cytotoxic activities
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2022 ◽  
Vol 47 ◽  
pp. 125-129
Thi Thuy Ai Doan ◽  
Thuy Linh Nguyen ◽  
Marc Litaudon ◽  
Thi Dao Phi ◽  
Huyen Tram Le ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 47 ◽  
pp. 34-37
Jingzhe Zheng ◽  
Qi Zhou ◽  
Xiaocheng Cao ◽  
Yongjun Meng ◽  
Guowei Jiang ◽  

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 208
Ahlam Elwekeel ◽  
Dalia El Amir ◽  
Enas I. A. Mohamed ◽  
Elham Amin ◽  
Marwa H. A. Hassan ◽  

The current study accentuates the significance of performing the multiplex approach of LC-HRESIMS, biological activity, and docking studies in drug discovery, taking into consideration a review of the literature. In this regard, the investigation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Trigonella stellata collected from the Egyptian desert revealed a significant antioxidant capacity using DPPH with IC50 = 656.9 µg/mL and a moderate cytotoxicity against HepG2, MCF7, and CACO2, with IC50 values of 53.3, 48.3, and 55.8 µg/mL, respectively. The evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents resulted in 32.8 mg GAE/g calculated as gallic acid equivalent and 5.6 mg RE/g calculated as rutin equivalent, respectively. Chemical profiling of T. stellata extract, using LC-HRESIMS analysis, revealed the presence of 15 metabolites, among which eleven compounds were detected for the first time in this species. Interestingly, in vitro testing of the antidiabetic activity of the alcoholic extract noted an α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 = 559.4 µg/mL) better than that of the standard Acarbose (IC50 = 799.9 µg/mL), in addition to a moderate inhibition of the α-amylase enzyme (IC50 = 0.77 µg/mL) compared to Acarbose (IC50 = 0.21 µg/mL). α-Glucosidase inhibition was also virtualized by binding interactions through the molecular docking study, presenting a high binding activity of six flavonoid glycosides, as well as the diterpenoid compound graecumoside A and the alkaloid fenugreekine. Taken together, the conglomeration of LC-HRESIMS, antidiabetic activity, and molecular docking studies shed light on T. stellata as a promising antidiabetic herb.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 172
Bruna De Lucca Caetano ◽  
Marta de Oliveira Domingos ◽  
Miriam Aparecida da Silva ◽  
Jessika Cristina Alves da Silva ◽  
Juliana Moutinho Polatto ◽  

The secretion of α-hemolysin by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is commonly associated with the severity of urinary tract infections, which makes it a predictor of poor prognosis among patients. Accordingly, this toxin has become a target for diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions. However, there are several obstacles associated with the process of α-hemolysin purification, therefore limiting its utilization in scientific investigations. In order to overcome the problems associated with α-hemolysin expression, after in silico prediction, a 20.48 kDa soluble α-hemolysin recombinant denoted rHlyA was constructed. This recombinant is composed by a 182 amino acid sequence localized in the aa542–723 region of the toxin molecule. The antigenic determinants of the rHlyA were estimated by bioinformatics analysis taking into consideration the tertiary form of the toxin, epitope analysis tools, and solubility inference. The results indicated that rHlyA has three antigenic domains localized in the aa555–565, aa600–610, and aa674–717 regions. Functional investigation of rHlyA demonstrated that it has hemolytic activity against sheep red cells, but no cytotoxic effect against epithelial bladder cells. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that rHlyA is a soluble recombinant protein that can be used as a tool in studies that aim to understand the mechanisms involved in the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of α-hemolysin produced by UPEC. In addition, rHlyA can be applied to generate monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies that can be utilized in the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Leilei Zhang ◽  
Maha M. Ismail ◽  
Gabriele Rocchetti ◽  
Nesrin M. Fayek ◽  
Luigi Lucini ◽  

