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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 970
Author(s):  
Bartosz Kamil Sobocki ◽  
Charbel A. Basset ◽  
Bożena Bruhn-Olszewska ◽  
Paweł Olszewski ◽  
Olga Szot ◽  
...  

Periodontitis is prevalent in half of the adult population and raises critical health concerns as it has been recently associated with an increased risk of cancer. While information about the topic remains somewhat scarce, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanistic pathways promoting neoplasia in periodontitis patients is of fundamental importance. This manuscript presents the literature as well as a panel of tables and figures on the molecular mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, two main oral pathogens in periodontitis pathology, involved in instigating tumorigenesis. We also present evidence for potential links between the RANKL–RANK signaling axis as well as circulating cytokines/leukocytes and carcinogenesis. Due to the nonconclusive data associating periodontitis and cancer reported in the case and cohort studies, we examine clinical trials relevant to the topic and summarize their outcome.


Author(s):  
Cristina Gasparik ◽  
Horațiu Alexandru Colosi ◽  
Bianca Elena Varvara ◽  
Alexandru Grațian Grecu ◽  
Alexandra Iulia Aghiorghiesei ◽  
...  

Dyschromic lesions (DLs) of tooth enamel are common disorders, with multiple etiologies and various clinical forms, that raise public health concerns. This study aimed to determine the factors that influence the perception of DLs and to assess the perceived need for dental treatment in various clinical cases. A paper-based questionnaire with attached images of frontal teeth exhibiting different DLs was distributed to patients, dental students, and dentists. A total of 383 volunteers participated in this study, and their answers were statistically described and analyzed. This study found that in cases with multiple, well-demarcated areas of opacities associated with diffuse opacities on neighboring teeth, most respondents noticed and reported only the most severe lesions, disregarding the minor ones. The contrast of the lesion with the color of the substrate influenced the overall perception and a significant correlation between these two variables was found. However, the color of the DLs did not significantly impact the overall perception of the lesions. A higher overall perception of DLs was significantly correlated with a favorable opinion regarding the need for treatment. Furthermore, gender and medical background were significantly associated with the overall perception of DLs.


Author(s):  
Emily D. Walden ◽  
Atika Khurana ◽  
Leslie D. Leve ◽  
Lauren E. Lindstrom

Female adolescents with disabilities are at an increased risk for mental health concerns, which can negatively impact their self-determination, making transition to postschool opportunities difficult. We analyzed two waves of survey data from 366 female adolescents with disabilities, recruited from 26 U.S. public high schools, as part of a randomized controlled trial of a career development intervention. Participants with mental health concerns evidenced a slower increase in self-determination over the follow-up period than those without such concerns. Individuals assigned to the intervention condition experienced significant gains in self-determination compared with the control. Findings suggest that mental health concerns can operate as a barrier to growth in self-determination skills among this population, though targeted interventions can help in boosting these skills.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Richard Tunney

Impulsivity is an individual difference in decision-making that is a risk factor for a number of health concerns including addiction and obesity. Although impulsivity has a large heritable component it, the health concerns associated with impulsivity are not uniformly distributed across society. For example, people from poorer backgrounds are more likely to be overweight, and be dependent on tobacco or alcohol. This suggests that the environmental component of impulsivity night be related to economic circumstances and availability of resources. This paper provides evidence that children aged 4 to 12 from the most deprived areas show greater impulsivity in the form of delay discounting than do children from the least deprived areas. The data are discussed with reference to scarcity based models of decision-making and to public health inequalities.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Damitie Kebede Mengesha ◽  
Demewez Moges Haile

Abstract Background: Undernutrition is one of the major public health concerns among infants and young children in the country. Childhood under-nutrition is widespread in low and middle-income countries. This study was initiated to assess the prevalence of under-nutrition and its associated factors among under-five children in Afar Region, Ethiopia. Methods: The data for this study were extracted from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. The information collected from 937 children born 5 years before the survey was considered in the analysis. A multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used at a 5% level of significance to determine the individual- and community-level factors associated with childhood malnutrition.Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting in Afar region were 41.1%, 36.2% and 17.7%, respectively. About 26.7% of children in Afar region were both stunting and underweight, 12.7% were both underweight and wasting, 7.6% were both stunting and wasting and only 7.0% of children had all the three under-nutrition conditions. Among the factors considered in this study, age of a child in months, anemia level, mothers’ BMI, household wealth index, size of child at birth, number of living children and place of residence were significantly associated with stunting, underweight and wasting in Afar Region. Conclusions: The prevalence of all stunting, underweight and wasting was relatively high. Undernutrition is one of the major public health concerns among children in Afar Region. The effect of these factors should be considered to develop strategies to reduce under-nutrition in the study area. Thus, intervention should be focused on improving the under-nutrition determinants of the children to improve the child's nutritional status and reduce child morbidity and mortality.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amber Jenkins ◽  
Lauren Kearney ◽  
George Kendall ◽  
Lee Kannis-Dymand

