Linear cationic venom peptides are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that exert their effects by damaging cell membranes. These peptides can be highly specific, and for some, a significant therapeutic value was proposed, in particular for treatment of bacterial infections. A prolific source of novel AMPs are arthropod venoms, especially those of hitherto neglected groups such as pseudoscorpions. In this study, we describe for the first time pharmacological effects of AMPs discovered in pseudoscorpion venom. We examined the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of full-length Checacin1, a major component of the Chelifer cancroides venom, and three truncated forms of this peptide. The antimicrobial tests revealed a potent inhibitory activity of Checacin1 against several bacteria and fungi, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and even Gram-negative pathogens. All peptides reduced survival rates of aphids, with Checacin1 and the C-terminally truncated Checacin11−21 exhibiting effects comparable to Spinosad, a commercially used pesticide. Cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells were observed mainly for the full-length Checacin1. All tested peptides might be potential candidates for developing lead structures for aphid pest treatment. However, as these peptides were not yet tested on other insects, aphid specificity has not been proven. The N- and C-terminal fragments of Checacin1 are less potent against aphids but exhibit no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells at the tested concentration of 100 µM.
Cellular therapy aims to replace damaged resident cells by restoring cellular and molecular environments suitable for tissue repair and regeneration. Among several candidates, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a critical component of stromal niches known to be involved in tissue homeostasis. In vitro, MSCs appear as fibroblast-like plastic adherent cells regardless of the tissue source. The therapeutic value of MSCs is being explored in several conditions, including immunological, inflammatory and degenerative diseases, as well as cancer. An improved understanding of their origin and function would facilitate their clinical use. The stemness of MSCs is still debated and requires further study. Several terms have been used to designate MSCs, although consensual nomenclature has yet to be determined. The presence of distinct markers may facilitate the identification and isolation of specific subpopulations of MSCs. Regarding their therapeutic properties, the mechanisms underlying their immune and trophic effects imply the secretion of various mediators rather than direct cellular contact. These mediators can be packaged in extracellular vesicles, thus paving the way to exploit therapeutic cell-free products derived from MSCs. Of importance, the function of MSCs and their secretome are significantly sensitive to their environment. Several features, such as culture conditions, delivery method, therapeutic dose and the immunobiology of MSCs, may influence their clinical outcomes. In this review, we will summarize recent findings related to MSC properties. We will also discuss the main preclinical and clinical challenges that may influence the therapeutic value of MSCs and discuss some optimization strategies.
Modified nucleosides are the core precursors for the synthesis of artificial nucleic acids, and are important in the field of synthetic and medicinal chemistry. In order to synthesize various triazolo-compounds, copper and ruthenium catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions also known as click reaction have emerged as a facile and efficient tool due to its simplicity and convenient conditions. Introduction of a triazole ring in nucleosides enhances their therapeutic value and various photophysical properties. This review primarily focuses on the plethora of synthetic methodologies being employed to synthesize sugar modified triazolyl nucleosides, their therapeutic importance and various other applications.
Phytopharmaceuticals have been widely used globally since ancient times and acknowledged by healthcare professionals and patients for their superior therapeutic value and fewer side-effects compared to modern medicines. However, phytopharmaceuticals need a scientific and methodical approach to deliver their components and thereby improve patient compliance and treatment adherence. Dose reduction, improved bioavailability, receptor selective binding, and targeted delivery of phytopharmaceuticals can be likely achieved by molding them into specific nano-formulations. In recent decades, nanotechnology-based phytopharmaceuticals have emerged as potential therapeutic candidates for the treatment of various communicable and non-communicable diseases. Nanotechnology combined with phytopharmaceuticals broadens the therapeutic perspective and overcomes problems associated with plant medicine. The current review highlights the therapeutic application of various nano-phytopharmaceuticals in neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal disorders. We conclude that nano-phytopharmaceuticals emerge as promising therapeutics for many pathological conditions with good compliance and higher acceptance.
The aberrant translation of a repeat expansion in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), the most common cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), results in the accumulation of toxic dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins in the central nervous system We have found that, among the sense DPR proteins, HDAC6 specifically interacts with the poly (GA) and co-localizes with inclusions in both patient tissue and a mouse model of this disease (c9FTD/ALS). Overexpression of HDAC6 increased poly (GA) levels in cultured cells independently of HDAC6 deacetylase activity, suggesting that HDAC6 can modulate poly (GA) pathology through a mechanism that depends upon their physical interaction. Moreover, decreasing HDAC6 expression by stereotaxic injection of antisense oligonucleotides significantly reduced the number of poly (GA) inclusions in c9FTD/ALS mice. These findings suggest that pharmacologically reducing HDAC6 levels could be of therapeutic value in c9FTD/ALS.
Mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare tumors, being less than 2% of all diagnosed melanomas, comprising a variegated group of malignancies arising from melanocytes in virtually all mucosal epithelia, even if more frequently found in oral and sino-nasal cavities, ano-rectum and female genitalia (vulva and vagina). To date, there is no consensus about the optimal management strategy of MM. Furthermore, the clinical rationale of molecular tumor characterization regarding BRAF, KIT or NRAS, as well as the therapeutic value of immunotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, has not yet been deeply explored and clearly established in MM. In this overview, focused on anorectal and genital MM as models of rare melanomas deserving of a multidisciplinary approach, we highlight the need of referring these patients to centers with experts in melanoma, anorectal and uro-genital cancers treatments. Taking into account the rarity, the poor outcomes and the lack of effective treatment options for MM, tailored research needs to be promptly promoted.
AbstractPancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor and, is extremely difficult to diagnose and treat. Metastasis is one of the critical steps in the development of cancer and uses cell to cell communication to mediate changes in the microenvironment. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs)-carry proteins, nucleic acids and other bioactive substances, and are important medium for communication between cells. There are two primary steps in sVEs-mediated metastasis: communication between pancreatic cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment; and the communication between primary tumor cells and distant organ cells in distant organs that promotes angiogenesis, reshaping extracellular matrix, forming immunosuppressive environment and other ways to form appropriate pre-metastasis niche. Here, we explore the mechanism of localization and metastasis of pancreatic cancer and use sEVs as early biomarkers for the detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Stem cells possess regenerative powers and multidirectional differentiation potential and play an important role in disease treatment and basic medical research. Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) represent a newly discovered type of stem cell with biological characteristics similar to those of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), including their doubling time and immunophenotype. USCs are noninvasive and can be readily obtained from voided urine and steadily cultured. Based on advances in this field, USCs and their secretions have increasingly emerged as ideal sources. USCs may play regulatory roles in the cellular immune system, oxidative stress, revascularization, apoptosis and autophagy. This review summarizes the applications of USCs in tissue regeneration and various disease treatments. Furthermore, by analysing their limitations, we anticipate the development of more feasible therapeutic strategies to promote USC-based individualized treatment.
Background: The therapeutic value of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) has been documented in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases and ailments. Various preparations of this plant have been made and used especially for liver inflammatory conditions in livestock. Further, many liver diseases in humans are inflammatory conditions, which are caused by alcohol intake. This study sought to examine the effect of S. cumini on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. The first group was control and the other four were administered ethanol at varying doses to induce liver and kidney damages. Two doses of the S. cumini extract were administered at a concentration of 200 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg. Silymarin was administered to the last group at 10 mg/kg. The liver and kidney tissue samples were collected and preserved for histological analyses and the rat sera were analyzed for the associated biochemical biomarkers. Results: Histopathological analyses revealed pyknotic nuclei and distortion in the arrangement of the hepatocytes in extract-treated groups. The kidney tissue samples showed signs of interstitial bleeding and aggregation of lymphocytes in the peri-glomerular areas. The analyses of the biochemical parameters revealed that there were significant increases in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), Urea and creatinine in the sera of the groups treated with the extract compared to those of the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The S. cumini extract caused elevation of serum hepatic and renal biomarkers at 400 mg/kg and did not have a hepatoprotective effect.
Through pharmacological activity research, an increasing number of natural products and their derivatives are being recognized for their therapeutic value. In recent years, studies have been conducted on Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, a valuable medicinal herb listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Protopine, one of its components, has also become a research hotspot. To illustrate the identification, metabolism, and broad pharmacological activity of protopine and the botanical preparations containing it for further scientific studies and clinical applications, an in-depth and detailed review of protopine is required. We collected data on the identification and quantification, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activities, and botanical preparations of protopine from 1986 to 2021 from the PubMed database using “protopine” as a keyword. It has been shown that protopine as an active ingredient of many botanical preparations can be rapidly screened and quantified by a large number of methods (such as the LC-ESI-MS/MS and the TLC/GC-MS), and the possible metabolic pathways of protopine in vivo have been proposed. In addition, protopine possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-cancer, analgesic, vasodilatory, anticholinesterase, anti-addictive, anticonvulsant, antipathogenic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities. In this paper, the identification and quantification, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activities, and botanical preparations of protopine are reviewed in detail to lay a foundation for further scientific research and clinical applications of protopine.