expression of genes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xianjun Feng ◽  
Jiajun Ma ◽  
Zhiqian Liu ◽  
Xuan Li ◽  
Yinghua Wu ◽  

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites that play important defensive roles in cruciferous plants. Chinese flowering cabbage, one of the most common vegetable crops, is rich in GSLs and thus has the potential to reduce the risk of cancer in humans. Many genes that are involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism have been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; however, few studies investigated the genes related to GSL biosynthesis and metabolism in Chinese flowering cabbage. In the present study, the GSL composition and content in three different organs of Chinese flowering cabbage (leaf, stalk, and flower bud) were determined. Our results showed that the total GSL content in flower buds was significantly higher than in stalks and leaves, and aliphatic GSLs were the most abundant GSL type. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the variations of GSL content, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in GSL biosynthesis and transport in different tissues of Chinese flowering cabbage using RNA sequencing; the expression levels of most genes were found to be consistent with the pattern of total GSL content. Correlation and consistency analysis of differentially expressed genes from different organs with the GSL content revealed that seven genes (Bra029966, Bra012640, Bra016787, Bra011761, Bra006830, Bra011759, and Bra029248) were positively correlated with GSL content. These findings provide a molecular basis for further elucidating GSL biosynthesis and transport in Chinese flowering cabbage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 194
Fani Ntana ◽  
Sean R. Johnson ◽  
Björn Hamberger ◽  
Birgit Jensen ◽  
Hans J. L. Jørgensen ◽  

Specialised metabolites produced during plant-fungal associations often define how symbiosis between the plant and the fungus proceeds. They also play a role in the establishment of additional interactions between the symbionts and other organisms present in the niche. However, specialised metabolism and its products are sometimes overlooked when studying plant-microbe interactions. This limits our understanding of the specific symbiotic associations and potentially future perspectives of their application in agriculture. In this study, we used the interaction between the root endophyte Serendipita indica and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to explore how specialised metabolism of the host plant is regulated upon a mutualistic symbiotic association. To do so, tomato seedlings were inoculated with S. indica chlamydospores and subjected to RNAseq analysis. Gene expression of the main tomato specialised metabolism pathways was compared between roots and leaves of endophyte-colonised plants and tissues of endophyte-free plants. S. indica colonisation resulted in a strong transcriptional response in the leaves of colonised plants. Furthermore, the presence of the fungus in plant roots appears to induce expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of lignin-derived compounds, polyacetylenes, and specific terpenes in both roots and leaves, whereas pathways producing glycoalkaloids and flavonoids were expressed in lower or basal levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 238-242
Shoheb S Shaikh ◽  
Sachin M Kokate

Daily rhythmic variations in biological functions affect the efficacy and/or toxicity of drugs: a large number of drugs cannot be expected to exhibit the same potency at different administration times. The “circadian clock” is an endogenous timing system that broadly regulates metabolism, physiology and behavior. In mammals, this clock governs the oscillatory expression of the majority of genes with a period length of approximately 24 h. Genetic studies have revealed that molecular components of the circadian clock regulate the expression of genes responsible for the sensitivity to drugs and their disposition. The circadian control of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics enables ‘chrono-pharmaceutical’ applications, namely drug administration at appropriate times of day to optimize the therapeutic index (efficacy vs. toxicity). On the other hand, a variety of pathological conditions also exhibit marked day-night changes in symptom intensity. Currently, novel therapeutic approaches are facilitated by the development of chemical compound targeted to key proteins that cause circadian exacerbation of disease events. This review presents an overview of the current understanding of the role of the circadian biological clock in regulating drug efficacy and disease conditions, and also describes the importance of identifying the difference in the circadian machinery between diurnal and nocturnal animals to select the most appropriate times of day to administer drugs in humans.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261822
Hongjun Xie ◽  
Mingdong Zhu ◽  
Yaying Yu ◽  
Xiaoshan Zeng ◽  
Guohua Tang ◽  

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important species for food production worldwide. Low temperature is a major abiotic factor that affects rice germination and reproduction. Here, the underlying regulatory mechanism in seedlings of a TGMS variety (33S) and a cold-sensitive variety (Nipponbare) was investigated by comparative transcriptome. There were 795 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified only in cold-treated 33S, suggesting that 33S had a unique cold-resistance system. Functional and enrichment analysis of these DEGs revealed that, in 33S, several metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, were significantly repressed. Moreover, pathways related to growth and development, including starch and sucrose metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and damage response/repair, were significantly enhanced. The expression of genes related to nutrient reserve activity were significantly up-regulated in 33S. Finally, three NAC and several ERF transcription factors were predicted to be important in this transcriptional reprogramming. This present work provides valuable information for future investigations of low-temperature response mechanisms and genetic improvement of cold-tolerant rice seedlings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 (1) ◽  
pp. 137-143
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard ◽  
Behnoush Sohrabi ◽  
Bashdar Mahmud Hussen ◽  
Elham Mehravaran ◽  
Elena Jamali ◽  

