ck2 inhibitors
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2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Camilo Suescum ◽  
Harikrishna Nakshatri

Background and Hypothesis: Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1) is rarely mutated in primary breast cancers but is frequently mutated in metastasis that can appear after many years of anti-estrogen therapy. Mutations to ESR1 can result in estrogen-independent activity of ESR1 causing anti-estrogen to become ineffective. Previous work on this project has led to the hypothesis that RAS pathway activation in metastatic cancer cells as a result of ESR1 mutation leads to elevated CK2 activity which ultimately results in metastatic progression. Therefore, we hypothesize that the use of RAS signaling inhibitors or CK2 inhibitors have efficacy in blocking or reducing the metastatic progression of metastatic breast cancers with hyperactive RAS pathways. Experimental Design or Project Methods: The estrogen receptor positive, anti-estrogen sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the same cell line genomically modified to replace wild type ESR1 to breast cancer metastasis enriched Y537S or D538G ESR1 mutation were used in this study. Cells were treated with various concentrations of the RAS pathway inhibitor Salirasib or CK2 inhibitor Silmitasertib and cell proliferation rates were measured using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation ELISA. Results: Thus far, the use of RAS signaling inhibitors or CK2 inhibitors have not shown efficacy in decreasing the proliferation rates of modified ESR1 MCF-7 cells. While there is a general trend of growth inhibition by these inhibitors at a higher concentration, there is no significant difference between the ESR1 mutant expressing cells and their respective controls.  Conclusion and Potential Impact: This study will establish the feasibility of using RAS signaling inhibitors or CK2 inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Future studies testing the effects of these drugs either alone or in combination with the clinically used anti-estrogen Fulvestrant for not only primary tumor growth but also metastasis in clinically relevant in vivo models may ultimately lead to clinical translation.  Finally, demonstrating efficacy in these types of drugs may fuel the further refinement of drugs targeting these pathways to treat metastatic breast cancer.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2074
Yuting Liu ◽  
Mengzhou Bi ◽  
Xuewen Zhang ◽  
Na Zhang ◽  
Guohui Sun ◽  

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is considered an important target for anti-cancer drugs. Given the structural diversity and broad spectrum of pharmaceutical activities of natural products, numerous studies have been performed to prove them as valuable sources of drugs. However, there has been little study relevant to identifying structural factors responsible for their inhibitory activity against CK2 with machine learning methods. In this study, classification studies were conducted on 115 natural products as CK2 inhibitors. Seven machine learning methods along with six molecular fingerprints were employed to develop qualitative classification models. The performances of all models were evaluated by cross-validation and test set. By taking predictive accuracy(CA), the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC), and (MCC)as three performance indicators, the optimal models with high reliability and predictive ability were obtained, including the Extended Fingerprint-Logistic Regression model (CA = 0.859, AUC = 0.826, MCC = 0.520) for training test andPubChem fingerprint along with the artificial neural model (CA = 0.826, AUC = 0.933, MCC = 0.628) for test set. Meanwhile, the privileged substructures responsible for their inhibitory activity against CK2 were also identified through a combination of frequency analysis and information gain. The results are expected to provide useful information for the further utilization of natural products and the discovery of novel CK2 inhibitors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Mauro Salvi ◽  
Christian Borgo ◽  
Lorenzo A. Pinna ◽  
Maria Ruzzene

AbstractCK2 is a protein kinase involved in several human diseases (ranging from neurological and cardiovascular diseases to autoimmune disorders, diabetes, and infections, including COVID-19), but its best-known implications are in cancer, where it is considered a pharmacological target. Several CK2 inhibitors are available and clinical trials are underway in different cancer types. Recently, the suitability of CK2 as a broad anticancer target has been questioned by the finding that a newly developed compound, named SGC-CK2-1, which is more selective than any other known CK2 inhibitor, is poorly effective in reducing cell growth in different cancer lines, prompting the conclusion that the anticancer efficacy of CX-4945, the commonly used clinical-grade CK2 inhibitor, is to be attributed to its off-target effects. Here we perform a detailed scrutiny of published studies on CK2 targeting and a more in-depth analysis of the available data on SGC-CK2-1 vs. CX-4945 efficacy, providing a different perspective about the actual reliance of cancer cells on CK2. Collectively taken, our arguments would indicate that the pretended dispensability of CK2 in cancer is far from having been proved and warn against premature conclusions, which could discourage ongoing investigations on a potentially valuable drug target.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (3) ◽  
pp. 177-184
V. S. Vdovin ◽  
S. S. Lukashov ◽  
I. P. Borysenko ◽  
O. V. Borovykov ◽  
M. V. Protopopov ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (12) ◽  
pp. 6261
Konrad Chojnacki ◽  
Patrycja Wińska ◽  
Olena Karatsai ◽  
Mirosława Koronkiewicz ◽  
Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk ◽  

