, and universities do not have the staffing and financial resources to address the overwhelming needs of students seeking counseling services. College counselors generally must place students on waitlists or refer them to external resources. Further, during the COVID-19 pandemic, university counselors have been working tirelessly to treat students through online formats. Alternative, online, evidence-based interventions offer college counselors a significant advantage in effectively treating their students. We seek to expand the empirical evidence for mindfulness interventions through online formats for the college population. We registered the study (ISRCTN13587045) at www.isrctn.com.Objective: We examined the effectiveness of a unique online centering meditation and its impact on stress and trait mindfulness in the college population.Methods: Through a randomized controlled trial, the treatment group participated in a 4-week intervention of centering for 10 min each morning and night. We measured stress and mindfulness in both groups through the Perceived Stress Scale and Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks.Results: The centering meditation treatment had a statistically significant positive impact on stress and mindfulness compared to a waitlist control group. The meditation group had an average of 64% adherence rate.Conclusion: The study findings indicate that individuals who participate in a 4-week online centering intervention showed improved levels of stress and trait mindfulness over time.Clinical Trial Registration: WHO International Clinical Registry Platform, identifier: ISRCTN13587045.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Heyu Yang ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Chenghao Wen ◽  
Shun Bai ◽  
Pengfei Wei ◽  
...  

Abstract Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-based contrast agents are widely used for T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical diagnosis, highlighting the necessity and importance to evaluate their potential systematic toxicities. Although a few previous studies have documented the toxicity concerns of IONPs to major organs, limited data are available on the potential reproductive toxicity caused by IONPs, especially when administrated via intravenous injection to mimic clinical use of MRI contrast agents. Our study aimed to determine whether exposure to IONPs would affect male reproductive system and cause other related health concerns in ICR mice. The mice were intravenously injected with different concentrations IONPs once followed by routine toxicity tests of major organs and a series of reproductive function-related analyses at different time points. As a result, most of the contrast agents were captured by reticuloendothelial system (RES) organs such as liver and spleen, while IONPs have not presented adverse effects on the normal function of these major organs. In contrast, although IONPs were not able to enter testis through the blood testicular barrier (BTB), and they have not impaired the normal testicular structure or altered the serum sex hormones levels, IONPs exposure could damage Sertoli cells in BTB at a relative high concentration. Moreover, IONPs administration led to a short-term reduction in the quantity and quality of sperms in a dose-dependent manner, which might be attributed to the increase of oxidative stress in epididymis. However, the semen parameters have gradually returned to the normal range within 14 days after the initial injection of IONPs. Collectively, these results demonstrated that IONPs could cause reversible damage to the reproductive system of male mice without affecting the main organs, providing new guidance for the clinical application of IONPs as T2-MRI contrast agents.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rama Mohan Kurakalva ◽  
Sravya Sai Guddeti ◽  
Anjana Nath ◽  
Eswara Venkata Ravi Kishore Vemana

Abstract Anthropogenic activities such as the rapid leap of industrialization and urbanization constitute a significant concern in megacities and have become a key source of groundwater contamination. Twenty-five (25) groundwater samples were collected from tube wells and handpumps from Nacharam watershed, greater Hyderabad. The water samples were analyzed for 13 physicochemical parameters and major dissolved ions using the standard methods. WQI has been computed using a weighted arithmetic index method and integrated with GIS to identify the hotspots of contamination and their spatial distribution. The analytical data plotted on the Piper diagram showed that dominance of Ca-Mg-Cl (52%) type followed by Na-Cl type of water is dominant in 44% of samples might be resulting due to increase in anthropogenic activities such as discharge of waste water from industries. Results reveal that 96% of the samples exceed the F - concentrations compared with WHO permissible limits suggested unfit for drinking. WQI values indicate that 56% of samples fall in the poor category, 28% belong to very poor water, and 4% are unsuitable for drinking. These findings will provide valuable information to policymakers and stakeholders on the proper management and supply of potable water that reduces human health concerns .


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yayoi Kimura ◽  
Yusuke Nakai ◽  
Jihye Shin ◽  
Miyui Hara ◽  
Yuriko Takeda ◽  
...  

AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity that has provoked global health concerns. Since the etiopathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. Accurately predicting the progression of the disease would aid in appropriate patient categorization and thus help determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins that are closely associated with COVID-19 prognosis. Twenty-seven proteins were differentially expressed between severely ill COVID-19 patients with an adverse or favorable prognosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that 15 of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signaling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and in cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated practical predictors of the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA assays revealed that CHI3L1 and IGFALS may serve as highly sensitive prognostic markers. Our findings can help formulate a diagnostic approach for accurately identifying COVID-19 patients with severe disease and for providing appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 041-051
Author(s):  
Ivan Cédric Mvondo Ozela ◽  
Patrick Yamen Mbopi ◽  
Herve Narcisse Bayaga ◽  
Pierre Réne Kwetche Fotsing ◽  
Jean Jacques Tchouani ◽  
...  

The high incidence of infectious diseases and the emergence of resistance to modern drugs are current public health concerns. This situation leads to the search for alternatives via medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to assess the properties of Vernonia conferta. We performed an experimental study. The plant material consisted of the leaves and trunk bark of V. conferta. The extraction was carried out by maceration using aqueous and hydro-ethanolic solvents, followed by phytochemical screening of the extracts. An evaluation of the antibacterial potential was carried out by the micro-dilution method and was followed by the evaluation of the antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP test) and cytotoxicity (resazurin staining) of the extracts. The E2 and E4 extracts exhibited better extraction yields. The phytochemical screening noted the presence of families of compounds in common (polyphenols, tannins and quinones) and those which are different. The hydro-ethanolic extracts exhibited antibacterial activity on the strains of interest with MICs varying from 2 to 32 mg / mL with a possibility of synergistic action between the compounds. The evaluation of the antioxidant properties showed that the extracts E1, E3 and E4 showed better properties with IC50 = 25.1 ± 0.410; 2.456 ± 0.002; 2.363 ± 0.015 µg / mL respectively according to the tested method. The extracts showed their non-cytotoxicity with CC50> 1000 µg / mL. The activities of hydro-ethanolic extracts of V. conferta suggest that the latter would be a potential raw material for the production of improved traditional medicines.


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