vascular endothelial cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Xinyu Liao ◽  
Ruiying Zhong ◽  
Hong Zhang ◽  
Fuke Wang

Background. The development of tissue engineering provides a new method for the clinical treatment of bone defects, but the problems of slow formation and slow vascularization of tissue engineered bone have always existed. Studies have shown that the combined culture system of vascular endothelial cells and adipose stem cells is superior to single cell in repairing bone defects. With the excellent proliferation ability, secretion of synthetic collagen and a variety of regulatory factors and fibroblasts can differentiate into osteoblasts and have the potential to be excellent seed cells involved in tissue engineering bone construction. Objective. To investigate the effects of combined culture of fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and adipose stem cells on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells. Methods. The cells were divided into 4 groups: adipose stem cell group, adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell coculture group, adipose stem cell+fibroblast coculture group, and adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group. The morphological changes of the cells were observed under an inverted microscope. After 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days of coculture, the proliferation of adipose stem cells in each group was detected by a CCK-8 method and the growth curve was plotted. Adipose stem cells in each group were stained with alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase at days 7, 14, 21, and 28. At the third week of coculture, Western blot was used to detect the expression level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 of adipose stem cells in each group. Results and Conclusions. (1) After 14 days of culture, some cells in the adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group fused into clumps and distributed in nests, while the adipose stem cells in the adipose stem cell group had a single cell morphology and no cell clusters were observed. (2) The cell growth curves were basically the same in each group, and the absorbance value increased gradually. The absorbance value of the adipocyte+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group was the highest, followed by the adipocyte+fibroblast coculture group and then the adipocyte+fibroblast coculture group. (3) Alizarin red staining showed negative reaction in each group on the 7th day, and a small number of red positive cells gradually appeared in each group as time went on. On the 28th day, red positive cells were found in all groups, and most of them were in the coculture group of adipose stem cells+vascular endothelial cells+fibroblasts, showing red focal. The coculture group of adipose stem cells+vascular endothelial cells and adipose stem cells+fibroblasts was less, and the adipose stem cell group was the least. On day 28 of alkaline phosphatase staining, cells in each group had red positive particles, and the adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group and adipose stem cell+fibroblast coculture group had the most, followed by the adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell coculture group and then the adipose stem cell group. (4) Bone morphogenetic protein 2 was expressed in all groups, especially in adipose stem cell+fibroblast coculture group and adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+ fibroblast coculture group. (5) Fibroblast could promote adipose stem cell osteogenic differentiation better than vascular endothelial cells, but the proliferation effect was not as good as vascular endothelial cells. The coculture system of fibroblast combined with vascular endothelial cells and adipose stem cells promoted the proliferation of adipose stem cells and the rapid and efficient differentiation of adipose stem cells into osteoblasts.

JCI Insight ◽  
2022 ◽  
Di Chen ◽  
Elizabeth D. Hughes ◽  
Thomas L. Saunders ◽  
Jiangping Wu ◽  
Magda N. Hernández Vásquez ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lei Shen ◽  
Kaige Zhou ◽  
Hong Liu ◽  
Jie Yang ◽  
Shuqi Huang ◽  