Protein kinase CK2 has been considered as an attractive drug target for anti-cancer therapy. The synthesis of N-hydroxypropyl TBBi and 2MeTBBi derivatives as well as their respective esters was carried out by using chemoenzymatic methods. Concomitantly with kinetic studies toward recombinant CK2, the influence of the obtained compounds on the viability of two human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) was evaluated using MTT assay. Additionally, an intracellular inhibition of CK2 as well as an induction of apoptosis in the examined cells after the treatment with the most active compounds were studied by Western blot analysis, phase-contrast microscopy and flow cytometry method. The results of the MTT test revealed potent cytotoxic activities for most of the newly synthesized compounds (EC50 4.90 to 32.77 µM), corresponding to their solubility in biological media. We concluded that derivatives with the methyl group decrease the viability of both cell lines more efficiently than their non-methylated analogs. Furthermore, inhibition of CK2 in breast cancer cells treated with the tested compounds at the concentrations equal to their EC50 values correlates well with their lipophilicity since derivatives with higher values of logP are more potent intracellular inhibitors of CK2 with better proapoptotic properties than their parental hydroxyl compounds.

2021 ◽  
Jonathan Bizarro ◽  
Svetlana Deryusheva ◽  
Ludivine Wacheul ◽  
Varun Gupta ◽  
Felix G.M. Ernst ◽  

ABSTRACTSpliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are modified by small Cajal body (CB) specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs) to ensure snRNP biogenesis and pre-mRNA splicing. However, the function and subcellular site of snRNA modification are largely unknown. We show that CB localization of the protein Nopp140 is essential for concentration of scaRNPs in that nuclear condensate; and that phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2) at some 80 serines targets Nopp140 to CBs. Transiting through CBs, snRNAs are apparently modified by scaRNPs. Indeed, Nopp140 knockdown-mediated release of scaRNPs from CBs severely compromises 2’-O-methylation of spliceosomal snRNAs, identifying CBs as the site of scaRNP catalysis. Additionally, alternative splicing patterns change indicating that these modifications in U1, U2, U5, and U12 snRNAs safeguard splicing fidelity. Given the importance of CK2 in this pathway, compromised splicing could underlie the mode of action of small molecule CK2 inhibitors currently considered for therapy in cholangiocarcinoma, hematological malignancies, and COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 214 ◽  
pp. 113217
Christian Borgo ◽  
Luca Cesaro ◽  
Tsuyoshi Hirota ◽  
Keiko Kuwata ◽  
Claudio D’Amore ◽  

2021 ◽  
Apurva T. Prabhakar ◽  
Claire D. James ◽  
Dipon Das ◽  
Raymonde Otoa ◽  
Matthew Day ◽  

AbstractDuring the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) life cycle, the E2 protein interacts with host factors to regulate viral transcription, replication and genome segregation/retention. Our understanding of host partner proteins and their roles in E2 functions remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylation of E2 on serine 23 promotes interaction with TopBP1 in vitro and in vivo, and that E2 is phosphorylated on this residue during the HPV16 life cycle. We investigated the consequences of mutating serine 23 on E2 functions. E2-S23A activates and represses transcription identically to E2-WT (wild-type), and E2-S23A is as efficient as E2-WT in transient replication assays. However, E2-S23A has compromised interaction with mitotic chromatin when compared with E2-WT. In E2-WT cells, both E2 and TopBP1 levels increase during mitosis when compared with vector control cells. In E2-S23A cells, neither E2 nor TopBP1 levels increase during mitosis. We next tested whether this difference in E2-S23A levels during mitosis disrupts E2 plasmid retention function. We developed a novel plasmid retention assay and demonstrate that E2-S23A is deficient in plasmid retention when compared with E2-WT. siRNA targeted knockdown of TopBP1 abrogates E2-WT plasmid retention function. Introduction of the S23A mutation into the HPV16 genome resulted in delayed immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK) and higher episomal viral genome copy number in resulting established HFK. Overall, our results demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylation of E2 on serine 23 promotes interaction with TopBP1, which is critical for E2 plasmid retention function and in HPV16 immortalization of keratinocytes.ImportanceHuman papillomaviruses are causative agents in around 5% of all cancers, with no specific anti-viral therapeutics available for treating infections or resultant cancers. In this report, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of HPV16 E2 by CK2 promotes formation of a complex formation with the cellular protein TopBP1 in vitro and in vivo. This complex results in stabilization of E2 during mitosis and mediates plasmid retention by E2. This function promotes the partitioning of viral genomes into the nuclei of daughter cells following mitosis. We demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylates E2 on serine 23 in vivo, and that CK2 inhibitors disrupt the E2-TopBP1 complex. Mutation of E2 serine 23 to alanine disrupts the HPV16 life cycle, demonstrating a critical function for this residue. Together, our results suggest that CK2 inhibitors may disrupt the E2-TopBP1 dependent HPV16 life cycle and potentially kill HPV16 positive cancers, which lays a molecular foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for combating HPV16 disease.

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