age and gender
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 255-260
Nadya Meta Harlinda ◽  
Bahar Khusni ◽  
Reido Dafa Annafis ◽  
Rayhan Muhammad Basyarahil ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2), an outbreak in the world in 2019 until now. High cholesterol levels correlate with increasing disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection because there is a surge of cases in Gianyar Regency, a district of Taro Village. This study aimed to examine the relationship between age and gender to cholesterol levels which are expected to become information for the people of Taro Village as a basis for health screening to prevent comorbid diseases that increase mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase awareness of the people of Taro Village to maintain health and implement a healthy lifestyle. Method: Capillary blood was taken and then checked for cholesterol levels using a standardized tool on 44 respondents. The cholesterol check was conducted in Gianyar Regency, precisely in Taro Village, Tegalalang District, and Bali. The data obtained will be analyzed using univariate analysis followed by bivariate analysis using the Spearman correlation test for variables of age and cholesterol levels. In contrast, for variables gender and cholesterol levels, the Mann-Whitney test is performed. Results: A total of 44 individual respondents in this study, the distribution of data, namely the age of the repondent is more in the 41-50 year age group, the number of female respondents is 33 or 75.0% of the total respondent, and 70.5% of the respondent or 31 have normal cholesterol levels. The results of the Spearman test on the variables of age and cholesterol levels obtained a P value>0, 05, and the results of the Mann Withney test on the variables gender and cholesterol levels obtained a P value>0, 05. Conclusion: Most taro villagers have normal cholesterol levels obtained as many as 31 people, or 70.5% of the total respondent. It may be influenced by the work factor of taro villagers who work a lot in the agriculture and plantation sectors. Based on the study results, there is also no significant relationship between age and gender with the cholesterol levels of Taro Villagers. However, high cholesterol levels were only found in females as many as five people.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 894
Aušrius Juozapavičius ◽  
Agnė Brilingaitė ◽  
Linas Bukauskas ◽  
Ricardo Gregorio Lugo

Password hygiene plays an essential part in securing systems protected with single-factor authentication. A significant fraction of security incidents happen due to weak or reused passwords. The reasons behind differences in security vulnerable behaviour between various user groups remains an active research topic. The paper aims to identify the impact of age and gender on password strength using a large password dataset. We recovered previously hashed passwords of 102,120 users from a leaked customer database of a car-sharing company. Although the measured effect size was small, males significantly had stronger passwords than females for all age groups. Males aged 26–45 were also significantly different from all other groups, and password complexity decreased with age for both genders equally. Overall, very weak password hygiene was observed, 72% of users based their password on a word or used a simple sequence of digits, and passwords of over 39% of users were found in word lists of previous leaks.

آية صبحي كفينة ◽  
مصطفى قسيم هيلات

The current study aimed to reveal the cyber-bullying (bully – victim) among university students in Jordan regarding specialization, GPA, birth order, age, and gender. To achieve the objectives of the study, the Cyber-bullying (bully – victim) scale, developed by (Al-Shennawi, 2014), was applied after verifying its psychometric properties. The study sample included 400 male and female students (105 males, 295 females) selected through a stratified random sampling in the academic year of 2019/ 2020. According to the bullying, the study results indicated that the Cyber-bullying level (bully) was low. The results also showed statistically significant differences in the overall degree of Cyber-bullying (bully) due to specialization in favor of Science Faculties and gender in favor of males. The results also indicated no statistically significant differences in the overall degree of Cyber-bullying (bully) due to GPA, birth order, and age. As for Cyber-bullying (the victim), the results showed that the level of the Cyber-bullying (the victim) was low. The results also indicated statistically significant differences in the overall degree of the Cyber-bullying (the victim) attributed to birth order in favor of the last son and gender in favor of males. The results also indicated no statistically significant differences in the overall degree of the Cyber-bullying (the victim) attributed GPA, specialization, and age. The study recommends more care and monitoring for males and their last son, according to their birth order, to protect them from cyberbullying

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 853-859
K. A. Zhbanov ◽  
A. A. Shchendrygina ◽  
E. A. Zheleznykh ◽  
E. V. Privalova ◽  
A. Y. Suvorov ◽  

