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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
S. N. Yazid ◽  
K. Ahmad ◽  
M. S. F. A. Razak ◽  
Z. A. Rahman ◽  
K. Ramachandran ◽  

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Zahirul A. Talukder ◽  
Vignesh Muthusamy ◽  
Rashmi Chhabra ◽  
Nisrita Gain ◽  
Shashidhar B. Reddappa ◽  

AbstractWaxy maize rich in amylopectin has emerged as a preferred food. However, waxy maize is poor in lysine and tryptophan, deficiency of which cause severe health problems. So far, no waxy hybrid with high lysine and tryptophan has been developed and commercialized. Here, we combined recessive waxy1 (wx1) and opaque2 (o2) genes in the parental lines of four popular hybrids (HQPM1, HQPM4, HQPM5, and HQPM7) using genomics-assisted breeding. The gene-based markers, wx-2507F/RG and phi057 specific for wx1 and o2, respectively were successfully used to genotype BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC2F2 populations. Background selection with > 100 SSRs resulted in recovering > 94% of the recurrent parent genome. The reconstituted hybrids showed 1.4-fold increase in amylopectin (mean: 98.84%) compared to the original hybrids (mean: 72.45%). The reconstituted hybrids also showed 14.3% and 14.6% increase in lysine (mean: 0.384%) and tryptophan (mean: 0.102%), respectively over the original hybrids (lysine: 0.336%, tryptophan: 0.089%). Reconstituted hybrids also possessed similar grain yield (mean: 6248 kg/ha) with their original versions (mean: 6111 kg/ha). The waxy hybrids with high lysine and tryptophan assume great significance in alleviating malnutrition through sustainable and cost-effective means. This is the first report of development of lysine and tryptophan rich waxy hybrids using genomics-assisted selection.

P. Papan ◽  
W. Chueakhunthod ◽  
W. Jinagool ◽  
A. Tharapreuksapong ◽  
A. Masari ◽  

Abstract The development of resistant mungbean varieties is one of the most efficient strategies to control major diseases such as Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and powdery mildew (PM). The objectives of this study were to pyramid a CLS resistance gene and two PM resistance genes from the donor parent D2 into a susceptible variety KING through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) and to evaluate their agronomic traits and disease resistance under field conditions. Five markers linked to the resistance genes were used for foreground selection, while two marker sets [Set A containing 15 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) and expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers and Set B containing 34 polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) loci] were also used for background selection. Two pyramided backcross (BC) lines, namely H3 and H4, were homozygous at all five marker loci when confirmed in BC4F4 and BC4F5 generations. Their recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery ranged from 96.4 to 100.0%, depending on the marker sets. During field evaluation, a moderate to high level of CLS and PM resistance was observed in both BC lines compared to the susceptible recurrent parent KING. One of these BC lines (H3) had all agronomic traits similar or superior to the recurrent parent KING at all environments, and had a higher yield than KING (18.0–32.0%) under CLS and PM outbreaks. This line can be developed into a new resistant mungbean variety in Thailand in the future. These results substantiate the usefulness of MABC for transferring multiple resistance genes into an elite variety.

Plant Methods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Charlotte Rambla ◽  
Sarah Van Der Meer ◽  
Kai P. Voss-Fels ◽  
Manar Makhoul ◽  
Christian Obermeier ◽  

Abstract Background The incorporation of root traits into elite germplasm is typically a slow process. Thus, innovative approaches are required to accelerate research and pre-breeding programs targeting root traits to improve yield stability in different environments and soil types. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) can help to speed up the process by selecting key genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with root traits. However, this approach is limited due to the complex genetic control of root traits and the limited number of well-characterised large effect QTL. Coupling MAS with phenotyping could increase the reliability of selection. Here we present a useful framework to rapidly modify root traits in elite germplasm. In this wheat exemplar, a single plant selection (SPS) approach combined three main elements: phenotypic selection (in this case for seminal root angle); MAS using KASP markers (targeting a root biomass QTL); and speed breeding to accelerate each cycle. Results To develop a SPS approach that integrates non-destructive screening for seminal root angle and root biomass, two initial experiments were conducted. Firstly, we demonstrated that transplanting wheat seedlings from clear pots (for seminal root angle assessment) into sand pots (for root biomass assessment) did not impact the ability to differentiate genotypes with high and low root biomass. Secondly, we demonstrated that visual scores for root biomass were correlated with root dry weight (r = 0.72), indicating that single plants could be evaluated for root biomass in a non-destructive manner. To highlight the potential of the approach, we applied SPS in a backcrossing program which integrated MAS and speed breeding for the purpose of rapidly modifying the root system of elite bread wheat line Borlaug100. Bi-directional selection for root angle in segregating generations successfully shifted the mean root angle by 30° in the subsequent generation (P ≤ 0.05). Within 18 months, BC2F4:F5 introgression lines were developed that displayed a full range of root configurations, while retaining similar above-ground traits to the recurrent parent. Notably, the seminal root angle displayed by introgression lines varied more than 30° compared to the recurrent parent, resulting in lines with both narrow and wide root angles, and high and low root biomass phenotypes. Conclusion The SPS approach enables researchers and plant breeders to rapidly manipulate root traits of future crop varieties, which could help improve productivity in the face of increasing environmental fluctuations. The newly developed elite wheat lines with modified root traits provide valuable materials to study the value of different root systems to support yield in different environments and soil types.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 147-160
V. Gupta ◽  
M. Kumar ◽  
V. Singh ◽  
R.N. Sheokand ◽  

