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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 432
Author(s):  
Tudor Lucian Pop ◽  
Cornel Olimpiu Aldea ◽  
Dan Delean ◽  
Bogdan Bulata ◽  
Dora Boghiţoiu ◽  
...  

Objectives: In children, acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe condition with high mortality. As some patients need liver transplantation (LT), it is essential to predict the fatal evolution and to refer them early for LT if needed. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic criteria and scores for assessing the outcome in children with ALF. Methods: Data of 161 children with ALF (54.66% female, mean age 7.66 ± 6.18 years) were analyzed based on final evolution (32.91% with fatal evolution or LT) and etiology. We calculated on the first day of hospitalization the PELD score (109 children), MELD, and MELD-Na score (52 children), and King’s College Criteria (KCC) for all patients. The Nazer prognostic index and Wilson index for predicting mortality were calculated for nine patients with ALF in Wilson’s disease (WD). Results: PELD, MELD, and MELD-Na scores were significantly higher in patients with fatal evolution (21.04 ± 13.28 vs. 13.99 ± 10.07, p = 0.0023; 36.20 ± 19.51 vs. 20.08 ± 8.57, p < 0.0001; and 33.07 ± 8.29 vs. 20.08 ± 8.47, p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, age, bilirubin, albumin, INR, and hemoglobin significantly differed in children with fatal evolution. Function to etiology, PELD, MELD, MELD-Na, and KCC accurately predicted fatal evolution in toxic ALF (25.33 vs. 9.90, p = 0.0032; 37.29 vs. 18.79, p < 0.0001; 34.29 vs. 19.24, p = 0.0002, respectively; with positive predicting value 100%, negative predicting value 88.52%, and accuracy 89.23% for King’s College criteria). The Wilson index for predicting mortality had an excellent predictive strength (100% sensibility and specificity), better than the Nazer prognostic index. Conclusions: Prognostic scores may be used to predict the fatal evolution of ALF in children in correlation with other parameters or criteria. Early estimation of the outcome of ALF is essential, mainly in countries where emergency LT is problematic, as the transfer to a specialized center could be delayed, affecting survival chances.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Tung Phi Nguyen ◽  
Xuan Thi Phan ◽  
Tuan Huu Nguyen ◽  
Dai Quang Huynh ◽  
Linh Thanh Tran ◽  
...  

Background. Major bleeding has been a common and serious complication with poor outcomes in ECMO patients. With a novel, less-invasive cannulation approach and closer coagulation monitoring regime, the incidence of major bleeding is currently not determined yet. Our study aims to examine the incidence of major bleeding, its determinants, and association with mortality in peripheral-ECMO patients. Method. We conducted a single-center retrospective study on adult patients undergoing peripheral-ECMO between January 2019 and January 2020 at a tertiary referral hospital. Determinants of major bleeding were defined by logistic regression analysis. Risk factors of in-hospital mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Results. Major bleeding was reported in 33/105 patients (31.4%) and was associated with higher in-hospital mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63–7.80, p < 0.001 ). There were no significant difference in age, sex, ECMO indications, ECMO modality, pre-ECMO APACHE-II and SOFA scores between two groups with and without major bleeding. Only APTT >72 seconds [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.10, 95% CI 2.60–19.50, p < 0.001 ], fibrinogen <2 g/L [aOR = 7.10, 95% CI 2.60–19.50, p < 0.001 ], and ACT >220 seconds [aOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.20–11.80, p = 0.017 ] on days with major bleeding were independent predictors. Conclusions. In summary, major bleeding still had a fairly high incidence and poor outcome in peripheral-ECMO patients. APTT > 72 seconds, fibrinogen < 2 g/L were the strongest predicting factors for major bleeding events.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 299-319
Author(s):  
Terrin N. Tamati ◽  
David B. Pisoni ◽  
Aaron C. Moberly

Cochlear implants (CIs) represent a significant engineering and medical milestone in the treatment of hearing loss for both adults and children. In this review, we provide a brief overview of CI technology, describe the benefits that CIs can provide to adults and children who receive them, and discuss the specific limitations and issues faced by CI users. We emphasize the relevance of CIs to the linguistics community by demonstrating how CIs successfully provide access to spoken language. Furthermore, CI research can inform our basic understanding of spoken word recognition in adults and spoken language development in children. Linguistics research can also help us address the major clinical issue of outcome variability and motivate the development of new clinical tools to assess the unique challenges of adults and children with CIs, as well as novel interventions for individuals with poor outcomes.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Author(s):  
Margaret Ottaviano ◽  
Emilio Francesco Giunta ◽  
Laura Marandino ◽  
Marianna Tortora ◽  
Laura Attademo ◽  
...  

Mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare tumors, being less than 2% of all diagnosed melanomas, comprising a variegated group of malignancies arising from melanocytes in virtually all mucosal epithelia, even if more frequently found in oral and sino-nasal cavities, ano-rectum and female genitalia (vulva and vagina). To date, there is no consensus about the optimal management strategy of MM. Furthermore, the clinical rationale of molecular tumor characterization regarding BRAF, KIT or NRAS, as well as the therapeutic value of immunotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, has not yet been deeply explored and clearly established in MM. In this overview, focused on anorectal and genital MM as models of rare melanomas deserving of a multidisciplinary approach, we highlight the need of referring these patients to centers with experts in melanoma, anorectal and uro-genital cancers treatments. Taking into account the rarity, the poor outcomes and the lack of effective treatment options for MM, tailored research needs to be promptly promoted.