Background: A high mortality rate is associated with about 80% of all infections worldwide, mainly due to antimicrobial resistance. Various antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities have been proposed for Meliaceae species. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-virulence and cytotoxic effect of the leaf extracts of Aphanamixis polystachya, Toona ciliata and Melia azedarach against five MRSA strains and on three cancer cell lines, followed by biological correlation to their encompassed phytoconstituents. Material and Methods: We explored three plants of this family against a panel of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains and several cancer cell lines to select the most promising candidates for further in vivo and preclinical studies. The phytochemical composition was evaluated by UHPLC–QTOF–MS untargeted profiling. Cell viability was assessed by SRB assay. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was carried out by using the agar micro-dilution technique. Inhibition of biofilm formation and preformed biofilm disruption were assessed spectrophotomertically, according to the Sultan and Nabil method (2019). Results: A total of 279 compounds were putatively annotated to include different phytochemical classes, such as flavonoids (108), limonoids/terpenoids (59), phenolic acids (49) and lower-molecular-weight phenolics (39). A. polystachya extract showed the most potent cytotoxic activity against Huh-7, DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC50 = 3, 3.5 and 13.4 µg mL−1, respectively), followed by M. azedarach, with no effect recorded for T. ciliata extract. Furthermore, both A. polystachya and M. azedarach extracts showed promising anti-virulence and antimicrobial activities, with A. polystachya being particularly active against MRSA. These two latter extracts could inhibit and disrupt the biofilm, formed by MRSA, at sub-lethal concentrations. Interestingly, the extracts inhibited hemolysin-α enzyme, thus protecting rabbit RBCs from lysis. A. polystachya extract reduced the pigmentation and catalase enzyme activity of tested pigmented strains better than M. azedarach at both tested sub-MICs. Consequently, susceptibility of the extract-treated cells to oxidant killing by 200 mM H2O2 increased, leading to faster killing of the cells within 120 min as compared to the extract-non-treated cells, likely due to the lower antioxidant-scavenging activity of cells exhibiting less staphyloxanthin production. Conclusion: These findings suggested that both A. polystachya and M. azedarach natural extracts are rich in bioactive compounds, mainly limonoids, phenolics and oxygenated triterpenoids, which can combat MRSA biofilm infections and could be considered as promising sources of therapeutic cytotoxic, antibiofilm and anti-virulence agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Nisar Ahmad ◽  
Fozia ◽  
Musarrat Jabeen ◽  
Zia Ul Haq ◽  
Ijaz Ahmad ◽  

The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized via green synthesis approach using Euporbia serpens Kunth aqueous extract. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and Furrier Transformer Infra-Red spectroscopy to justify the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs from its precursors. AgNPs characteristic absorption peak was observed at 420 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. The SEM and TEM analysis demonstrated the spherical shape of the synthesized nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 30 nm to 80 nm. FTIR transmission bands at 2920 cm-1, 1639 cm-1, 1410 cm-1, 3290 cm-1, and 1085 cm-1 were attributed to C-H, C=O, C-C, N-H, and C-N functional groups, respectively. XRD peaks could be attributed to (111), (200), (220), and (311) crystalline plane of the faced-centered cube (FCC) crystalline structure of the metallic silver nanoparticles. The AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria at each concentration. The particles were found to be more active against Escherichia coli (E. coli) with 20 ± 06   mm and Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) with 18 ± 0.5   mm zone of inhibition in reference to standard antibiotic amoxicillin with 23 ± 0.3   mm and 20 ± 0.4   mm zone of inhibition, respectively. Moderate antifungal activities were observed against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) with zone of inhibitions 16.5 mm and 15 mm, respectively, compared to the standard with 23 mm of inhibition. Insignificant antifungal inhibition of 7.5 mm was observed against Fusarium gramium (F. gramium). All the tested concentrations of AgNPs showed comparable % RSA with the standard reference ascorbic acid in the range sixty percent to seventy five percent. The percent motility at 3 hours postincubation showed quick response and most Tetramorium caespitum were found deceased or paralyzed. Similarly, the percent mortality showed a linear response at concentration and time. It was observed that 1 μg/mL to 2 μg/mL concentration of AgNPs displayed a significant cytotoxic activity against Artemia salina with LD50 of 5.37 and 5.82, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wen-Jing Cao ◽  
Xiao-Chang Zhang ◽  
Lin-Yu Wan ◽  
Qing-Yu Li ◽  
Xiu-Ying Mu ◽  

BackgroundPopulations of natural killer cells lacking CD56 expression [CD56neg natural killer (NK) cells] have been demonstrated to expand during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. However, their phenotypic and functional characteristics have not been systematically analyzed, and their roles during disease progression remain poorly understood.MethodsIn this study, 84 donors, namely 34 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients (TNs), 29 HIV-1-infected patients with successful antiretroviral therapy (ARTs), and 21 healthy controls (HCs), were enrolled. The phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD56neg NK cells were analyzed using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) and flow cytometry. A potential link between the characteristics of CD56neg NK cells and the clinical parameters associated with HIV-1 disease progression was examined.ResultsThe frequency of the CD56neg NK cell population was significantly increased in TNs, which could be partially rescued by ART. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that CD56neg NK cells were characterized by high expression of CD39, TIGIT, CD95, and Ki67 compared to CD56dim NK cells. In vitro assays revealed reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion, as well as decreased expression of granzyme B and perforin in CD56neg NK cells. In line with the data obtained by flow cytometry, scRNA-seq analysis further demonstrated impaired cytotoxic activities of CD56neg NK cells. Notably, a negative correlation was observed between CD39, CD95, and Ki67 expression levels in CD56neg NK cells and CD4+ T cell counts.ConclusionsThe results presented in this study indicate that the CD56neg NK cell population expanded in HIV-1-infected individuals is dysfunctional and closely correlates with HIV-1 disease progression.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 145
Latifa Khattabi ◽  
Tarek Boudiar ◽  
Mustapha Mounir Bouhenna ◽  
Aziez Chettoum ◽  
Farid Chebrouk ◽  

