cox proportional hazard
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Tung Phi Nguyen ◽  
Xuan Thi Phan ◽  
Tuan Huu Nguyen ◽  
Dai Quang Huynh ◽  
Linh Thanh Tran ◽  
...  

Background. Major bleeding has been a common and serious complication with poor outcomes in ECMO patients. With a novel, less-invasive cannulation approach and closer coagulation monitoring regime, the incidence of major bleeding is currently not determined yet. Our study aims to examine the incidence of major bleeding, its determinants, and association with mortality in peripheral-ECMO patients. Method. We conducted a single-center retrospective study on adult patients undergoing peripheral-ECMO between January 2019 and January 2020 at a tertiary referral hospital. Determinants of major bleeding were defined by logistic regression analysis. Risk factors of in-hospital mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Results. Major bleeding was reported in 33/105 patients (31.4%) and was associated with higher in-hospital mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63–7.80, p < 0.001 ). There were no significant difference in age, sex, ECMO indications, ECMO modality, pre-ECMO APACHE-II and SOFA scores between two groups with and without major bleeding. Only APTT >72 seconds [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.10, 95% CI 2.60–19.50, p < 0.001 ], fibrinogen <2 g/L [aOR = 7.10, 95% CI 2.60–19.50, p < 0.001 ], and ACT >220 seconds [aOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.20–11.80, p = 0.017 ] on days with major bleeding were independent predictors. Conclusions. In summary, major bleeding still had a fairly high incidence and poor outcome in peripheral-ECMO patients. APTT > 72 seconds, fibrinogen < 2 g/L were the strongest predicting factors for major bleeding events.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Junwon Lee ◽  
Hyun Goo Kang ◽  
Hae Rang Kim ◽  
Christopher Seungkyu Lee ◽  
Min Kim ◽  
...  

AbstractWe investigated the incidence and risk factors of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye (FE) without significant drusen of patients with unilateral exudative macular neovascularization (MNV). In this retrospective study, 241 eligible patients who were followed-up for more than 3 years were enrolled. We analyzed the incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) of late AMD in the FE according to demographic and ophthalmologic variables. Hypopigmentation on color fundus photography (CFP) corresponds to shallow irregular RPE elevation (SIRE), so-called “double-layer sign” and/or “attenuation or disruption of RPE and/or ellipsoid zone” on OCT. The 5-year incidence of FE exudative MNV conversion was 8.6%. The 5-year incidence of FE exudative MNV of large hypopigmentation (≥ 0.5 disc area; DA) and small hypopigmentation (< 0.5 DA) on CFP, and SIRE (≥ 1000 µm) and small RPE elevation (< 1000 µm) on OCT were 36.2%, 14.2%, 55.0%, and 15.6%, respectively. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that large hypopigmentation, small hypopigmentation, SIRE, and small RPE elevation showed HRs of 23.230, 8.037, 132.589, and 41.823 for FE exudative MNV occurrence, respectively. Hypopigmentation on CFP and SIRE on OCT could represent the same lesion. Even small hypopigmentation and small RPE elevation were significant risk factors for progression to exudative MNV.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ermias Sisay Chanie ◽  
Getasew Legas ◽  
Shimeles Biru Zewude ◽  
Maru Mekie ◽  
Dagne Addisu Sewyew ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Although severe acute malnutrition is a major public issue among HIV infected children, there is no prior evidence in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aims to assess the time to develop severe acute malnutrition and its predictors among children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia, 2012. Methods An institution based retrospective cohort study was conducted in South Gondar hospitals among 363 HIV infected children from February 10, 2014, to January 7, 2021. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to enter data, which was then exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Besides, WHO (World Health Organization) Anthro Plus software was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect the data. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate the median survival time. The Cox-proportional hazard model assumption was checked via the Schoenfeld residual ph test and a stph plot. Bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were employed at 95% confidence intervals (CI). A variable having a p-value < 0.05 was considered a statistically significant predictor of severe acute malnutrition. Results A total of 363 children living with HIV, 97 (26.72%) developed severe acute malnutrition during the follow-up period. The overall incidence rate was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.7–5.9) person per year with a total of 21, 492 months or 1791 years of observation. Moreover, the median survival time was 126 months. Treatment failure [AHR =3.4 (95% CI: 2.05–5.75)], CD4 count below threshold [AHR =2.5 (95% CI: 1.64–3.95)], and WHO stage III & IV [AHR =2.9 (95% CI: 1.74–4.73)] were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Conclusion The time to develop severe acute malnutrition was found to be very low. Treatment failure, CD4 count below threshold, and WHO stage III were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Hence, emphasizing those predictor variables is essential for preventing and controlling the occurrence of severe acute malnutrition among HIV infected children.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261142
Author(s):  
Katie Bechman ◽  
Mark Yates ◽  
Kirsty Mann ◽  
Deepak Nagra ◽  
Laura-Jane Smith ◽  
...  

