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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

Detection of mental disorders in the elderly are using the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) screening/questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and/or or based on structured interviews. The elderly who had complete screening and interview data were included in the study sample, i.e., 85 people. From 85 elderly as a participant, 65 people (76.4%) had a good cognitive, 10 (11.7%) moderate cognitive, and 5 severe cognitive (5.8%), but their daily activities were still good. The results of the screening GDS showed 70 people with mild depression (82.4%), moderate depression in 13 people (15.3%) and 2 people with severe depression (2.3%). The results of the screening with DASS show 15 elderly people with depression (17.5%), 55 people with anxiety (65%) and 15 people experiencing stress (17.5%). Screening for elderly sleep quality with the PSQI for elderly showed 60 people with disrupted sleep quality (70.5%) and 15 people with good sleep quality (17.6%). A 68 people elderly (80%) complained of mild pain and 17 people (20%) with moderate pain by screening using the VAS, where the location of the pain varied in the body and leg areas.

2022 ◽  
Anick Bérard ◽  
Jessica Gorgui ◽  
Vanina Tchuente ◽  
Anaïs Lacasse ◽  
Yessica-Haydee Gomez ◽  

Abstract Introduction: We aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health, stratifying on pregnancy status, trimester of gestation, and pandemic period/wave.Methods: Pregnant persons and persons who delivered in Canada during the pandemic, >18 years, were recruited, and data were collected using a web-based strategy. The current analysis includes data on persons enrolled between 06/2020-08/2021. Maternal sociodemographic indicators, mental health measures (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7), stress) were self-reported. Maternal mental health in pregnant women (stratified by trimester, and pandemic period/wave at recruitment) was compared with mental health of women who had delivered; determinants of severe depression were identified with multivariate logistic regression models.Results: 2,574 persons were pregnant and 626 had already delivered at recruitment. Participants who had delivered had significantly higher mean depressive symptom scores compared to those pregnant at recruitment (9.1 (SD, 5.7) vs. 8.4 (SD, 5.3), p=0.009). Among those who were pregnant at recruitment, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in women recruited in their third trimester, and those recruited during the 2nd wave of the pandemic. Maternal anxiety (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.44-1.59) and stress (aOR 1.35; 95%CI 1.24-1.48) were the most significant predictors of severe maternal depression (EDPS˃13) in pregnancy. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on maternal depression during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Given that gestational depression/anxiety/stress have been associated with preterm birth and childhood cognitive problems, it is essential to continue following women/children, and develop strategies to reduce COVID-19’s longer-term impact.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Argyro Pachi ◽  
Christos Sikaras ◽  
Ioannis Ilias ◽  
Aspasia Panagiotou ◽  
Sofia Zyga ◽  

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk to nurses’ mental health has increased rapidly. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and burnout and to evaluate their possible association with the sense of coherence in nursing staff during the pandemic crisis. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory questionnaire, Beck’s Depression Inventory, and the Sense of Coherence questionnaire were completed by 101 male and 559 female nurses. Individual and demographic data were recorded. Regarding depression, 25.5% of respondents exhibited mild depression, 13.5% moderate depression and 7.6% severe depression. In the burnout scale, 47.1% had a pathological value. Female nurses had higher burnout (t test p < 0.01, 49.03 vs. 38.74) and depression (t test p < 0.01, 11.29 vs. 6.93) scores compared to men and lower levels in the sense of coherence (p < 0.05, 59.45 vs. 65.13). Regression evidenced that 43.7% of the variation in the BDI rating was explained by the CBI, while an additional 8.3% was explained by the sense of coherence. Mediation analysis indicated a partial mediation of burnout in the correlation between sense of coherence and depression. The sense of coherence acted as a negative regulator between burnout and depression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Majdi Al Qawasmeh ◽  
Belal Aldabbour ◽  
Amal Abuabada ◽  
Khalid Abdelrahman ◽  
Samah Elamassie ◽  

