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2022 ◽  
Hassan Boskabadi ◽  
Hosein Ataee Nakhaei ◽  
Nafiseh Pourbadakhshan ◽  
Azadeh Darabi ◽  
Morteza Rasti Sani

Abstract Background vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory problems in neonates. The late preterm or near-term neonates who have been admitted for tachypnea and fully recovered before 12 h, we called Non-specific respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of 25(OH) D administration in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery on the incidence of NRDS in their infants. Methods This single-blind clinical trial was performed on mothers and neonates with a gestational age of 32-37 weeks who were referred with labor pains from February 20th 2021 to June29th 2021 in the obstetrics and gynecology department and intensive treatment unit of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Within 72 h of preterm delivery, a single dose of 50,000 units of intramuscular 25-hydroxy vitamin D was injected into pregnant women in the intervention group. Also a sample containing 1.5 ml of whole blood was taken from the umbilical cord of the infant and mother to assess the level of vitamin D. Results In the present study, there was a significant relationship between the two groups of control and intervention in terms of weight (P=001), first (P=0.027) and fifth minute Apgar score (P=0.001) in infant, incidence of NRDS (P=0.001) and maternal age (P=0.004). The results showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender (p = 0.673), type of delivery (p = 0.299), level of vitamin D of the mothers (P=0.053) and infants (P=0.805). Conclusions The single injection of vitamin D into the mother prone to preterm birth over 31 weeks of gestation reduces transient respiratory problems in these infants. Trial registration: IRCT20110807007244N7 (19/02/2021)

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 398
Luís Resende ◽  
Juan Flores ◽  
Cláudia Moreira ◽  
Diana Pacheco ◽  
Alexandra Baeta ◽  

Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) is a versatile technology emerging as an ecological and sustainable solution for traditional monoculture aquacultures in terms of effluent treatment. Nevertheless, IMTA is still poorly applied in aquaculture industry due to, among other reasons, the lack of effective, low-investment and low-maintenance solutions. In this study, one has developed a practical and low maintenance IMTA-pilot system, settled in a semi-intensive coastal aquaculture. The optimisation and performance of the system was validated using Ulva spp., a macroalgae that naturally grows in the fishponds of the local aquaculture. Several cultivation experiments were performed at lab-scale and in the IMTA-pilot system, in static mode. The specific growth rate (SGR), yield, nutrient removal, N and C enrichment, protein and pigment content were monitored. Ulva spp. successfully thrived in effluent from the fish species sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) production tanks and significantly reduced inorganic nutrient load in the effluent, particularly, NH4+, PO43− and NO3−. The enrichment of nitrogen in Ulva spp.’s tissues indicated nitrogen assimilation by the algae, though, the cultivated Ulva spp. showed lower amounts of protein and pigments in comparison to the wild type. This study indicates that the designed IMTA-pilot system is an efficient solution for fish effluent treatment and Ulva spp., a suitable effluent remediator.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 272-279
Leny Fitriah ◽  
Dwi Agustini

Most of the tempe industry have not been equipped with a waste water treatment unit. It is usually a water soaked soybeans and soybean excess water is still discharged directly in the into the environment. Liquid waste industrial of tempeh contain high organic materials. One of the process for wastewater treatment is coagulation with the addition of a positively charged polyelectrolyte in tempeh wastewater as negatively charged. One of plants in Indonesia that can be used as an alternative coagulant is tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica, L).it can be used for wastewater treatment is more economical. The aims of this experiment is to determine the optimum stirring time, optimum pH of the waste and optimum coagulant dosage for treatment of the tempeh wastewater with coagulant tamarind seed powder. The experiment studied were stirring time, the pH of thetempeh wastewater and coagulant dosage to the percentage decrease in turbidity and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). The variables in the experiment were stirring time (10,15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes), the pH of the waste (3; 3.5; 4; 4 and 5) and the dosage of tamarind seed powder (100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 mg / L). COD testing methods is closed reflux method by spectrophotometry and turbidity testing using Turbidimeter. The results showed that the with coagulant tamarind seed powder effectively lowered cod levels and the dryness of tempeh liquid industrial waste. The optimum pH obtained is pH 4, optimum stirring time is 25 minutes and the increase in optimum coagulant dose is 500 mg with a percentage decrease in COD levels and noise by 90.57% and 78.94%.  Key words: liquid waste; sour power; turbidity; COD

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Jafar Safarian

Hydrogen and aluminum were used to produce manganese, aluminum–manganese (AlMn) and ferromanganese (FeMn) alloys through experimental work, and mass and energy balances. Oxide pellets were made from Mn oxide and CaO powder, followed by pre-reduction by hydrogen. The reduced MnO pellets were then smelted and reduced at elevated temperatures through CaO flux and Al reductant addition, yielding metallic Mn. Changing the amount of the added Al for the aluminothermic reduction, with or without iron addition led to the production of Mn metal, AlMn alloy and FeMn alloy. Mass and energy balances were carried out for three scenarios to produce these metal products with feasible material flows. An integrated process with three main steps is introduced; a pre-reduction unit to pre-reduce Mn ore, a smelting-aluminothermic reduction unit to produce metals from the pre-reduced ore, and a gas treatment unit to do heat recovery and hydrogen looping from the pre-reduction process gas. It is shown that the process is sustainable regarding the valorization of industrial waste and the energy consumptions for Mn and its alloys production via this process are lower than current commercial processes. Ferromanganese production by this process will prevent the emission of about 1.5 t CO2/t metal.