Background The Covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom has seen two waves; the first starting in March 2020 and the second in late October 2020. It is not known whether outcomes for those admitted with severe Covid were different in the first and second waves. Methods The study population comprised all patients admitted to a 1,500-bed London Hospital Trust between March 2020 and March 2021, who tested positive for Covid-19 by PCR within 3-days of admissions. Primary outcome was death within 28-days of admission. Socio-demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), hypertension, diabetes, obesity, baseline physiological observations, CRP, neutrophil, chest x-ray abnormality, remdesivir and dexamethasone were incorporated as co-variates. Proportional subhazards models compared mortality risk between wave 1 and wave 2. Cox-proportional hazard model with propensity score adjustment were used to compare mortality in patients prescribed remdesivir and dexamethasone. Results There were 3,949 COVID-19 admissions, 3,195 hospital discharges and 733 deaths. There were notable differences in age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and admission disease severity between wave 1 and wave 2. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher during wave 1 (26.1% versus 13.1%). Mortality risk adjusted for co-variates was significantly lower in wave 2 compared to wave 1 [adjSHR 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) p<0.001]. Analysis of treatment impact did not show statistically different effects of remdesivir [HR 0.84 (95%CI 0.65, 1.08), p = 0.17] or dexamethasone [HR 0.97 (95%CI 0.70, 1.35) p = 0.87]. Conclusion There has been substantial improvements in COVID-19 mortality in the second wave, even accounting for demographics, comorbidity, and disease severity. Neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir appeared to be key explanatory factors, although there may be unmeasured confounding present.


2022 ◽  
pp. oemed-2021-107970
Author(s):  
Elena Zaballa ◽  
Georgia Ntani ◽  
E Clare Harris ◽  
Anne Lübbeke ◽  
Nigel K Arden ◽  
...  

ObjectivesTo investigate the rates of return to work and workability among working-age people following total hip arthroplasty (THA).MethodsParticipants from the Geneva Arthroplasty Registry and the Clinical Outcomes for Arthroplasty Study aged 18–64 years when they had primary THA and with at least 5 years’ follow-up were mailed a questionnaire 2017–2019. Information was collected about preoperative and post-THA employment along with exposure to physically demanding activities at work or in leisure. Patterns of change of job were explored. Survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard models were created to explore risk factors for having to stop work because of difficulties with the replaced hip.ResultsIn total, 825 returned a questionnaire (response 58%), 392 (48%) men, mean age 58 years, median follow-up 7.5 years post-THA. The majority (93%) of those who worked preoperatively returned to work, mostly in the same sector but higher rates of non-return (36%–41%) were seen among process, plant and machine operatives and workers in elementary occupations. 7% reported subsequently leaving work because of their replaced hip and the risk of this was strongly associated with: standing >4 hours/day (HR 3.81, 95% CI 1.62 to 8.96); kneeling/squatting (HR 3.32, 95% CI 1.46 to 7.55) and/or carrying/lifting ≥10 kg (HR 5.43, 95% CI 2.29 to 12.88).ConclusionsIt may be more difficult to return to some (particularly physically demanding) jobs post-THA than others. Rehabilitation may need to be targeted to these types of workers or it may be that redeployment or job change counselling are required.


