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Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Author(s):  
Yung-Lin Chen ◽  
Yi-Cheng Lin ◽  
Wan-Yu Wu

It has always been a huge challenge to prepare the Mo back contact of inorganic compound thin film solar cells (e.g., CIGS, CZTS, Sb2Se3) with good conductivity and adhesion at the same time. High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been proposed as one solution to improve the properties of the thin film. In this study, the HiPIMS technology replaced the traditional DC power sputtering technology to deposit Mo back contact on polyimide (PI) substrates by adjusting the experimental parameters of HiPIMS, including working pressure and pulse DC bias. When the Mo back contact is prepared under a working pressure of 5 mTorr and bias voltage of −20 V, the conductivity of the Mo back contact is 9.9 × 10−6 Ωcm, the residual stress of 720 MPa, and the film still has good adhesion. Under the minimum radius of curvature of 10 mm, the resistivity change rate of Mo back contact does not increase by more than 15% regardless of the 1680 h or 1500 bending cycle tests, and the Mo film still has good adhesion in appearance. Experimental results show that, compared with traditional DC sputtering, HiPIMS coating technology has better conductivity and adhesion at the same time, and is especially suitable for PI substrates.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maia H. Malonzo ◽  
Viivi Halla-aho ◽  
Mikko Konki ◽  
Riikka J. Lund ◽  
Harri Lähdesmäki

Abstract Background DNA methylation is commonly measured using bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq). The quality of a BS-seq library is measured by its bisulfite conversion efficiency. Libraries with low conversion rates are typically excluded from analysis resulting in reduced coverage and increased costs. Results We have developed a probabilistic method and software, LuxRep, that implements a general linear model and simultaneously accounts for technical replicates (libraries from the same biological sample) from different bisulfite-converted DNA libraries. Using simulations and actual DNA methylation data, we show that including technical replicates with low bisulfite conversion rates generates more accurate estimates of methylation levels and differentially methylated sites. Moreover, using variational inference speeds up computation time necessary for whole genome analysis. Conclusions In this work we show that taking into account technical replicates (i.e. libraries) of BS-seq data of varying bisulfite conversion rates, with their corresponding experimental parameters, improves methylation level estimation and differential methylation detection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 025203
Author(s):  
S P Kulik ◽  
K S Kravtsov ◽  
S N Molotkov

Abstract The analysis of the security of quantum key distribution systems with respect to an attack with nondemolishing measurement of the number of photons (photon number splitting—PNS attack) is carried out under the assumption that in the communication channel in each parcel there is a pure Fock state with a different number of photons, and the distribution of states by number of photons has Poisson statistics. In reality, in the communication channel in each parcel there are not individual Fock states, but a pure coherent state with a random phase—a superposition of Fock states with different numbers of photons. The paper analyzes the necessary experimental resources necessary to prepare individual Fock states with a certain number of photons from the superposition of Fock states for a PNS attack. Optical schemes for implementing such an attack are given, and estimates of experimental parameters at which a PNS attack is possible are made.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Author(s):  
Zhangxing Liu ◽  
Rongfeng Zhou ◽  
Wentao Xiong ◽  
Zilong He ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  
...  

Copper–tin alloys are widely used in the machining and molding of sleeves, bearings, bearing housings, gears, etc. They are a material used in heavy-duty, high-speed and high-temperature situations and subject to strong friction conditions due to their high strength, high modulus of elasticity, low coefficient of friction and good wear and corrosion resistance. Although copper–tin alloys are excellent materials, a higher performance of mechanical parts is required under extreme operating conditions. Plastic deformation is an effective way to improve the overall performance of a workpiece. In this study, medium-temperature compression tests were performed on a semi-solid CuSn10P1 alloy using a Gleeble 1500D testing machine at different temperatures (350−440 °C) and strain rates (0.1−10 s−1) to obtain its medium-temperature deformation characteristics. The experimental results show that the filamentary deformation marks appearing during the deformation are not single twins or slip lines, but a mixture of dislocations, stacking faults and twins. Within the experimental parameters, the filamentary deformation marks increase with increasing strain and decrease with increasing temperature. Twinning subdivides the grains into lamellar sheets, and dislocation aggregates are found near the twinning boundaries. The results of this study are expected to make a theoretical contribution to the forming of copper–tin alloys in post-processing processes such as rolling and forging.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 458
Author(s):  
Oscar P. Yanchatuña Aguayo ◽  
Lynda Mouheb ◽  
Katherine Villota Villota Revelo ◽  
Paola A. Vásquez-Ucho ◽  
Prasad P. Pawar ◽  
...  