Poststroke depression (PSD) is common and remains a significant risk factor for poor outcomes. This prospective study is aimed at assessing the prevalence, severity, and predictors of PSD among Jordanian stroke survivors. A total of 151 patients who were consequently admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes were enrolled. Participants were screened on admission for premorbid depression using the PHQ-9 questionnaire; then, screening for PSD was repeated one and three months after stroke using the same tool. Depression prevalence at each screening was reported, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate for significant predictors. PHQ-9 scores suggestive of depression were reported by 15%, 24.83%, and 17.39% of respondents on admission and after one and three months, respectively. Scores suggesting severe depression were reported by 0.71%, 2.13%, and 6.52% of respondents, respectively. Significant predictors of PSD were having chronic kidney disease, current smoking status, moderate or severe disability (mRS score) at stroke onset, and severe dependence (BI) after one month ( p values 0.007, 0,002, 0.014, and 0.031, respectively). Patients with secondary and high school education levels were less likely to get depression compared with illiterate patients ( p 0.042). This study showed that nearly one in four Jordanian stroke survivors experienced PSD after one month. In contrast, while the overall PSD prevalence declined towards the end of follow-up period, patients who remained depressed showed a tendency towards higher PSD severity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Adnan Lutfi Sarhan ◽  
Shahenaz Modallal ◽  
Fayez Azez Mahamid ◽  
Denise Ziya Berte

Abstract Background Thalassemia is a condition that causes the human body to destroy red blood cells faster than they can be made. It causes physical symptomology as well as psychological distress. The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression symptoms among individuals with moderate to severe thalassemia. A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was applied utilizing the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depression in the sample. Results Some significant relationships were demonstrated in the sample: males reporting severe depression symptoms than females by 6.0 times (95% CI 0.07–0.62, p 0.014), and reporting moderate depression symptoms (95% CI 0.00–0.47, p 0.05). Additionally, income was found to be a predictor of level of depression symptoms with low income reported higher incidence of severe depression symptoms than those whose monthly income was > 400$ by 18.4 times (95% CI 0.38–1.03, p ≤ 0.001), but not reporting a significant association between moderate depressive symptoms and monthly income (95% CI − 012–1.47, P 0.225). A significant association was found between the educational attainment and level of depression symptoms with lower levels of education predicting higher levels of severe depression symptoms (95% CI 0.069–0.89, p 0.022), but no significant association was reported between moderate depression symptoms and educational attainment (95% CI − 0.49–0.01, p 0.81). Related to disease characteristics a relationship was confirmed between severe depressive symptoms and medication level such as the individual needing tablets or pumps (95% CI 0.189–1.05, p 0.005 and 95% CI 0.52–1.44, p 0.001) respectively. Other disease related variables showed no significant correlation with depressive symptom levels. Additional significant relationships were found in environment whereas increased moderate depressive symptoms were experienced by individuals residing in rural areas as opposed to those living in IDP camps or cities by 4 times (95% CI − 0.30–0.01, p 0.04), but no significant association was found between severe depression and the place of residence. The other independent variables had no significant correlation with severe or moderate depressive symptoms. Conclusion In light of these findings addressing symptoms of depression directly and supporting patients with thalassemia with basic life needs unrelated to their disease maybe mitigating depressive symptoms which may negatively affect recovery.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 213
Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez ◽  
Arturo Panduro ◽  
Sergio Javier Villaseñor-Bayardo ◽  
Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas ◽  
Claudia Ojeda-Granados ◽  

The Genome-based Mexican (GENOMEX) diet is a strategy for preventing and managing obesity. Emotion and eating behavior in the context of a nutrigenetic intervention have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to explore the influence of the GENOMEX diet on emotions, self-efficacy, and rewarding behaviors in unhealthy eating among subjects with risk factors for obesity-related chronic diseases. Twenty-eight subjects included in the six-month GENOMEX intervention answered questions regarding emotions that influence food consumption. Additionally, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Reward-based eating drive scale (RED) were applied. In the study, minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression were present in 46.4%, 39.3%, 10.7%, and 3.6%, respectively. RED did not change, but it correlated with a higher intake of fats (r2 = 0.684, β = 2.066, p = 0.003). Mood influenced unhealthy eating in 71.7% of subjects, and 76.9% experienced binge episodes triggered by anxiety. Sugars were the most consumed foods during binge episodes (42.2%). Both low self-efficacy levels and binge episodes were associated with high consumption of unhealthy foods. After the intervention, 10.7% of subjects reported a high level of self-efficacy. In conclusion, a culturally acceptable and genetically compatible regional Mexican food diet reduced negative emotions and unhealthy eating while increasing self-efficacy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 133-139
Alva Supit ◽  
Merry Gosal ◽  
Prycilia Mamuaja ◽  
Sicilia Kumaat ◽  
Achmad Paturusi

