water immersion
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2022 ◽  
pp. 109980042110635
Maria Dyah Kurniasari ◽  
Karen A. Monsen ◽  
Shuen Fu Weng ◽  
Chyn Yng Yang ◽  
Hsiu Ting Tsai

Background: Gout arthritis is an autoinflammatory arthritis that generates chronic long-term pain. Pain impacts physical activities, joint mobility, stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Cold-water immersion therapy reduces inflammation and pain associated with gout arthritis. However, cold-water immersion therapy has not been conducted among people worldwide with gout arthritis. Objective: To investigate the cold-water immersion intervention on pain, joint mobility, physical activity, stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life among acute gout patients. Methods: A community-based randomized control trial design with two parallel-intervention groups: a cold-water immersion group (20–30°C 20 minutes/day for 4 weeks) and a control group. In total, 76 eligible participants in Tomohon City, Indonesia, were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method and were randomly assigned using block randomization. A generalized estimating equation model was used to analyze the results (coef. β) and produce 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A path analysis was used to analyze mediating effects. Results: Significant pain alleviation ( β = −2.06; −2.42), improved joint mobility ( β = 1.20, 1.44), physical activity ( β = 2.05, .59), stress ( β = −1.25; −1.35), anxiety ( β = −.62; −1.37), and quality of life ( β = 5.34; 9.93) were detected after cold-water immersion at the second-week, and were maintained to the fourth-week time point, compared to pre-intervention and the control group. Depression ( β = −1.80) had decreased by the fourth week compared to the pre-test and control group. Cold-water immersion directly mediated alleviation of pain ( β = −.46, p ≤ .001) and to promote the quality of life ( β = .16, p = .01). Conclusions: Cold-water immersion decreased pain, stress, anxiety, and depression, and increased joint mobility, physical activity, and quality of life. It mediated alleviation of pain to increase the quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 298
Manuel Herrero-Fernandez ◽  
Trinidad Montero-Vilchez ◽  
Pablo Diaz-Calvillo ◽  
Maria Romera-Vilchez ◽  
Agustin Buendia-Eisman ◽  

The frequency of hand hygiene has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but there is little evidence regarding the impact of water exposure and temperature on skin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of water exposure and temperature on skin barrier function in healthy individuals. A prospective observational study was conducted. Temperature, pH, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were measured objectively before and after hot- and cold-water exposure and TempTest® (Microcaya TempTest, Bilbao, Spain) contact. Fifty healthy volunteers were enrolled. Hot-water exposure increased TEWL (25.75 vs. 58.58 g·h−1·m−2), pH (6.33 vs. 6.65) and erythema (249.45 vs. 286.34 AU). Cold-water immersion increased TEWL (25.75 vs. 34.96 g·h−1·m−2) and pH (6.33 vs. 6.62). TEWL (7.99 vs. 9.98 g·h−1·m−2) and erythema (209.07 vs. 227.79 AU) increased after being in contact with the hot region (44 °C) of the TempTest. No significant differences were found after contact with the cold region (4 °C) of the TempTest. In conclusion, long and continuous water exposure damages skin barrier function, with hot water being even more harmful. It would be advisable to use cold or lukewarm water for handwashing and avoid hot water. Knowing the proper temperature for hand washing might be an important measure to prevent flares in patients with previous inflammatory skin diseases on their hands.

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 308 ◽  
pp. 121999
Zhongzheng Luo ◽  
Botao Qin ◽  
Quanlin Shi ◽  
Haijun Hu ◽  
Peng Sheng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012011
Sarah Yahya Hattam ◽  
Mahdi Hatf Kadhum Aboaltabooq

Abstract Photovoltaic panels can convert solar irradiance into (electrical and thermal) energy. The (PV / T) system was developed, created, and its performance tested in this experimental analysis. The main objective of this study was to design, manufacture and evaluate the work of the PV/T system as a thermal collector to enhance heat transfer, by using distilled water as a working fluid used to cool (PV/T) system. The experiment was performed with flow rate of water from (1 L / min to 5 L / min) on the PV / T collector channel. A theoretical and practical study was conducted on the effect of cooling the panels by immersing (PV) from (upper and lower) in a distilled water parallel flow forced circulation. Numerical result obtained by using Comsol Multiphysics program have been used as a computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The numerical study was conducted to determine the optimal depth of immersion of the panel to experiment with it, simulation results showed that the optimum depth of immersion is (5mm). The experimental results were conducted at the Technical Engineering College of Najaf with indoor test conditions that were controlled, Tin=20 °C, h=5mm. The results have been shown that the electrical efficiency of traditional photovolatic panel without cooling varied between (10.5-11.6) %, while the electrical efficiency of PV/T system varied between (14.6-14.7) %.

Wibowo Kusbandono ◽  

The purpose of this research is (a) to design and assemble a steam compression cycle cooling machine using the main components on the market (b) to obtain the characteristics of the cooling engine, which includes the Coefficient of Performance (COP) and the efficiency of the cooling engine. The research was conducted experimentally in the laboratory. The refrigeration machine works by using a steam compression cycle, with the main components: a compressor, an evaporator, a capillary tube and a condenser. The compressor power is 1/6 PK, while the other main components are adjusted to the size of the compressor power. The refrigerant used is R134a. Variations of the research were carried out on the condition of the refrigerant pipe located between the compressor and condenser: (a) without being submerged in water (b) submerged in 0.50 liters of water and (c) submerged in 0.75 liters of water. The results of the study provide information that the water immersion in the refrigerant pipe which is located between the compressor and condenser affects the COP value and the efficiency of the refrigeration machine. Consecutively (1) without being submerged in water, the COP value is 2.45 and the efficiency is 0.64 (2) submerged in liter of water, the COP value is 2.41 and the efficiency is 0.62 (3) submerged in liter of water, the value COP is 2.34 and efficiency is 0.60.

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