Bio-nanotechnology has emerged as an efficient and competitive methodology for the production of added-value nanomaterials (NMs). This review article gathers knowledge gleaned from the literature regarding the biosynthesis of sulfur-based chalcogenide nanoparticles (S-NPs), such as CdS, ZnS and PbS NPs, using various biological resources, namely bacteria, fungi including yeast, algae, plant extracts, single biomolecules, and viruses. In addition, this work sheds light onto the hypothetical mechanistic aspects, and discusses the impact of varying the experimental parameters, such as the employed bio-entity, time, pH, and biomass concentration, on the obtained S-NPs and, consequently, on their properties. Furthermore, various bio-applications of these NMs are described. Finally, key elements regarding the whole process are summed up and some hints are provided to overcome encountered bottlenecks towards the improved and scalable production of biogenic S-NPs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. e829
Author(s):  
Yun Lin Liu ◽  
Yan Kai Chen ◽  
Wei Xiong Li ◽  
Yang Zhang

Background The side-channel cryptanalysis method based on convolutional neural network (CNNSCA) can effectively carry out cryptographic attacks. The CNNSCA network models that achieve cryptanalysis mainly include CNNSCA based on the VGG variant (VGG-CNNSCA) and CNNSCA based on the Alexnet variant (Alex-CNNSCA). The learning ability and cryptanalysis performance of these CNNSCA models are not optimal, and the trained model has low accuracy, too long training time, and takes up more computing resources. In order to improve the overall performance of CNNSCA, the paper will improve CNNSCA model design and hyperparameter optimization. Methods The paper first studied the CNN architecture composition in the SCA application scenario, and derives the calculation process of the CNN core algorithm for side-channel leakage of one-dimensional data. Secondly, a new basic model of CNNSCA was designed by comprehensively using the advantages of VGG-CNNSCA model classification and fitting efficiency and Alex-CNNSCA model occupying less computing resources, in order to better reduce the gradient dispersion problem of error back propagation in deep networks, the SE (Squeeze-and-Excitation) module is newly embedded in this basic model, this module is used for the first time in the CNNSCA model, which forms a new idea for the design of the CNNSCA model. Then apply this basic model to a known first-order masked dataset from the side-channel leak public database (ASCAD). In this application scenario, according to the model design rules and actual experimental results, exclude non-essential experimental parameters. Optimize the various hyperparameters of the basic model in the most objective experimental parameter interval to improve its cryptanalysis performance, which results in a hyper-parameter optimization scheme and a final benchmark for the determination of hyper-parameters. Results Finally, a new CNNSCA model optimized architecture for attacking unprotected encryption devices is obtained—CNNSCAnew. Through comparative experiments, CNNSCAnew’s guessing entropy evaluation results converged to 61. From model training to successful recovery of the key, the total time spent was shortened to about 30 min, and we obtained better performance than other CNNSCA models.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 261-269
Author(s):  
Ziyauddin Seikh ◽  
Sandip Kunar ◽  
Rafiqul Haque ◽  
Shamim Haidar ◽  
Mukandar Sekh