Abstract Background Perinatal mental illness is prevalent and can be associated with poorer health outcomes for mother and fetus if untreated. Mindfulness is a contemporary approach to managing mental health concerns; however, little is known about the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Interventions during pregnancy, especially within the context of peer support. Methods A systematic review was undertaken. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies were included. All articles were critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. Results Of the 2053 records initially identified, 21 studies met inclusion criteria. Studies demonstrated modest improvements in perinatal mental illness, particularly when interventions were adapted to meet the unique needs of women in the prenatal period. Comparison was difficult, due to high heterogeneity and methodological limitations. No studies explored peer support as a therapeutic mechanism and maternal-fetal bonding was not a measured in any studies. Conclusion Mindfulness-based group interventions designed to meet the needs of perinatal women require further research, with larger sample sizes, more rigorous methodology and greater demographic diversity required. Additionally, value could be afforded in exploration of how group support affects any change mechanisms within the participants and include maternal fetal bonding as a measured outcome.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jia Hao Tan ◽  
Tariq Masood

Airports have taken centre stage in the fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and adoption of technologies has been instrumental in helping airport operators to mitigate operational and health concerns relating to the pandemic. A novel framework for the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies was developed based on the insights gathered from an industry survey of 102 airport operators and managers around the world and 17 semi-structured interviews. The framework provides a ‘three-proof’ approach (proof of technology, proof of operations and proof of business) to guide airport operators in their decision-making process in adopting Industry 4.0 technologies in airports. This framework is further verified through a case study of the technology implementation efforts of a leading Asian airport.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 309
Author(s):  
Amena Ali ◽  
Abuzer Ali ◽  
Musarrat Husain Warsi ◽  
Mohammad Akhlaquer Rahman ◽  
Mohamed Jawed Ahsan ◽  
...  

At high altitudes, drops in oxygen concentration result in the creation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), which cause a variety of health concerns. We addressed these health concerns and reported the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of a series of 10 oxoquinolines. N-Aryl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoquinoline-1(2H)carboxamides (5a–j) were accessed in two steps under ultrasonicated irradiation, as per the reported method. The anticancer activity was tested at 10 µM against a total of 5 dozen cancer cell lines obtained from nine distinct panels, as per the National Cancer Institute (NCI US) protocol. The compounds 5a (TK-10 (renal cancer); %GI = 82.90) and 5j (CCRF-CEM (Leukemia); %GI = 58.61) showed the most promising anticancer activity. Compound 5a also demonstrated promising DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 14.16 ± 0.42 µM. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and carbonic anhydrase (CA), two prospective cancer inhibitor targets, were used in the molecular docking studies. Molecular docking studies of ligand 5a (docking score = −8.839) against the active site of EGFR revealed two H-bond interactions with the residues Asp855 and Thr854, whereas ligand 5a (docking = −5.337) interacted with three H-bond with the residues Gln92, Gln67, and Thr200 against the active site CA. The reported compounds exhibited significant anticancer and antioxidant activities, as well as displayed significant inhibition against cancer targets, EGFR and CA, in the molecular docking studies. The current discovery may aid in the development of novel compounds for the treatment of cancer and oxidative stress, and other high altitude-related disorders.


The exposure of farmers to agricultural hazards and risks has been increased in their work-places with the recent developments in agricultural sectors in most of the developing countries. This higher expose may be due to the enhanced need in meeting the food as well as monetary demand of farming house-holds. The agricultural-productivity has also been reduced in developing countries because of the exposure of farmers to work-related stresses affecting their well-being. Thus, an attempt was made in this study for exploring the mental-health disorders among the farmers and the farming-community in the state of Odisha in India for undertaking possible intervention strategies by the government and competent authorities.


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