Avobenzone and nanoplastics affect the development of zebrafish nervous system and retinal system and inhibit their locomotor behavior

2022 ◽  
Vol 806 ◽  
pp. 150681
Yuxuan Liu ◽  
Yonghua Wang ◽  
Na Li ◽  
Shengnan Jiang
2019 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-55
Nathan C. Donelson ◽  
Richa Dixit ◽  
Israel Pichardo-Casas ◽  
Eva Y. Chiu ◽  
Robert T. Ohman ◽  

Locomotion is an ancient and fundamental output of the nervous system required for animals to perform many other complex behaviors. Although the formation of motor circuits is known to be under developmental control of transcriptional mechanisms that define the fates and connectivity of the many neurons, glia and muscle constituents of these circuits, relatively little is known about the role of post-transcriptional regulation of locomotor behavior. MicroRNAs have emerged as a potentially rich source of modulators for neural development and function. In order to define the microRNAs required for normal locomotion in Drosophila melanogaster, we utilized a set of transgenic Gal4-dependent competitive inhibitors (microRNA sponges, or miR-SPs) to functionally assess ca. 140 high-confidence Drosophila microRNAs using automated quantitative movement tracking systems followed by multiparametric analysis. Using ubiquitous expression of miR-SP constructs, we identified a large number of microRNAs that modulate aspects of normal baseline adult locomotion. Addition of temperature-dependent Gal80 to identify microRNAs that act during adulthood revealed that the majority of these microRNAs play developmental roles. Comparison of ubiquitous and neural-specific miR-SP expression suggests that most of these microRNAs function within the nervous system. Parallel analyses of spontaneous locomotion in adults and in larvae also reveal that very few of the microRNAs required in the adult overlap with those that control the behavior of larval motor circuits. These screens suggest that a rich regulatory landscape underlies the formation and function of motor circuits and that many of these mechanisms are stage and/or parameter-specific.

1980 ◽  
Vol 49 (3) ◽  
pp. 390-397 ◽  
W. Mansfield ◽  
R. W. Brauer ◽  
H. W. Gillen ◽  
K. Nash

From birth to maturity CD-2 mice were exposed to progressively increasing pressures of helium-oxygen. In all age groups a regular progression of changes in locomotor behavior was observed including, in sequence, increased locomotor activity and two types of convulsions designated as types I and II. The effects of altering compression rate and of reserpine pretreatment were recorded for all age groups. Maturation in these mice is associated with increased resistance to high-pressure neurological syndrome convulsions of either type, in contrast to what might have been expected from previous phylogenetic studies. The patterns in development of the two seizure types differ greatly in detail, further supporting the previously advanced inference that they represent neurological events that differ in kind rather than merely quantitatively. The effect of the results on theories that concern the mechanism of action of pressure on the vertebrate central nervous system is discussed.

1999 ◽  
Vol 216 (2) ◽  
pp. 595-610 ◽  
Cecile C. de la Cruz ◽  
Andre Der-Avakian ◽  
Demetri D. Spyropoulos ◽  
David D. Tieu ◽  
Ellen M. Carpenter

2019 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
Kevin B. Clark

Abstract Some neurotropic enteroviruses hijack Trojan horse/raft commensal gut bacteria to render devastating biomimicking cryptic attacks on human/animal hosts. Such virus-microbe interactions manipulate hosts’ gut-brain axes with accompanying infection-cycle-optimizing central nervous system (CNS) disturbances, including severe neurodevelopmental, neuromotor, and neuropsychiatric conditions. Co-opted bacteria thus indirectly influence host health, development, behavior, and mind as possible “fair-weather-friend” symbionts, switching from commensal to context-dependent pathogen-like strategies benefiting gut-bacteria fitness.

Gladys Harrison

With the advent of the space age and the need to determine the requirements for a space cabin atmosphere, oxygen effects came into increased importance, even though these effects have been the subject of continuous research for many years. In fact, Priestly initiated oxygen research when in 1775 he published his results of isolating oxygen and described the effects of breathing it on himself and two mice, the only creatures to have had the “privilege” of breathing this “pure air”.Early studies had demonstrated the central nervous system effects at pressures above one atmosphere. Light microscopy revealed extensive damage to the lungs at one atmosphere. These changes which included perivascular and peribronchial edema, focal hemorrhage, rupture of the alveolar septa, and widespread edema, resulted in death of the animal in less than one week. The severity of the symptoms differed between species and was age dependent, with young animals being more resistant.

Wiktor Djaczenko ◽  
Carmen Calenda Cimmino

The simplicity of the developing nervous system of oligochaetes makes of it an excellent model for the study of the relationships between glia and neurons. In the present communication we describe the relationships between glia and neurons in the early periods of post-embryonic development in some species of oligochaetes.Tubifex tubifex (Mull. ) and Octolasium complanatum (Dugès) specimens starting from 0. 3 mm of body length were collected from laboratory cultures divided into three groups each group fixed separately by one of the following methods: (a) 4% glutaraldehyde and 1% acrolein fixation followed by osmium tetroxide, (b) TAPO technique, (c) ruthenium red method.Our observations concern the early period of the postembryonic development of the nervous system in oligochaetes. During this period neurons occupy fixed positions in the body the only observable change being the increase in volume of their perikaryons. Perikaryons of glial cells were located at some distance from neurons. Long cytoplasmic processes of glial cells tended to approach the neurons. The superimposed contours of glial cell processes designed from electron micrographs, taken at the same magnification, typical for five successive growth stages of the nervous system of Octolasium complanatum are shown in Fig. 1. Neuron is designed symbolically to facilitate the understanding of the kinetics of the growth process.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document