depression symptoms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alessio Matiz ◽  
Franco Fabbro ◽  
Andrea Paschetto ◽  
Cosimo Urgesi ◽  
Enrica Ciucci ◽  

In relation to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, a large body of research has identified a negative impact on individuals' affectivity, frequently documented by increased prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. For children, this research was less extensive, was mainly based on caregivers' reports and neglected personality assessment. In order to measure the impact of the pandemic, and the fears it caused, on primary school children's affect and personality, 323 (180 boys and 143 girls) Italian third, fourth and fifth graders were assessed between October and November 2020, namely during the second wave of COVID-19 infections in Italy, with validated self-reports of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, PANAS-C), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale, FCV-19S) and personality (junior Temperament and Character Inventory, jTCI). In comparison with PANAS-C and jTCI normative scores collected prior to the pandemic, data obtained from children in 2020 showed unchanged affect scores in the overall sample, a decrease of Positive Affect in girls, and a decrease in the Harm Avoidance and an increase in the Self-Transcendence scales of personality. Fear of COVID-19 scores were positively correlated with Negative Affect scores and negatively predicted by children's personality profile of resilience (calculated using scores on the Harm Avoidance and the Self-Directedness scales of personality). These results suggested that Italian primary school children, especially boys, maintained their pre-pandemic levels of affect (or restored them after the first COVID-19 wave) and partially diverged from the typical development of personality in an apparently positive sense, namely toward more courageous/optimistic and spiritual profiles. This sort of children's post-traumatic growth might also be attributed to children's family and education systems, which should continue to be supported to promote and maintain community mental health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Fang Chang ◽  
Xin Fan ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Bin Tang ◽  
Xiyuan Jia

Abstract Background The depression mood during their second and third trimesters has a negative impact on both the mother and her child. Compared with pregnant women in urban areas, rural pregnant women who are in more disadvantaged situation may have more serious psychological problems. Particular, many rural pregnant women had internal migrant work experience during pregnancy in rural China. It is thus necessary to study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and correlated factors among Chinese northwest rural pregnant women. Methods This study was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018 and surveyed 1053 pregnant women in the middle and late stages of pregnancy who were registered in rural areas, gave informed consent and did not suffer from cognitive impairment or severe mental illness. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Chinese Version of the Short Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-C21). Demographic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics and family factors were obtained through structured questionnaires. This study employed multiple factor logistic regression to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and their correlates. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women during their second and third trimesters was 16.14% (95%CI 13.92%-18.36%). Higher education levels (OR = 0.50; 95%CI 0.29–0.85) and taking folic acid (OR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.39–0.89) reduced the risk of depression symptoms. The family receiving rural welfare (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.04–2.75), migration for work (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.03–3.71) and living with both parents and parents-in-law (OR = 2.55; 95%CI 1.09–5.96) increased the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women during their second and third trimesters in Northwest rural China was 16.14% that was nearly 4 percentage points higher than the average survey result of the pregnant women in developed countries and was higher than the findings in Chinese urban areas. To prevent depression symptoms, it’s essential to early screen and provide folic acid for free when antenatal examination. Moreover, maternal examination files should be established so that wo pay attention to the psychological status of pregnant women who were with low education levels, poor family economic situations, excessive parental burden and who had been migrant workers.

Mindfulness ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jaime Navarrete ◽  
Miguel Ángel García-Salvador ◽  
Ausiàs Cebolla ◽  
Rosa Baños