Author(s):  
Sharmila Rana ◽  
Gabriel N. Valbuena ◽  
Ed Curry ◽  
Charlotte L. Bevan ◽  
Hector C. Keun

Abstract Background Reliable prognostic biomarkers to distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) are lacking. Many studies investigated microRNAs (miRs) as PCa prognostic biomarkers, often reporting inconsistent findings. We present a systematic review of these; also systematic reanalysis of public miR-profile datasets to identify tissue-derived miRs prognostic of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods Independent PubMed searches were performed for relevant articles from January 2007 to December 2019. For the review, 128 studies were included. Pooled-hazard-ratios (HRs) for miRs in multiple studies were calculated using a random-effects model (REM). For the reanalysis, five studies were included and Cox proportional-hazard models, testing miR association with BCR, performed for miRs profiled in all. Results Systematic review identified 120 miRs as prognostic. Five (let-7b-5p, miR-145-5p, miR152-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-224-5p) were consistently associated with progression in multiple cohorts/studies. In the reanalysis, ten (let-7a-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-203a-3p, miR-26b-5p, miR30a-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-30e-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-425-3p, miR-582-5p) were significantly prognostic of BCR. Of these, miR-148a-3p (HR = 0.80/95% CI = 0.68-0.94) and miR-582-5p (HR = 0.73/95% CI = 0.61-0.87) were also reported in prior publication(s) in the review. Conclusions Fifteen miRs were consistently associated with disease progression in multiple publications or datasets. Further research into their biological roles is warranted to support investigations into their performance as prognostic PCa biomarkers.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrew Gregory ◽  
Zhonghui Xu ◽  
Katherine Pratte ◽  
Sool Lee ◽  
Congjian Lu ◽  
...  

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can progress across several domains, complicating the identification of the determinants of disease progression. In our previous work, we applied k-means clustering to spirometric and chest radiologic measures to identify four COPD-related subtypes: "Relatively resistant smokers (RRS)", "mild upper lobe predominant emphysema (ULE)", "airway-predominant disease (AD)", and "severe emphysema (SE)". In the current study, we examined longitudinal spirometric and radiologic emphysema changes and prospective risks of COPD exacerbations, incident comorbidities, and mortality of these clusters. We also compared their associations to protein and transcriptomic biomarkers. Methods: We included 8,266 non-Hispanic white and African-American smokers from the COPDGene study. We used linear regression to investigate associations to five-year prospective changes in spirometric and radiologic measures and to plasma protein and blood gene expression levels. We used Cox-proportional hazard modeling to test for associations to prospective exacerbations, comorbidities, and mortality. Results: The RRS, ULE, AD, and SE clusters represented 39%, 15%, 26%, and 20% of the studied cohort at baseline, respectively. The SE cluster had the greatest 5-year FEV1 and emphysema progression, and the highest risks of exacerbations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality. The AD cluster had the highest diabetes risk. After adjustments, only the ULE and AD clusters had elevated CVD mortality risks, while only the ULE cluster had the highest cancer-related mortality risk. These clusters also demonstrated differential protein and gene expression biomarker associations. Conclusion: COPD k-means subtypes demonstrate varying rates of disease progression, prospective comorbidities, mortality, and associations to proteomic and transcriptomic biomarkers.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 331
Author(s):  
Tomoyasu Mimori ◽  
Takehito Shukuya ◽  
Ryo Ko ◽  
Yusuke Okuma ◽  
Tomonobu Koizumi ◽  
...  