Aim. To determine the median levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; endothelium-derived growth factor and the natural agonist of the ERBB3 and ERBB4 receptors) NRG-1 in healthy volunteers and to study the associations of NRG-1 levels with gender and age.Material and Methods. Ninety seven healthy participants were enrolled (median age of 44 [32-54], men 45 men [46.4%]). The following age groups were identified: 20-29 y.о. (n=20, men – 50.0%),  30-39  y.о.  (n=21,  men  –  52.4%),  40-49  y.о.  (n=22,  men  –  45.5%),  50-59  y.о. (n=22, men – 36.4%); 60-69 y.о. (n=12, men – 50.0%). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrolment, standard laboratory tests were performed, and NRG-1 levels were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA.Results. In the cohort of 97 healthy participants the median value of NRG-1 was 0.3 [0.121-2.24] ng/ml. NRG-1 levels did not differ significantly between men and women (p=0.145), indicating that NRG-1 levels are not influenced by gender. The levels of NRG-1 were similar in the different age groups: age 20-29 years=0.26 [0.17-0.37] ng/ml; age 30-39=0.24 [0.1-0.39] ng/ml; age 40-49=0.31 [0.19-1.15] ng/ml; age 50-59=0.37  [0.19-1.0] ng/ml; age 60-69=0.4 [0.13-0.81] ng/ml. Correlation analysis between NRG-1 levels and route blood measurements (haemoglobin, lipids, glucose, creatinine, and uretic acid) did not show significant associations.Conclusions. In this study, the median value of NRG-1 plasma levels were determined. The results of the study show that age and gender had no influence on NRG-1 values.

Endocrines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-52
Eleni Karlafti ◽  
Triantafyllos Didangelos ◽  
Emmanouil Benioudakis ◽  
Evangelia Kotzakioulafi ◽  
Georgia Kaiafa ◽  

Moxonidine is a centrally acting, anti-hypertensive medication that exerts additional metabolic properties. It is unknown whether its effects are mediated by neurotransmitters or sympathetic tone regulators, including Neuropeptide Y (NPY). In this study, we evaluated the effects of moxonidine administration on serum NPY in humans. Methods: Ninety individuals with mild or moderate arterial hypertension that required monotherapy were categorized in three age and gender-matched groups according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) as normal weight (n = 30), overweight (n = 30), and obese (n = 30). Moxonidine was administered in therapeutic doses of up to 0.6 mg daily for 12 weeks, and clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were recorded. Results: In all three groups, a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate was shown. After treatment, BMI, 24 h urine catecholamines and catecholamines’ metabolites, and serum total cholesterol were also reduced. Most importantly, we found a decrease in serum NPY levels in all study groups, with the largest mean decrease in the group of obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight. Conclusions: Moxonidine administration results in improvement in cardio-metabolic parameters, as well as a decrease in serum NPY levels, which therefore represents it being a potent agent against obesity-associated hypertension. Its involvement in energy balance regulation warrants further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jun Shimizu ◽  
Yoshihisa Yamano ◽  
Kimito Kawahata ◽  
Noboru Suzuki

AbstractWe conducted retrospective cohort studies of patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) twice in 2009 and 2019, using a physician questionnaire. We compared the patients’ clinical statuses between the years. Age and gender were comparable between the two surveys. Mean disease duration was longer in 2019 survey (8.3 years) than that in 2009 survey (4.8 years, P < 0.001). The mortality rate declined in 2019 survey compared with those in 2009 survey (from 9.2 to 1.6%, P < 0.001). Incidence of airway involvement decreased in 2019 survey compared with that in 2009 survey (from 49 to 37%, P = 0.012). In 2019 survey, we found more frequent use of biological agents and immunosuppressants in patients with airway involvement. When we focused on RP patients with airway involvement, physicians in 2019 chose methotrexate and calcineurin inhibitors preferentially, compared with azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. Of note is that increased use of infliximab was observed in RP patients with airway involvement, but not in those without. Reduction of airway involvement and mortality in patients with RP was observed in 2019 survey. The reduction may associate with the frequent use of biologics including infliximab in RP patients with airway involvement.

Nguyen Van Vinh Chau ◽  
Lam Anh Nguyet ◽  
Nguyen Thanh Truong ◽  
Le Mau Toan ◽  
Nguyen Thanh Dung ◽  

We studied the immunogenicity of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine in health-care workers of a major infectious diseases hospital in Vietnam. We measured neutralizing antibodies before and 14 days after each dose, and at day 28 and month 3 after dose 1. A total of 554 workers (136 men and 418 women; age range, 22–71 years; median age, 36 years) participated with the study. Of the 144 participants selected for follow-up after dose 1, 104 and 94 gave blood for antibody measurement at weeks 6 and 8, and at month 3 after dose 1, respectively. The window time between the two doses was 6 weeks. At baseline, none had detectable neutralizing antibodies. After dose 1, the proportion of participants with detectable neutralizing antibodies increased from 27.3% (151 of 554) at day 14 to 78.0% (432 of 554) at day 28. Age correlated negatively with the development and the levels of neutralizing antibodies. However, at day 28, these differences were less profound, and women had a greater seroconversion rate and greater levels of neutralizing antibodies than men. After dose 2, these age and gender associations were not observable. In addition, the proportion of study participants with detectable neutralizing antibodies increased from 70.2% (73 of 104) before dose 2 (week 6, after dose 1) to 98.1% (102 of 104) 14 days later. At month 3, neutralizing antibodies decreased and 94.7% (89 of 94) of the study participants remained seropositive. The Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is immunogenic in Vietnamese health-care workers. These data are critical to informing the deployment of the COVID-19 vaccine in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia, where vaccination coverage remains inadequate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-38
Hamzullah Khan ◽  
Mohammad Basharat Khan ◽  
Shahtaj Khan ◽  
Saiqa Zahoor ◽  
Anwar Khan Wazir