2022 ◽  
pp. 097321792110722
Author(s):  
Vineet Kumar Singh ◽  
Shalini Tripathi ◽  
Mala Kumar

COVID infection is not as common in children as in adults. In the first wave, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was less common with mild symptoms in children and neonates. But in the second wave, more children and neonates were affected with severe manifestations. COVID infection in neonates is mostly asymptomatic and published data from various neonatal units of India shows that most COVID positive newborns have good prognosis; poor outcomes are due to perinatal complications and rarely due to COVID. 1 However, in the second wave, newborns too were affected. We are presenting the case of a preterm neonate who developed severe COVID pneumonia on day 10 of life with cytokine storm and succumbed to death.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yngvar Lunde Haaskjold ◽  
Rune Bjørneklett ◽  
Leif Bostad ◽  
Lars Sigurd Bostad ◽  
Njål Gjærde Lura ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The Oxford classification/MEST score is an established histopathologic scoring system for patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The objective of this study was to derive a prognostic model for IgAN based on the MEST score and histopathologic features. Methods A total of 306 patients with biopsy-proven primary IgAN were included. Histopathologic samples were retrieved from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry and reclassified according to the Oxford classification. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients were subclassified into three risk models based on histologic features (Model A), a composite score calculated from the adjusted hazard ratio values (Model B), and on quartiles (Model C). Results The mean follow-up time was 16.5 years (range 0.2–28.1). In total, 61 (20%) patients reached ESRD during the study period. Univariate analysis of M, E, S, T and C lesions demonstrated that all types were associated with an increased risk of ESRD; however, a multivariate analysis revealed that only S, T and C lesions were associated with poor outcomes. Statistical analysis of 15-year data demonstrated that Models A and B were as predictive as the MEST score, with an area-under-the-curve at 0.85. The Harrel c index values were 0.81 and 0.80 for the MEST score and Models A and B, respectively. In the present cohort, adding C lesions to the MEST score did not improve the models prognostic value. Conclusions Patients can be divided into risk classes based on their MEST scores. Histopathologic data provide valuable prognostic information at the time of diagnosis. Model B was the most suitable for clinical practice because it was the most user-friendly.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicholas Pettit ◽  
Elisa Sarmiento ◽  
Jeffrey Kline

Abstract A suspected diagnosis of cancer in the emergency department (ED) may be associated with poor outcomes, related to health disparities, however data are limited. This study is a case-control analysis of the Indiana State Department of Health Cancer Registry, and the Indiana Network for Patient Care. First time cancer diagnoses appearing in the registry between January 2013 and December 2017 were included. Cases were patients who had an ED visit in the 6 months before their cancer diagnosis; controls had no recent ED visits. The primary outcome was mortality, comparing ED-associated mortality to non-ED-associated. 134,761 first-time cancer patients were identified, including 15,432 (11.5%) cases. The mean age was same at 65, more of the cases were Black than the controls (12.4% vs 7.4%, P<.0001) and more were low income (36.4%. vs 29.3%). The top 3 ED-associated cancer diagnoses were lung (18.4%), breast (8.9%), and colorectal cancers (8.9%), whereas the controls were breast (17%), lung (14.9%), and prostate cancers (10.1%). Cases observed an over three-fold higher mortality, with cumulative death rate of 32.9% for cases vs 9.0% for controls (P<.0001). Regression analysis predicting mortality, controlling for many confounders produced an odds ratio of 4.12 (95% CI 3.72-4.56 for cases). This study found that an ED visit within 6 months prior to the first time of ICD-coded cancer is associated with Black race, low income and an overall three-fold increased adjusted risk of death. The mortality rates for ED-associated cancers are uniformly worse for all cancer types. These data suggest that additional work is needed to reduce disparities among ED-associated cancer diagnoses.


2022 ◽  
pp. 008124632110709
Author(s):  
Dinesh Bhugra ◽  
Rachel Tribe ◽  
Daniel Poulter

There is considerable evidence to indicate that stigma and discrimination against people with mental illnesses are widely prevalent across nations. Research also shows that individuals with mental illnesses are likely to die 15–20 years younger than those who do not have these illnesses. In addition, they are more likely to experience delays in help-seeking leading to poor outcomes and are more likely to experience physical illnesses. Stigma and discrimination appear to play a major role in depriving people with mental illnesses of their basic rights. Their economic, political, social, and human rights are often ignored. In this article, we describe the capability to be healthy and basic principles of social justice related to mental health. We discuss findings of discrimination often embedded in laws of countries around the world in the context of basic human rights. We believe that clinicians have a key role as advocates for their patients. Clinicians and policymakers need to work together to bring about social and health equity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Majdi Al Qawasmeh ◽  
Belal Aldabbour ◽  
Amal Abuabada ◽  
Khalid Abdelrahman ◽  
Samah Elamassie ◽  
...  

Poststroke depression (PSD) is common and remains a significant risk factor for poor outcomes. This prospective study is aimed at assessing the prevalence, severity, and predictors of PSD among Jordanian stroke survivors. A total of 151 patients who were consequently admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes were enrolled. Participants were screened on admission for premorbid depression using the PHQ-9 questionnaire; then, screening for PSD was repeated one and three months after stroke using the same tool. Depression prevalence at each screening was reported, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate for significant predictors. PHQ-9 scores suggestive of depression were reported by 15%, 24.83%, and 17.39% of respondents on admission and after one and three months, respectively. Scores suggesting severe depression were reported by 0.71%, 2.13%, and 6.52% of respondents, respectively. Significant predictors of PSD were having chronic kidney disease, current smoking status, moderate or severe disability (mRS score) at stroke onset, and severe dependence (BI) after one month ( p values 0.007, 0,002, 0.014, and 0.031, respectively). Patients with secondary and high school education levels were less likely to get depression compared with illiterate patients ( p 0.042). This study showed that nearly one in four Jordanian stroke survivors experienced PSD after one month. In contrast, while the overall PSD prevalence declined towards the end of follow-up period, patients who remained depressed showed a tendency towards higher PSD severity.


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