The optimal tumor marker for predicting the prognosis of advanced thymic carcinoma (ATC) remains unclear. We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective study of patients with ATC. A total of 286 patients were treated with chemotherapy. Clinicopathological information, including serum tumor markers, was evaluated to determine the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin-19 fragment, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, progastrin-releasing peptide, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and alpha-fetoprotein levels were evaluated. In the Kaplan–Meier analysis, the OS was significantly shorter in the patients with elevated NSE levels than in those with normal NSE levels (median, 20.3 vs. 36.8 months; log-rank test p = 0.029; hazard ratio (HR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–2.31 (Cox proportional hazard model)); a similar tendency regarding the PFS was observed (median, 6.4 vs. 11.0 months; log-rank test p = 0.001; HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.31–3.18). No significant differences in the OS and PFS were observed among the other tumor markers. In both univariate and multivariate analyses of the patients with SCC only, the NSE level was associated with the OS and PFS. Thus, the NSE level may be a prognostic tumor marker for thymic carcinoma, regardless of histology.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Takamasa Komiyama ◽  
Takashi Ohi ◽  
Wakana Ito ◽  
Yoshitada Miyoshi ◽  
Takako Hiratsuka ◽  
...  

AbstractGlobally, the cancer burden is expected to increase as populations are ageing. Therefore, cancer prevention among older age groups is important. This prospective cohort study examined the relationship between the number of remaining teeth, maximum occlusal force, and incidence of gastrointestinal cancer in community-dwelling older Japanese individuals using data from the Tsurugaya project; 847 participants were included. The exposure variables were the number of remaining teeth and the maximum occlusal force, with the outcome being the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. Covariates were age, sex, medical history, smoking, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and physical function. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the relationship between the number of remaining teeth, maximum occlusal force, and incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. With a median follow-up of 7.6 years, 63 participants were confirmed to have gastrointestinal cancer. The risk of gastrointestinal cancer was significantly higher in those with an occlusal force lower than the median (hazard ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.54–5.10). No significant risk difference was found according to the number of remaining teeth. Low maximum occlusal force was associated with the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer in community-dwelling older Japanese adults.


2022 ◽  
pp. 152660282110687
Author(s):  
Jordan R. Stern ◽  
Céline Deslarzes-Dubuis ◽  
Kenneth Tran ◽  
Jason T. Lee

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of patients treated with the Cook Zenith Fenestrated (ZFEN) device for juxtarenal aortic aneurysms inside versus outside the IFU. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional ZFEN database for cases performed between 2012 and 2018, with analysis performed in 2020 in order to report midterm outcomes. The cohort was stratified based on treatment inside (IFU group) and outside (non-IFU group) the IFU for criteria involving the proximal neck: neck length 4 to 14 mm, neck diameter 19 to 31 mm, and neck angulation ≤45°. Patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms or concurrent chimney grafting were excluded. The primary outcomes in question were mortality, type 1a endoleak, and reintervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine associations between adherence to IFU criteria and outcomes. Results: We identified 100 consecutive patients (19% female, mean age 73.6 years) for inclusion in this analysis. Mean follow-up was 21.6 months. Fifty-four patients (54%) were treated outside the IFU because of inadequate neck length (n=48), enlarged neck diameter (n=10), and/or excessive angulation (n=16). Eighteen patients were outside IFU for two criteria, and one patient was outside IFU for all three. Non-IFU patients were exposed to higher radiation doses (3652 vs 5445 mGy, p=0.008) and contrast volume (76 vs 95 mL, p=0.004). No difference was noted between IFU and non-IFU groups for 30-day mortality (0% vs 3.7%, p=0.18), or type 1a endoleak (0% vs 1.9%, p=0.41). Reintervention was also similar between cohorts (13% vs 27.8%, p=0.13). Being outside IFU for neck diameter or length was each borderline significant for higher reintervention on univariate analysis (p=0.05), but this was not significant on multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling (HR 1.82 [0.53–6.25]; 2.03 [0.68–7.89]), respectively. No individual IFU deviations were associated with the primary outcomes on multivariate analysis, nor being outside IFU for multiple criteria. Conclusions: Patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysms may be treated with the ZFEN device with moderate deviations from the IFU. While no differences were seen in mortality or proximal endoleak, larger studies are needed to examine the potential association between IFU nonadherence and reinterventions and close follow-up is warranted for all patients undergoing such repair.


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