With the enhancement in science and technology, necessity of complex shapes in manufacturing industries becomes essential for more versatile applications. These lead to demand for light weight and durable materials for applications in aerospace, defence, automotive, as well as sports and thermal management. Due to its high-tech structural, functional applications like defence, automobile, aerospace, thermal sensitive materials. Al-Matrix composites are considered as one of those classes of advanced engineering materials. In the present study, Al-RHA (Rice Husk Ash) composites are prepared by powder metallurgy route using 10% and 15% RHA by weight as reinforcement. Presence of abrasive particles leads to difficulty of conventional machining on Al-RHA composites hence non-conventional machining WEDM (Wire-Electric Discharge Machining) has been investigated. Suitable machining parameters for composites using wire EDM have been tried to get maximum material removal rate and speed. Optimizations of experimental parameters have been studied using Taguchi and Anova to standardize the process parameters for machining. Prime process parameters like servo-voltage, pulse-on time and pulse-off-time have been taken into consideration to study cutting quality of Al-RHA Metal matrix Composite using cutting speed as response parameters while effect of RHA weight fraction addition is also considered for evaluation to understand its influence on affecting the response.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Kessler ◽  
Roberto Rinaldi

Mechanochemistry utilizes mechanical forces to activate chemical bonds. It offers environmentally benign routes for both (bio) organic and inorganic syntheses. However, direct comparison of mechanochemistry results is often very challenging. In mechanochemical synthetic protocols, ball mill setup (mechanical design and grinding vessel geometry) in addition to experimental parameters (milling frequency, duration, ball count and size) vary broadly. This fact poses a severe issue to further progress in this exciting research area because ball mill setup and experimental parameters govern how much kinetic energy is transferred to a chemical reaction. In this work, we address the challenge of comparing mechanochemical reaction results by taking the energy dose provided by ball mills as a unified metric into account. In this quest, we applied kinematic modeling to two ball mills functioning under distinct working principles to express the energy dose as a mathematical function of the experimental parameters. By examining the effect of energy dose on the extent of the mechanocatalytic depolymerization (MCD) of lignocellulosic biomass (beechwood), we found linear correlations between yield of water-soluble products (WSP) and energy dose for both ball mills. Interestingly, when a substrate layer is formed on the grinding jar wall and/or grinding medium, a weak non-linear correlation between water-soluble products yield and energy dose is identified. We demonstrate that the chemical reaction’s best utilization of kinetic energy is achieved in the linear regime, which presents improved WSP yields for given energy doses. In the broader context, the current analysis outlines the usefulness of the energy dose as a unified metric in mechanochemistry to further the understanding of reaction results obtained from different ball mills operating under varied experimental conditions.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 310
Author(s):  
Hao Kong ◽  
Bin Liu ◽  
Guozheng Yang ◽  
Yun Chen ◽  
Gang Wei

Studying the interactions between biomolecules and material interfaces play a crucial role in the designing and synthesizing of functional bionanomaterials with tailored structure and function. Previously, a lot of studies were performed on the self-assembly of peptides in solution through internal and external stimulations, which mediated the creation of peptide nanostructures from zero-dimension to three-dimension. In this study, we demonstrate the self-assembly behavior of the GNNQQNY peptide on the surface of mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite through tailoring the self-assembly conditions. Various factors, such as the type of dissolvent, peptide concentration, pH value, and evaporation period on the formation of peptide nanofibers and nanoribbons with single- and bi-directional arrays are investigated. It is found that the creation of peptide nanoribbons on both mica and HOPG can be achieved effectively through adjusting and optimizing the experimental parameters. Based on the obtained results, the self-assembly and formation mechanisms of peptide nanoribbons on both material interfaces are discussed. It is expected that the findings obtained in this study will inspire the design of motif-specific peptides with high binding affinity towards materials and mediate the green synthesis of peptide-based bionanomaterials with unique function and application potential.


2022 ◽  
Vol 92 (3) ◽  
pp. 353
Author(s):  
М.А. Ирзак ◽  
С.А. Нечаев

Numerical modeling of propagation and absorption of fast waves (helicons) with frequency 200 MHz in 2D inhomogeneous plasma of the spherical tokamak Globus-M2 was carried out with 2D full-wave code. Toroidal effects, poloidal magnetic field and the actual shape of the flux surfaces were taken into account. The full wave electric field and RF power absorption profiles were computed by solving plasma wave equation with electron Landau damping term. The modeling demonstrated a fairly high efficiency of helicons absorption in the bulk plasma within a wide range of experimental parameters. The waves propagate to the inner regions of the plasma column and are mainly absorbed there; less than 20% of RF energy returns back to the plasma periphery.


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