Aim: To screen wheat populations derived from cross DBW17 × WH1105 for loci imparting yellow rust resistance and selection of plants using polymorphic SSRs. Methodology: The study for yellow rust resistance was carried out on two populations, i.e., BC1F2 and BC2F2. Stress was provided by planting infector rows between the blocks and by artificial inoculation using a mixture of races 46S102, 47S103 and 78S84 of stripe rust pathogen. DNA isolated from young leaves was checked for the presence of yellow rust resistance genes using gene specific primers. Results: Fifteen primers were found to be polymorphic among parents DBW17 and WH1105. Fifteen polymorphic SSR markers were dispersed over the wheat genome (AABBDD), with allele range 2-5. These polymorphic SSR markers were used to produce molecular diversity among progeny lines. Cluster analysis of parents and both the populations, showed that two parents were diverse genetically and in both backcrosses progeny lines resembled their respective recurrent parent. Single marker analysis using data revealed that primers on nine chromosomes were associated with grain yield per plant, other yield attributes and yellow rust resistance in both populations. Interpretation: This study showed that a linked marker like Xgwm582 could be a promising tool for breeding wheat with enhanced tolerance to yellow rust resistance. However, growth rates and biomass production provide reliable criteria for assessing the degree of yellow rust resistance and the ability of a plant to withstand it.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Motonori Tomita ◽  
Ryotaro Tokuyama ◽  
Shosuke Matsumoto ◽  
Kazuo Ishii

We identified the key genes controlling the late maturation of the Japonica cultivar Isehikari, which was found at Ise Jingu Shrine and matures 6 days later than Koshihikari. We conducted a genetics-based approach through this study. First, the latest mature plants, which flowered later than Isehikari, were segregated in the F2 and F3 generations of Koshihikari×Isehikari. Next, the linkage relationship of a single late-maturing gene with the SSR markers on the long arm of chromosome 3 was inferred by using late-maturing homozygous F2 segregants. Moreover, genetic analyses of late maturity were conducted through the process of six times of continuous backcross with Koshihikari as a recurrent parent by using the late-maturing homozygous F3 line as a nonrecurrent parent, thus developing a late-maturing isogenic Koshihikari (BC6F2). As a result, we elucidated a single late-maturing gene with incomplete dominance that caused the 14-day maturation delay of Koshihikari. The whole-genome sequencing was conducted on both of Koshihikari and the late-maturing isogenic Koshihikari. Then, the SNP call was conducted as the reference genome of Koshihikari. Finally, a single SNP was identified in the key gene Hd16 of the late-maturing isogenic Koshihikari.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiangna Liu ◽  
Teame Gereziher Mehari Mehari ◽  
Yanchao Xu ◽  
Muhammud Jaward Umer ◽  
Yuqing Hou ◽  

Drought and low-temperature stresses are the most prominent abiotic stresses affecting cotton. Wild cotton being exposed to harsh environments has more potential to cope with both biotic and abiotic stresses. Exploiting wild cotton material to induce resistant germplasm would be of greater interest. The candidate gene was identified in the BC2F2 population among Gossypium tomentosum and Gossypium hirsutum as wild male donor parent noted for its drought tolerance and the recurrent parent and a high yielding but drought susceptible species by genotyping by sequencing (GBS) mapping. Golden2-like (GLK) gene, which belongs to the GARP family, is a kind of plant-specific transcription factor (TF) that was silenced by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Silencing of GhGLK1 in cotton results in more damage to plants under drought and cold stress as compared with wild type (WT). The overexpression of GhGLK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the overexpressing plants showed more adaptability than the WT after drought and cold treatments. The results of trypan blue and 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining showed that after drought and cold treatment, the leaf damage in GhGLK1 overexpressed plants was less as compared with the WT, and the ion permeability was also lower. This study suggested that the GhGLK1 gene may be involved in the regulation of drought and cold stress response in cotton. Our current research findings add significantly to the existing knowledge of cold and drought stress tolerance in cotton.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13365
Yong-Pei Wu ◽  
Shu-Mei Wang ◽  
Yu-Chi Chang ◽  
Chi Ho ◽  
Yu-Chia Hsu