Abstract Objectives The purpose of this exploratory non-randomized controlled study was to determine the acceptance and effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) co-designed by a police officer. Methods A pretest-posttest control group design was followed. Participants (MBI group = 20; control group = 18) answered baseline and post-training self-reported measures. In addition, the weekly emotional state of the MBI group was collected. Paired-samples t-test and analysis of covariance were performed for pre-post within-group and between-group differences, respectively, as well as linear mixed effects analysis of repeated measures for week-by-week data. Results High acceptance and attendance rates, as well as significant pre-post within-group differences in the MBI group in mindfulness (η2 = 0.43), self-compassion (η2 = 0.43), depression (η2 = 0.54), anxiety (η2 = 0.46), stress (η2 = 0.51), difficulties in emotion regulation, sleep quality (η2 = 0.57), and burnout (η2 = 0.31–0.47), were identified. Moreover, police officers who underwent the MBI experienced a week by week decrease of anger, disgust, anxiety, sadness, and desire. Finally, after adjusting for pre-test scores, significant between-group differences were found in the way of attending to internal and external experiences (observing mindfulness facet; ηp2 = 0.21), depression symptoms (ηp2 = 0.23), general distress (ηp2 = 0.24), and the degree of physical and psychological exhaustion (personal burnout; ηp2 = 0.20). Conclusions The preliminary effectiveness of this MBI on psychopathology and quality of life outcomes in Spanish police officers was discussed. Previous evidence regarding the promising use of MBIs in this population was supported.

Simona Scaini ◽  
Federica Rossi ◽  
Ronald M. Rapee ◽  
Francesca Bonomi ◽  
Giovanni M. Ruggiero ◽  

The efficacy of the Cool Kids program has been consistently demonstrated both within Australia and internationally, but limited data are available on the use of Cool Kids as a universal program. The purpose of the study is to evaluate Cool Kids as a universal program for preventing childhood anxiety in the school context. There were 73 Italian children (35 boys and 36 girls, ages 10–13 years) attending the last year of primary school and the first year of middle school who participated in an active intervention based on a school adaptation of the Cool Kids protocol. Results of t-test analyses highlighted a downward trend of anxiety symptoms, especially in total anxiety, somatic anxiety, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social anxiety and school phobia at post-treatment assessed by children. Even the score of depression symptoms, measured as a second outcome measure, decreased after the treatment. This study contributes to the evidence base for the Cool Kids program as a universal program for preventing childhood anxiety in the school context. Although these preliminary results show some promise, their replication in future research is necessary given current study limitations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liana C. L. Portugal ◽  
Camila Monteiro Fabricio Gama ◽  
Raquel Menezes Gonçalves ◽  
Mauro Vitor Mendlowicz ◽  
Fátima Smith Erthal ◽  

Background: Healthcare workers are at high risk for developing mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to identify vulnerability and protective factors related to the severity of psychiatric symptoms among healthcare workers to implement targeted prevention and intervention programs to reduce the mental health burden worldwide during COVID-19.Objective: The present study aimed to apply a machine learning approach to predict depression and PTSD symptoms based on psychometric questions that assessed: (1) the level of stress due to being isolated from one's family; (2) professional recognition before and during the pandemic; and (3) altruistic acceptance of risk during the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers.Methods: A total of 437 healthcare workers who experienced some level of isolation at the time of the pandemic participated in the study. Data were collected using a web survey conducted between June 12, 2020, and September 19, 2020. We trained two regression models to predict PTSD and depression symptoms. Pattern regression analyses consisted of a linear epsilon-insensitive support vector machine (ε-SVM). Predicted and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), the coefficient of determination (r2), and the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) to evaluate the model performance. A permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels.Results: Results were significant using two different cross-validation strategies to significantly decode both PTSD and depression symptoms. For all of the models, the stress due to social isolation and professional recognition were the variables with the greatest contributions to the predictive function. Interestingly, professional recognition had a negative predictive value, indicating an inverse relationship with PTSD and depression symptoms.Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the protective role of professional recognition and the vulnerability role of the level of stress due to social isolation in the severity of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms. The insights gleaned from the current study will advance efforts in terms of intervention programs and public health messaging.