OBJECTIVES:  To analyze the impact of age and gender on iron stores in a population of the Nowshera region. METHODOLOGY: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology Qazi Hussain Ahmed Medical Complex Nowshera from 1st January 2019 to 31st March 2020. All patients were selected by convenience sampling in the Pathology department irrespective of age and gender.   Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze data by the latest SPSS version 25.  RESULTS: Out of the total study population males were 70 (27.1%) and females 188 (77.9%) with median age 30 years.  The median ferritin level was 12.8 ng/ml. Out of total, 142 (55%) of cases were with serum ferritin less than 15ng/ml. A significant (p=0.03) gender based median ferritin level difference was observed with 1.5 times more probability of low iron stores in females as compared to males (OR=1.5). No statistically significant difference in body iron stores exists in different age groups. CONCLUSION:  A significant difference was noted in the iron stores in gender groups and the probability of depleted/low iron stores was higher in female gender as compared to male gender in all age groups in our population.    

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Joseph Ollier ◽  
Marcia Nißen ◽  
Florian von Wangenheim

Background: Conversational agents (CAs) are a novel approach to delivering digital health interventions. In human interactions, terms of address often change depending on the context or relationship between interlocutors. In many languages, this encompasses T/V distinction—formal and informal forms of the second-person pronoun “You”—that conveys different levels of familiarity. Yet, few research articles have examined whether CAs' use of T/V distinction across language contexts affects users' evaluations of digital health applications.Methods: In an online experiment (N = 284), we manipulated a public health CA prototype to use either informal or formal T/V distinction forms in French (“tu” vs. “vous”) and German (“du” vs. “Sie”) language settings. A MANCOVA and post-hoc tests were performed to examine the effects of the independent variables (i.e., T/V distinction and Language) and the moderating role of users' demographic profile (i.e., Age and Gender) on eleven user evaluation variables. These were related to four themes: (i) Sociability, (ii) CA-User Collaboration, (iii) Service Evaluation, and (iv) Behavioral Intentions.Results: Results showed a four-way interaction between T/V Distinction, Language, Age, and Gender, influencing user evaluations across all outcome themes. For French speakers, when the informal “T form” (“Tu”) was used, higher user evaluation scores were generated for younger women and older men (e.g., the CA felt more humanlike or individuals were more likely to recommend the CA), whereas when the formal “V form” (“Vous”) was used, higher user evaluation scores were generated for younger men and older women. For German speakers, when the informal T form (“Du”) was used, younger users' evaluations were comparable regardless of Gender, however, as individuals' Age increased, the use of “Du” resulted in lower user evaluation scores, with this effect more pronounced in men. When using the formal V form (“Sie”), user evaluation scores were relatively stable, regardless of Gender, and only increasing slightly with Age.Conclusions: Results highlight how user CA evaluations vary based on the T/V distinction used and language setting, however, that even within a culturally homogenous language group, evaluations vary based on user demographics, thus highlighting the importance of personalizing CA language.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Andi Muh Rahul Alfaidin ◽  
Viskasari P Kalanjati ◽  
Mudjiani Basuki

Highlight:1. Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) can have both autoimmune and non-autoimmune comorbidities.2. MG patients were predominantly aged >50 years, females and the commonest comorbidity are hypertension and diabetes mellitus.3. Age and comorbidities were found to have significant correlation among these patients, but not between gender and comorbidities.Abstract:Background:  There are limited studies on the comorbidities of myasthenic crisis (MC) associated with age and gender, specifically from Indonesia. These data might be valuable for treatment to improve the outcome of these patients. Objective: To analyze the correlation between age and gender with the comorbidities amongst the MC patients admitted in the ICU of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2017-2019. Materials and methods:  A retrospective cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 25 medical records of MC patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion study criteria. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were done to determine the potential correlation between variables (significant level of p<0.05). Results: The age of MC patients was £50 years (80%) and >50 years (20%) while the gender predominantly found were females (68%) with 32% males. A significant correlation was found between age and comorbidities (p=0.002) whilst not between gender and comorbidities (p=0.115). The most common comorbidities observed were hypertension (30%) and diabetes mellitus (20%). Conclusion: There were 40% of patients found with comorbidities. There was a significant association between age and comorbidities found amongst myasthenic crisis patients, whilst no significant association was found between gender and comorbidities.

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