Objective: The vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is among the leading cause of ischemic stroke. High wall shear stress (WSS) promotes the instability of atherosclerotic plaques by directly imparting mechanical stimuli, but the specific mechanisms remain unclear. We speculate that modulation of mechanosensitive genes may play a vital role in accelerating the development of plaques. The purpose of this study was to find mechanosensitive genes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) through combining microarray data with bioinformatics technology and further explore the underlying dynamics–related mechanisms that cause the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques.Methods: Microarray data sets for human vascular ECs under high and normal WSS were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified through the R language. The performance of enrichment analysis and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network presented the biological function and signaling pathways of the DEGs. Hub genes were identified based on the PPI network and validated by GEO data sets. Predicted transcription factor (TF) genes and miRNAs interaction with potential mechanosensitive genes were identified by NetworkAnalyst.Results: A total of 260 DEGs, 121 upregulated and 139 downregulated genes, were screened between high and normal WSS from GSE23289. A total of 10 hub genes and four cluster modules were filtered out based on the PPI network. The enrichment analysis showed that the biological functions of the hub genes were mainly involved in responses to unfolded protein and topologically incorrect protein, and t to endoplasmic reticulum stress. The significant pathways associated with the hub genes were those of protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, antigen processing, and presentation. Three out of the 10 hub genes, namely, activated transcription factor 3 (ATF3), heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 6 (HSPA6), and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1, also known as CL100, HVH1, MKP-1, PTPN10), were verified in GSE13712. The expression of DUSP1 was higher in the senescent cell under high WSS than that of the young cell. The TF–miRNA–mechanosensitive gene coregulatory network was constructed.Conclusion: In this work, we identified three hub genes, ATF3, HSPA6, and DUSP1, as the potential mechanosensitive genes in the human blood vessels. DUSP1 was confirmed to be associated with the senescence of vascular ECs. Therefore, these three mechanosensitive genes may have emerged as potential novel targets for the prediction and prevention of ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the TF–miRNA–mechanosensitive genes coregulatory network reveals an underlying regulatory mechanism and the pathways to control disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Daniel G. Sadler ◽  
Jonathan Barlow ◽  
Richard Draijer ◽  
Helen Jones ◽  
Dick H. J. Thijssen ◽  

Introduction. Vascular endothelial dysfunction is characterised by lowered nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, which may be explained by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered cell signalling. (-)-Epicatechin (EPI) has proven effective in the context of vascular endothelial dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms associated with EPI’s effects remain unclear. Objective(s). Our aim was to investigate whether EPI impacts reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production and mitochondrial function of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). We hypothesised that EPI would attenuate ROS production, increase NO bioavailability, and enhance indices of mitochondrial function. Methods. HUVECs were treated with EPI (0-20 μM) for up to 48 h. Mitochondrial and cellular ROS were measured in the absence and presence of antimycin A (AA), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport protein complex III, favouring ROS production. Genes associated with mitochondrial remodelling and the antioxidant response were quantified by RT-qPCR. Mitochondrial bioenergetics were assessed by respirometry and signalling responses determined by western blotting. Results. Mitochondrial superoxide production without AA was increased 32% and decreased 53% after 5 and 10 μM EPI treatment vs. CTRL ( P < 0.001 ). With AA, only 10 μM EPI increased mitochondrial superoxide production vs. CTRL (25%, P < 0.001 ). NO bioavailability was increased by 45% with 10 μM EPI vs. CTRL ( P = 0.010 ). However, EPI did not impact mitochondrial respiration. NRF2 mRNA expression was increased 1.5- and 1.6-fold with 5 and 10 μM EPI over 48 h vs. CTRL ( P = 0.015 and P = 0.001 , respectively). Finally, EPI transiently enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (2.9 and 3.2-fold over 15 min and 1 h vs. 0 h, respectively; P = 0.035 and P = 0.011 ). Conclusion(s). EPI dose-dependently alters RONS production of HUVECs but does not impact mitochondrial respiration. The induction of NRF2 mRNA expression with EPI might relate to enhanced ERK1/2 signalling, rather than RONS production. In humans, EPI may improve vascular endothelial dysfunction via alteration of RONS and activation of cell signalling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Haoyu Wu ◽  
Yuanming Xing ◽  
Yulan Ye ◽  
Fangzhou He ◽  

AbstractEndothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plasticity are critically involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and arterial stiffness. MicroRNAs can mediate the cellular communication between vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and neighboring cells. Here, we investigated the role of endothelial-derived extracellular microRNA-92a (miR-92a) in promoting arterial stiffness by regulating EC–VSMC communication. Serum miR-92a level was higher in hypertensive patients than controls. Circulating miR-92a level was positively correlated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) level, but inversely with serum nitric oxide (NO) level. In vitro, angiotensin II (Ang II)-increased miR-92a level in ECs mediated a contractile-to-synthetic phenotype change of co-cultured VSMCs. In Ang II-infused mice, locked nucleic acid-modified antisense miR-92a (LNA-miR-92a) ameliorated PWV, SBP, DBP, and impaired vasodilation induced by Ang II. LNA-miR-92a administration also reversed the increased levels of proliferative genes and decreased levels of contractile genes induced by Ang II in mouse aortas. Circulating serum miR-92a level and PWV were correlated in these mice. These findings indicate that EC miR-92a may be transported to VSMCs via extracellular vesicles to regulate phenotype changes of VSMCs, leading to arterial stiffness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Qingyu Meng ◽  
Xichun Li ◽  
Mingyu Zhao ◽  
Shusen Lin ◽  
Xiangwen Yu ◽  

This study aimed to explore the role of clusterin released by platelet aggregation in restenosis after carotid endarterectomy. 35 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy due to carotid artery stenosis were enrolled in this study. They were admitted to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University from January 2018 to January 2019. All the patients were divided into two groups: the restenosis group and the nonrestenosis group, according to the follow-up results within 12 months. Peripheral blood was collected on the first day, 6 months, and 12 months after operation. The expression of CLU in serum of plasma and platelet culture medium was detected by an ELISA experiment. The vascular endothelial cells were cultured in vitro with 100 ng/mL of human recombinant CLU added to the medium. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected by CCK8, scratch, and Transwell invasion tests. The expression level of TLR3 and NF-κb p65 proteins in cells was detected by western blot. TLR3 knockout plasmids in vascular endothelial cell lines were transfected. Cell proliferation and migration were detected by CCK8 and the scratch assay. The CLU content in peripheral blood plasma and supernatant of platelet culture medium was significantly higher in the restenosis group than that of the control group ( p = 0.003 ) 6 months after operation ( p = 0.047 ) and 12 months after operation ( p = 0.011 ). When CLU was added to vascular endothelial cell culture medium, the proliferation and migration were significantly enhanced. The TLR3/NF-κb p65 protein expression level in cells also significantly increased. After the transfection of TLR3 knockout plasmids into vascular endothelial cell lines, CLU cannot promote the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Platelet-released clusterin can induce vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration by activating the TLR3/NF-kb p65 signaling pathway, leading to carotid artery restenosis after carotid endarterectomy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 308
Monika Pazgan-Simon ◽  
Sylwia Serafińska ◽  
Michał Kukla ◽  
Marta Kucharska ◽  
Jolanta Zuwała-Jagiełło ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 shows a high affinity for the ACE-2 receptor, present on the epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract, within the intestine, kidneys, heart, testes, biliary epithelium, and—where it is particularly challenging—on vascular endothelial cells. Liver involvement is a rare manifestation of COVID-19. Material and Methods: We reviewed 450 patients admitted due to the fact of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) including 88 with liver injury. Based on medical history and previous laboratory test results, we excluded cases of underlying liver disease. The analysis involved a clinical course of COVID-19 in patients without underlying liver disease as well as the type and course of liver injury. Results: Signs and symptoms of liver injury were present in 20% of patients, mostly presenting as a mixed-type pattern of injury with less common cases of standalone hepatocellular (parenchymal) or cholestatic injury. The liver injury symptoms resolved at the end of inpatient treatment in 20% of cases. Sixteen patients died with no cases where liver injury would be deemed a cause of death. Conclusions: (1) Liver injury secondary to COVID-19 was mild, and in in 20%, the signs and symptoms of liver injury resolved by the end of hospitalization. (2) It seems that liver injury in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with a higher risk of mortality. (3) The underlying mechanism of liver injury as well as its sequelae are not fully known. Therefore, caution and further monitoring are advised, especially in patients whose liver function tests have not returned to normal values.

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