Alberto Bermejo-Franco ◽  
Juan Luis Sánchez-Sánchez ◽  
María Isabel Gaviña-Barroso ◽  
Beatriz Atienza-Carbonell ◽  
Vicent Balanzá-Martínez ◽  

(1) Background: The aim of the study was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the mental health and quality of life of male and female physical therapy students at the European University of Madrid. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted including a range of tests capturing different domains: 36-item Short Form Health Survey, six-item state version of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Three Items Loneliness Scale, four-item version of the Perceived Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory revised version, and Sleep Quality Numeric Rating Scale. (3) Results: A total of 151 students completed the study, consisting of 78 females and 73 males. Gender differences were observed on most of the domains evaluated. Female participants showed worse levels of general health perception, quality of life, depression symptoms, anxiety, stress, experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility, sleep quality and loneliness compared to male physical therapy students. (4) Conclusions: The results of this study support the need of psychological interventions as preventive programs in situations such as COVID-19 pandemic. The aims of this study comprise of improving knowledge, awareness, and self-coping strategies or other psychological domains oriented to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on mental health and health-related quality of life in university students, especially among female ones.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 738-754
D. V. Blinov ◽  
E. S. Akarachkova ◽  
D. M. Ampilogova ◽  
E. M. Dzhobava ◽  
V. I. Tsibizova ◽  

Surgical and natural menopause is often associated with depression symptoms. Along with the postpartum period, perimenopause is a “window of vulnerability” for depression development, because decline in estrogen level accounts for extinction of reproductive function, emotional disorders, genitourinary menopausal syndrome, which are combined with non-endocrine risk factors, such as decreasing income levels, low social support, and stress. Although a direct relationship between blood estrogens level and depression has not been demonstrated, the relation between menopause symptoms and depression has been proven, i.e., the symptoms of menopause can be considered as risk factors. Here, we summarizes the current view on the correct counseling and routing of menopausal women with depression symptoms in primary health care facilities, the principles of managing patients with risk factors, including genitourinary menopausal syndrome, as well as methods of rehabilitation and informational support. This will aid to improve the quality of medical care for such patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110571
Valentina Massaroni ◽  
Valentina Delle Donne ◽  
Nicoletta Ciccarelli ◽  
Francesca Lombardi ◽  
Silvia Lamonica ◽  

The care engagement of people living with HIV (PLWH) measured with the patient health engagement (PHE) model and its association with HIV-related internalized stigma are not well established. Indeed, currently there are no data yet about the engagement of PLWH measured with the PHE model. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIV-related internalized stigma on care engagement and mental health and to fill the lack of data on PHE model applied to PLWH. We found that the internalized stigma score was significantly higher for PLWH ( n=82) in worse care engagement phase and both higher internalized stigma scores and worse engagement were associated to major depression symptoms. In conclusion, our findings describe for the first time the engagement in care of PLWH measured with PHE and highlight the importance of PLWH support to find strategies to cope stigma-related stress and optimize their care engagement.

2022 ◽  
Rebecca Ann Charlton ◽  
Goldie McQuaid ◽  
Lauren Bishop ◽  
Gregory Wallace

Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) increase during later-life and are associated with depression symptoms and difficulties with executive function among non-autistic older people. Few studies have examined CVRF among autistic people. Using data from the Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research for Knowledge research match, this study examined the frequency of CVRF and associations between CVRF, depression symptoms and executive function in 387 middle-aged and older autistic people (aged 40-83 years). Individuals provided demographic and health information to assess the number of CVRF (presence of hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity). Participants also self-reported their depression symptoms and executive functions in the domains of inhibitory control and emotional regulation. CVRF were common among autistic middle-aged and older people, with 28.9% reporting two and 23.2% reporting three or more CVRF. Regression analyses explored the variables associated with depression symptoms. After accounting for the effects of age and sex assigned at birth, CVRF contributed a small but significant amount to the model. A regression model examined the impact of executive function. Emotional regulation (but not inhibitory control), CVRF and age were significantly associated with depression symptoms in middle-aged and older autistic people. In conclusion, CVRF was significantly associated with depression symptoms, and depression symptoms, in turn, were primarily associated with emotional regulation. CVRF occur at high rates in middle-aged and older autistic people but may not be as important a mechanism for depression symptoms as among non-autistic older people.

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