Lontara ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-95
Novi Poni Harwani ◽  
Sartika Fathir Rahman ◽  
Siti Maifa Diapati

Tofu industrial liquid waste contains high organic matter, if it is discharged into the environment without being processed first, it will have a negative impact in the form of environmental pollution. Currently, most of the tofu industry is still a small household scale industry, for example in Bara-baraya one of the tofu industries is not equipped with a wastewater treatment unit. The Bara-baraya tofu industry is located right in the middle of a residential area, so this can cause disturbance to the surrounding environment. This study aims to determine the quality of the tofu industrial wastewater in the Bara-Baraya Timur Village, Makassar City in terms of pH, BOD, COD, and TSS parameters. The type of research used is observational research with a descriptive approach. The method of examining samples from the parameters of BOD, COD, TSS and pH in the tofu industrial wastewater refers to the SNI for water quality testing methods and is examined at the Makassar Health Laboratory Center. The results of the inspection of the quality of tofu waste water compared to the Minister of Environment Regulation No. 5/2014 are the pH parameter 3.85 (not eligible), COD parameter 499 mg/L (not eligible), TSS parameter 4.777.50 mg/L (not eligible), and BOD parameters 1.771.88 mg/L (not eligible). The conclusion in this study is the quality of tofu wastewater in waste samples that have not undergone treatment at the wastewater treatment plant (IPAL) located in the tofu industry located in RW 4, Bara-Baraya Village, Makassar City, does not meet the requirements and exceeds the quality standards that have been set. determined by the government so that it can cause pollution to the surrounding environment.

2021 ◽  
Sheldon Peter Anthony Seales ◽  
Ahmed Rashed Alaleeli ◽  
Jan Erik Tveteraas ◽  
Daniel Martin Roberts ◽  
Glenn Aasland ◽  

Abstract Objectives/Scope This paper outlines a new and innovative technology for brine recovery after the displacement of Reservoir Drill-In Fluid Non-Aqueous Fluid (RDF NAF) to Completion Brine and the associated operational, logistical, environmental and economic benefits associated with it. A unique slop treatment technology has been utilized to recover and reuse more than 2,168 bbl per well of expensive contaminated completion fluid to help manage losses and avoid injecting valuable completion fluid into operator's injection well. This has also resulted in reducing impact to the life of the injection well and burden on formation, thereby minimizing impact to subsurface environment and contributing to lower well cost. Methods, Procedures, Process The contaminated brine was transferred from the displacement of RDF NAF to brine and processed using a novel slop treatment technology to reduce the NTU and TSS to completion brine specifications required for completion operations. After displacing the well from RDF NAF to brine, typical contaminants would be RDF NAF and hi-vis spacer (water-based). The oil-contaminated brine was usually transferred to the tanks of the cuttings treatment contractor, treated and injected into the operator's cuttings re-injection (CRI) well. The new procedure isolated the contaminated brine to be processed through the slop treatment technology to separate and remove the oil and solids from the brine. The slop treatment involved passing the contaminated fluid through a decanter, solids particulate filter, three-phase separator and then a polishing filter to process the fluid to the required NTU and TSS specifications. Results, Observations, Conclusions The slops treatment unit was implemented for brine processing in 2020 and since then, the solution has achieved desirable operational, logistical, sub-surface environmental and cost related benefits. 2,168 bbl of expensive, contaminated completion brine has been processed per well, for subsequent reuse in the completion operations. Utilization and implementation of this mechanical process, versus the historical filter press process, at the source has had clear tangible savings that can be achieved in all areas of the operation, due to the capability to process oil-contaminated brine at a higher clarity and also the viscous brine at a faster rate. This new processing strategy allowed the operator to set new standards with regards to the recovery of oil-contaminated brine, in the UAE. Novel/Additive Information This is the first successful processing of oil-contaminated brine to be completed in the UAE utilizing a mechanical technology. This process has established new baselines for the operator to be able to recover oil-contaminated brine. By adapting the existing site-based slop treatment technology, this solution has bridged a gap in the market by using a novel mechanical process to optimize oil-contaminated brine recovery efficiency and maximize returns for operators.