TP53 encodes a major tumor suppressor protein which blocks carcinogenesis process in a variety of tissues including breast tissue. Expression and function of this gene is regulated by a number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) among them are PANDA, MEG3 and CASC2. We measured expression of TP53 and these transcripts in a cohort of Iranian breast cancer patients. Expression levels of TP53, MEG3, CASC2 and PANDA were significantly lower in tumoral samples compared with non-tumoral samples (Posterior mean differences =  −4.26, −1.66, −5.98 and −3.13, respectively; P values < 0.0001). Expression of CASC2 was higher in Her2 1+ cases compared with Her2 negative cases (Beta = 1.85, P value = 0.037). Expression levels of MEG3 and TP53 were lower in grade 2 samples compared with grade 1 (Beta = −1.86, P value = 0.006 and Beta = −2.24, P value = 0.003, respectively). There was no other significant association between expression of genes and clinical variables. CASC2 had the best performance among these genes with area under curve value of 0.78 and sensitivity and specificity values of 56.33% and 88.73%, respectively (P value < 0.0001). The current investigation supports the role of TP53-related lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Daniela Feltrim ◽  
Bandana Gupta ◽  
Seetaramanjaneyulu Gundimeda ◽  
Eduardo Kiyota ◽  
Adilson Pereira Domingues Júnior ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 841
Shelley Griess-Fishheimer ◽  
Janna Zaretsky ◽  
Tamara Travinsky-Shmul ◽  
Irina Zaretsky ◽  
Svetlana Penn ◽  

The severe impairment of bone development and quality was recently described as a new target for unbalanced ultra-processed food (UPF). Here, we describe nutritional approaches to repair this skeletal impairment in rats: supplementation with micro-nutrients and a rescue approach and switching the UPF to balanced nutrition during the growth period. The positive effect of supplementation with multi-vitamins and minerals on bone growth and quality was followed by the formation of mineral deposits on the rats’ kidneys and modifications in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and vitamin-D metabolism, demonstrating the cost of supplementation. Short and prolonged rescue improved trabecular parameters but incompletely improved the cortical parameters and the mechanical performance of the femur. Cortical porosity and cartilaginous lesions in the growth-plate were still detected one week after rescue and were reduced to normal levels 3 weeks after rescue. These findings highlight bone as a target for the effect of UPF and emphasize the importance of a balanced diet, especially during growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 826
Mary-Keara Boss ◽  
Remy Watts ◽  
Lauren G. Harrison ◽  
Sophie Hopkins ◽  
Lyndah Chow ◽  

Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is known to induce important immunologic changes within the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, little is known regarding the early immune responses within the TME in the first few weeks following SBRT. Therefore, we used the canine spontaneous tumor model to investigate TME responses to SBRT, and how local injection of immune modulatory antibodies to OX40 and TLR 3/9 agonists might modify those responses. Pet dogs with spontaneous cancers (melanoma, carcinoma, sarcoma, n = 6 per group) were randomized to treatment with either SBRT or SBRT combined with local immunotherapy. Serial tumor biopsies and serum samples were analyzed for immunologic responses. SBRT alone resulted at two weeks after treatment in increased tumor densities of CD3+ T cells, FoxP3+ Tregs, and CD204+ macrophages, and increased expression of genes associated with immunosuppression. The addition of OX40/TLR3/9 immunotherapy to SBRT resulted in local depletion of Tregs and tumor macrophages and reduced Treg-associated gene expression (FoxP3), suppressed macrophage-associated gene expression (IL-8), and suppressed exhausted T cell-associated gene expression (CTLA4). Increased concentrations of IL-7, IL-15, and IL-18 were observed in serum of animals treated with SBRT and immunotherapy, compared to animals treated with SBRT. A paradoxical decrease in the density of effector CD3+ T cells was observed in tumor tissues that received combined SBRT and immunotherapy as compared to animals treated with SBRT only. In summary, these results obtained in a spontaneous large animal cancer model indicate that addition of OX40/TLR immunotherapy to SBRT modifies important immunological effects both locally and systemically.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jiayun Wu ◽  
Xiaoru Shi ◽  
Lisi Wu ◽  
Zhengchang Wu ◽  
Shenglong Wu ◽  

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine pathogen causing highly communicable gastrointestinal infection that are lethal for suckling piglets. In an attempt to delineate the pathogenic mechanism of TGEV-infected porcine testicular cells (ST cells), we conducted a whole genome analysis of DNA methylation and expression in ST cells through reduced bisulfate-seq and RNA-seq. We examined alterations in the methylation patterns and recognized 1764 distinct methylation sites. 385 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in the viral defense and ribosome biogenesis pathways. Integrative analysis identified two crucial genes (EMILIN2, RIPOR3), these two genes expression were negatively correlated to promoter methylation. In conclusion, alterations in DNA methylation and differential expression of genes reveal that their potential functional interactions in TGEV infection. Our data highlights the epigenetic and transcriptomic landscapes in TGEV-infected ST cells and provides a reliable dataset for screening TGEV resistance genes and genetic markers.

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