An investigation was conducted to study the beneficial effects of Ephedra alata monjauzeana crude extract (EamCE). The chemical profile was determined using RP-HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS analysis, revealing the presence of twenty-one flavonoids and phenolic acids. A series of antioxidant assays was carried out using ten different methods. The EamCE has demonstrated a significant antioxidant potential, with interesting IC50 values not exceeding 40 µg/mL in almost activities. Likewise, a significant inhibition of key enzymes, involved in some health issues, such as Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, hyperpigmentation, dermatological disorders, gastric/urinary bacterial infections, and obesity, was observed for the first time. The IC50 values ranged from 22.46 to 54.93. The anti-inflammatory and non-cytotoxic activities were assessed by heat-induced hemolysis and cell culture methods, respectively; the EamCE has shown a prominent effect in both tests, notably for the anti-inflammatory effect that was superior to the reference compound “diclofenac” (IC50: 71.03 ± 1.38 > 70.23 ± 0.99 (µg/mL)). According to these results, this plant could be used in a large spectrum as a food supplement, as a natural remedy for various physiological disorders and pathologies; and it might serve as a preventive and health care agent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Malgorzata Krzyzowska ◽  
Marcin Chodkowski ◽  
Martyna Janicka ◽  
Dominika Dmowska ◽  
Emilia Tomaszewska ◽  

(1) Background: Lactoferrin has been recognized as a potent inhibitor of human herpetic viruses, such as herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). In this work, we tested if silver and gold nanoparticles modified with lactoferrin (LF-Ag/AuNPs) can become novel microbicides with additional adjuvant properties to treat genital herpes infection. (2) Methods: The antiviral and cytotoxic activities of LF-Ag/AuNPs were tested in human skin HaCaT and vaginal VK-2-E6/E7 keratinocytes. Viral titers and immune responses after treatment with LF-Ag/AuNPs were tested in murine vaginal HSV-2 infection. (3) Results: LF-Ag/AuNPs inhibited attachment and entry of HSV-2 in human keratinocytes much better than lactoferrin. Furthermore, pretreatment with LF-AgNPs led to protection from infection. Infected mice treated intravaginally with LF-Ag/AuNPs showed lower virus titers in the vaginal tissues and spinal cords in comparison to treatment with lactoferrin. Following treatment, vaginal tissues showed a significant increase in CD8+/granzyme B + T cells, NK cells and dendritic cells in comparison to NaCl-treated group. LF-Ag/AuNPs-treated animals also showed significantly better expression of IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, and IL-1β in the vaginal tissues. (4) Conclusions: Our findings show that LF-Ag/AuNPs could become effective novel antiviral microbicides with immune-stimulant properties to be applied upon the mucosal tissues.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Komal Rizwan ◽  
Ismat Majeed ◽  
Muhammad Bilal ◽  
Tahir Rasheed ◽  
Ahmad Shakeel ◽  

The genus Mimosa belongs to the Fabaceae family and comprises almost 400 species of herbs, shrubs and ornamental trees. The genus Mimosa is found all over the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa, South America, North America and Australia. Traditionally, this genus has been popular for the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, fever, toothache, wound healing, asthma, leprosy, vaginal and urinary complaints, skin diseases, piles, gastrointestinal disorders, small pox, hepatitis, tumor, HIV, ulcers and ringworm. The review covered literature available from 1959 to 2020 collected from books, scientific journals and electronic searches, such as Science Direct, Web of Science and Google scholar. Various keywords, such as Mimosa, secondary metabolites, medicines, phytochemicals and pharmacological values, were used for the data search. The Mimosa species are acknowledged to be an essential source of secondary metabolites with a wide-ranging biological functions, and up until now, 145 compounds have been isolated from this genus. Pharmacological studies showed that isolated compounds possess significant potential, such as antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, and antiproliferative as well as cytotoxic activities. Alkaloids, chalcones, flavonoids, indoles, terpenes, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, amino acids, glycosides, flavanols, phenols, lignoids, polysaccharides, lignins, salts and fatty esters have been isolated from this genus. This review focused on the medicinal aspects of the Mimosa species and may provide a comprehensive understanding of the prospective of this genus as a foundation of medicine, supplement and nourishment. The plants of this genus could be a potential source of medicines in the near future.

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