2021 ◽  
Indrajit Dutt ◽  
Jagannathrao Allamaraju

Abstract In line with ADNOC Sustainability policy, reduction of GHG emissions, AGP has initiated projects for recovery of CO2 from existing plants. The extracted CO2 is planned to be used for Enhanced Oil Recovery. The current paper highlights method used for evaluation of various location and technology options for implementation of the new CO2 recovery units, considering existing plants flow schemes along with their interfaces and associated challenges. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were identified based on Inherent Safety, Economics, Technology Maturity, Product Quality, Operability / Flexibility, Constructability. Identified options were further developed and subsequently evaluated based on preliminary economic analysis and available technical information. Accordingly, weighted scores of the KPIs developed for option selection. Major criteria used for ranking were unit cost of CO2 product, adherence to required H2S and COS specifications, technology maturity and deployment in industry.For one location, the options considered included installation of new Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGRU) upstream of existing AGRU, revamp of existing Acid Gas Enrichment Unit (AGEU), new AGEU, and direct feed of Acid gas to new CO2 recovery unit to supplement falling upstream reservoir profile.For another location, the options included new CO2 recovery plant upstream of existing Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) or downstream of existing Tail Gas Treatment Unit (TGTU), compression of TGTU gases upstream of proposed CO2 recovery unit, installation of new unit downstream of existing incinerators, combination of CO2 recovery units of both plants, were also assessed.In addition, new CO2 Dehydration and Compression units considered to meet CO2 product specifications and B/L requirements. Based on project requirements, physical methods of CO2 removal like membranes and molecular sieves deemed unsuitable. Further to discussions with various licensors, emphasis remained on chemical and physical solvent technologies. Based on assessment, solvent swap for AGEU (upstream of existing SRUs) with reduced lean solvent temperature at one location, solvent swap in TGTU followed by a new polishing unit at another location combined with common high pressure compression facility, was selected for engineering development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11660
Rubén González ◽  
Marcos Ellacuriaga ◽  
Alby Aguilar-Pesantes ◽  
Daniela Carrillo-Peña ◽  
José García-Cascallana ◽  

Anaerobic digestion is a biological process with wide application for the treatment of high organic-containing streams. The production of biogas and the lack of oxygen requirements are the main energetic advantages of this process. However, the digested stream may not readily find a final disposal outlet under certain circumstances. The present manuscript analyzed the feasibility of valorizing digestate by the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. A hypothetical plant treating cattle manure and cheese whey as co-substrate (25% v/w, wet weight) was studied. The global performance was evaluated using available data reported in the literature. The best configuration was digestion as a first stage with the subsequent treatment of digestate in an HTC unit. The treatment of manure as sole substrate reported a value of 752 m3/d of biogas which could be increased to 1076 m3/d (43% increase) when coupling an HTC unit for digestate post-treatment and the introduction of the co-substrate. However, the high energy demand of the combined configurations indicated, as the best alternative, the valorization of just a fraction (15%) of digestate to provide the benefits of enhancing biogas production. This configuration presented a much better energy performance than the thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment of manure. The increase in biogas production does not compensate for the high energy demand of the pre-treatment unit. However, several technical factors still need further research to make this alternative a reality, as it is the handling and pumping of high solid slurries that significantly affects the energy demand of the thermal treatment units and the possible toxicity of hydrochar when used in a biological process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. e0009967
Amy J. Schuh ◽  
Jackson Kyondo ◽  
James Graziano ◽  
Stephen Balinandi ◽  
Markus H. Kainulainen ◽  

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu in August 2018. By June 2019, the outbreak had spread to 26 health zones in northeastern DRC, causing >2,000 reported cases and >1,000 deaths. On June 10, 2019, three members of a Congolese family with EVD-like symptoms traveled to western Uganda’s Kasese District to seek medical care. Shortly thereafter, the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Surveillance and Laboratory Program (VHF program) at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) confirmed that all three patients had EVD. The Ugandan Ministry of Health declared an outbreak of EVD in Uganda’s Kasese District, notified the World Health Organization, and initiated a rapid response to contain the outbreak. As part of this response, UVRI and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with the support of Uganda’s Public Health Emergency Operations Center, the Kasese District Health Team, the Superintendent of Bwera General Hospital, the United States Department of Defense’s Makerere University Walter Reed Project, and the United States Mission to Kampala’s Global Health Security Technical Working Group, jointly established an Ebola Field Laboratory in Kasese District at Bwera General Hospital, proximal to an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU). The laboratory consisted of a rapid containment kit for viral inactivation of patient specimens and a GeneXpert Instrument for performing Xpert Ebola assays. Laboratory staff tested 76 specimens from alert and suspect cases of EVD; the majority were admitted to the ETU (89.3%) and reported recent travel to the DRC (58.9%). Although no EVD cases were detected by the field laboratory, it played an important role in patient management and epidemiological surveillance by providing diagnostic results in <3 hours. The integration of the field laboratory into Uganda’s National VHF Program also enabled patient specimens to be referred to Entebbe for confirmatory EBOV testing and testing for other hemorrhagic fever viruses that circulate in Uganda.

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