Flash flooding is a major environmental stressor affecting rice production worldwide. DT3 is a drought-tolerant, recurrent parent with a good yield, edible quality, and agronomic traits akin to those of an elite Taiwanese variety, Taiken9 (TK9). Progenies carrying Sub1A can enhance submergence stress tolerance and can be selected using the marker-assisted backcross (MAB) breeding method. For foreground selection, Sub1A and SubAB1 were utilized as markers on the BC2F1, BC3F1, and BC3F2 generations to select the submergence-tolerant gene, Sub1A. Background selection was performed in the Sub1A-BC3F2 genotypes, and the percentages of recurrent parent recovery within individuals ranged from 84.7–99.55%. BC3F3 genotypes (N = 100) were evaluated for agronomic traits, yield, and eating quality. Four of the eleven BC3F4 lines showed good yield, yield component, grain, and eating quality. Four BC3F4 lines, SU39, SU40, SU89, and SU92, exhibited desirable agronomic traits, including grain quality and palatability, consistent with those of DT3. These genotypes displayed a high survival rate between 92 and 96%, much better compared with DT3 with 64%, and demonstrated better drought tolerance compared to IR64 and IR96321-345-240. This study provides an efficient and precise MAB strategy for developing climate-resilient rice varieties with good grain quality for flood-prone regions.

2021 ◽  
Gaoyang Qu ◽  
Yue Gao ◽  
Xian Wang ◽  
Wei Fu ◽  
Yunxia Sun ◽  

Abstract In Brassica rapa, flowering time (FT) is an important agronomic trait that affects the yield, quality, and adaption. FT a complicated trait that is regulated by many genes and is affected greatly by the environment. In this study, a chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL), CSSL16, was selected that showed later flowering than the recurrent parent, rapid-cycling inbred line of B. rapa (RcBr). Using Bulked Segregant RNA sequencing, we identified a late flowering quantitative trait locus (QTL), designated as qFT7.1, on chromosome A07 based on a secondary-F2 population derived from the cross between CSSL16 and RcBr. qFT7.1 was further validated by conventional QTL mapping. This QTL explained 39.9% (logarithm of odds = 32.2) of the phenotypic variations and was fine mapped to a 56.4-kb interval using recombinant analysis. Expression analysis suggests that BraA07g018240.3C, which is homologous with ATC (encoding Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue), a gene for delayed flowering in Arabidopsis as the most promising candidate gene. Sequence analysis demonstrated that two synonymous mutations existed in the coding region and numerous bases replacements existed in promoter region between BraA07g018240.3C from CSSL16 and RcBr. The results will increase our knowledge related to the molecular mechanism of late flowering in B. rapa, and lay a solid foundation for the breeding of late bolting in B. rapa.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 260-266
Vaibhav D Misal ◽  
Sunaina S Davane ◽  
Shrikant B Mane

Guizotia abyssinica (L.F.) Cass. is one of the important oilseed crops cultivated in India. The seed of the plant is used by the tribal and rural people of our country as a source of edible oil. The present investigation of the Niger plant deals with the study of the back cross-program and improvement in the variety. Unknown local variety (A) of niger was selected as a non-recurrent parent because of having some desirable characters like less vegetative growth (dwarf), resistance to waterlogged condition, and large seed grains while IGP-76 variety (B) was selected as a recurrent parent and used as a female having characters like small black grains, resistant to leaf-eating cater Piller and powdery mildew result shows successfully transfer of the characters in the F1 generation. The average number of capitulum/plant shows very good and positive results in F1 as well as BC1 generation. As compared to the recurrent parent (B) an average number of capitulum per plant was increased in F1 generation by 14.28% and in BC1 generation by 28.5%. The table indicates that there is incensement in the average number of seeds per capitulum. The average number of seeds per capitulum was increased by 8.3% in the F1 generation and by 11.11 % in the BC1 generation as compared to the recurrent parent. Average weights of 1000 seeds were also increased in F1 generation by 31.78% and in BC1 generation by 47.28% along with the total yield per plant.

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