Background and Objective The correlation between late chronotype and depression has been well documented, but reports from the equatorial area, where the sun shines throughout the year with less seasonal variation, are limited. In the present research study, we sought to 1) examine the relationship between the chronotype and mental health symptoms in an Indonesian student population and 2) explore the characteristics of those who lie at the extreme chronotype and psychometry.Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study including undergraduate students in an Indonesian university (n = 493). We used the Munich Chronotype Questionnaires and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to assess the chronotype and mental symptoms, respectively. Following this, a follow-up with an in-depth interview on the selected population at the extreme end of the chronotype was performed as an exploratory approach to identify their common characteristics.Results Among the tested parameters, the depression score was significantly associated with chronotype (p = 0.003), replicating previous findings from other areas with higher latitudes. The correlation persisted when males and females were analyzed separately (p = 0.008 and 0.037, respectively). A follow-up qualitative analysis revealed a potential subclinical, unrealized depression among the subjects; our findings revealed the use of smartphones during or before bedtime as a common factor among those with later chronotypes.Conclusions There is a correlation between depression score and chronotype among Indonesian college students, where subjects with later chronotype are more likely to have a higher depression score.

Folia Medica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (6) ◽  
pp. 977-980
Ivan Tsranchev ◽  
Pavel Timonov ◽  
Alexander Alexandrov

Cases of severe injuries caused by air guns are really uncommon, but they can lead to a fatal outcome. Usually, these injuries occur in children due to their not fully developed skull bones or in adults through less resistant and thin regions of the cranium. Most of them are accidental events, followed by low percentage of suicidal attempts. In this paper, we present the case of a 68-year-old man suffering from severe depression, with self-inflicted air gun injury to the head. The patient was admitted to the hospital in a coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8, with severe penetrating head injury manifested with brain contusion and intraventricular bleeding seen at the CT examination. Metal particles from the projectile were seen inside the brain. The entry wound had inverted margins, abraded collar and skin defect. The additional neurological examination of the patient showed symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. The treatment started with the air gun wound care. Craniotomy surgery was also done and bone fragments around the entry wound were successfully extracted with subsequent debridement and duraplasty. The patient was treated with new-generation combined antibiotics for preventing inflammatory complications. On the nineteenth day, the patient was discharged with mild hemiparesis on the left side and with GCS score of 15. Air-gun traumatic cases with head injury or with injury to other parts of the body are often mistaken for firearm accidents, because air guns are seriously underestimated devices. Nevertheless, they could lead to severe health consequences and severe disability. This case highlights the necessity of strict monitoring of air guns by the responsible government institutions which should apply the same regulations in controlling these weapons as they implement in controlling the firearm guns. Presence of severe depression, mental illnesses, and neoplasms are risk factors for committing suicide with this type of weapons and the control over the air weapons in this group of people should be stricter.

Mir Uzma Ashraf ◽  
Priyanka Chaudhary

Background: Raising a mentally challenged child is a challenging and exhausting task. Families can easily become overwhelmed by the process of finding and funding appropriate services. They are faced with the stress of continually witnessing their loved one's struggles to complete everyday tasks, social interactions and education. They must live with the knowledge that there is no end to these struggles.Methods: The study was descriptive study to assess the degree of depression. 200 parents of mentally challenged children in different special educational institutions of Jammu and Kashmir were chosen by convenient sampling method and data was collected with the help of questionnaire (modified becks depression inventory II).Results: Findings of the study revealed that majority 9 (4.5%) were normal ,63(31.5%) had mild depression, 92 (46%) parents had moderate depression and 36 (18%) of parents had severe depression. Significant association was found between relationship with child (p<0.005), religion (p<0.001), education (p<0.001), occupation (p<0.00), monthly family income (p<0.000) and the degree of depression among parents of mentally challenged children.Conclusions: This study revealed that majority of the parents of mentally challenged children were having moderate depression.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Marc L. Copersino ◽  
Marina P. Long ◽  
Paula Bolton ◽  
Kerry J. Ressler ◽  
Stephen J. Seiner ◽  

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