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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-49 ◽  
Dairai Darlington Dziwa ◽  
Louise Postma ◽  
Louisemarié Combrink

Zimbabwe is a patriarchal society characterized by gender dichotomy and male domination that permeates through social, educational and domestic spheres resulting in numerous challenges for art teacher education students. Expanding critical consciousness within art teacher education programmes is an imperative step towards developing art teachers who are self-aware and reflexive concerning the intersections of gender, art and education. This study investigated how engagement with visual art can provoke a heightened critical awareness about gender bias, stereotyping and equity among Zimbabwean art teacher education students. Sixteen selected art teacher education students (eight males and females) at the Great Zimbabwe University participated in the study. Participants were guided by researcher-constructed prompts for purposes of image making, interpretation and dialogue. Visual discourse analysis of the students’ visual narratives and discourse analysis of focus group transcriptions revealed several themes as well as evidence of critical reflection and expanded critical awareness related to gender issues. Visual and dialogic methods offer promise for critical engagement and reconciliation of tensions surrounding issues of gender amongst art teacher education candidates.

2121 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-74
Tahmineh Kamalian ◽  
Hassan Mirzahosseini ◽  
Nader Monirpoor ◽  

Background: Emotional Divorce (ED) is associated with decreased levels of Emotion Regulation (ER), adaptation, and mental health; subsequently, all such pressures raise stress in various dimensions among the affected individuals. Emotional Schema Therapy (EST), as a socio-cognitive model of ER, may improve marital intimacy and reduce couples’ psychological distress. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of EST and differentiation training on the odds of ED among women. Methods: The mean values of ED significantly decreased in both experimental groups, compared to the control group (P<0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the effects of the two interventions on decreasing the ED rate; thus, the effectiveness of EST was greater than that of differentiation training in this respect (P<0.05). Results: The mean values of ED significantly decreased in both experimental groups, compared to the control group (P<0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the effects of the two interventions on decreasing the ED rate; thus, the effectiveness of EST was greater than that of differentiation training in this respect (P<0.05). Conclusion: EST and differentiation training reduced ED among the study participants. These approaches can be adopted as an effective intervention to solve the couples’ problems and improve their marital relationship to reduce the odds of emotional divorce.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yanga Simamkele Diniso ◽  
Leocadia Zhou ◽  
Ishmael Festus Jaja

Purpose This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of dairy farmers about climate change in dairy farms in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted following a cross-sectional research design (Bryman, 2012). The study was conducted mainly on dairy farms located on the south-eastern part of the Eastern Cape province in five districts out of the province’s six districts (Figure 1). These districts include Amathole, Chris Hani, OR Tambo and Cacadu; these regions were not included in a recent surveying study (Galloway et al., 2018). Findings In all, 71.7% of dairy farm workers heard about climate change from the television, and 60.4% of participants reported that they gathered information from radio. Eighty-two out of 106 (77.4%) correctly indicated that climate change is a significant long-term change in expected weather patterns over time, and almost 10% of the study participants had no clue about climate change. Approximately 63% of the respondents incorrectly referred to climate change as a mere hotness or coldness of the day, whereas the remainder of participants correctly refuted that definition of climate change. Most of the study participants correctly mentioned that climate change has an influence on dairy production (92.5%), it limits the dairy cows’ productivity (69.8%) and that dry matter intake of dairy cows is reduced under higher temperatures (75.5%). Research limitations/implications The use of questionnaire to gather data limits the study, as respondents relied on recall information. Also, the sample size and study area limits use of the study as an inference for the excluded parts of the Eastern Cape Province. Also, it focused only on dairy farm workers and did not request information from beef farmers. Practical implications This study imply that farmers without adequate knowledge of the impact of climate change keep complaining of a poor yield/ animal productivity and changing pattern of livestock diseases. Hence, a study such as the present one helps to bridge that gap and provide relevant governing authority the needed evidence for policy changes and intervention. Social implications Farmers will begin to get help from the government regarding climate change. Originality/value This a first study in South Africa seeking to document the knowledge of dairy farm workers about climate change and its impacts on productivity.

2022 ◽  
Brinkley M. Sharpe ◽  
Courtland Hyatt ◽  
Donald Lynam ◽  
Josh Miller

Insults convey information about the speaker’s perception of the target’s personality. Previous research has found that several commonly used insults (“asshole,” “dick,” “bitch”) are uniformly associated with self- and other-reported antagonism (or low Agreeableness). We aimed to replicate and extend these findings by focusing on the insult “asshole,” a common insult used to refer to both men and women. In the present study, participants (n = 397) described the “biggest assholes” in their lives using a measure of the Five-Factor Model of personality. “Assholes” described by participants were typically middle-aged, predominantly male, and included romantic partners, coworkers, bosses, family members, and friends. Results showed that “assholes” were perceived to be characterized by interpersonally relevant traits (i.e., low Agreeableness, high Anger). The consensus Five Factor Model profile for target “assholes” was similar to expert profiles of psychopathic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Exploratory analyses conducted on open-ended descriptions of nominated bothersome “asshole-related” behaviors revealed common themes including manipulation, aggression, irresponsibility, and entitlement.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Lersi D. Durán ◽  
Ana Margarida Almeida ◽  
Ana Cristina Lopes ◽  
Margarida Figueiredo-Braga

Digital interventions are important tools to promote mental health literacy among university students. “Depression in Portuguese University Students” (Depressão em Estudantes Universitários Portugueses, DEEP) is an audiovisual intervention describing how symptoms can be identified and what possible treatments can be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this intervention. A random sample of 98 students, aged 20–38 years old, participated in a 12-week study. Participants were recruited through social media by the academic services and institutional emails of two Portuguese universities. Participants were contacted and distributed into four study groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4): G1 received the DEEP intervention in audiovisual format; G2 was given the DEEP in text format; G3 received four news articles on depression; G4 was the control group. A questionnaire was shared to collect socio-demographic and depression knowledge data as a pre-intervention method; content was then distributed to each group following a set schedule; the depression knowledge questionnaire was then administered to compare pre-intervention, post-intervention and follow-up literacy levels. Using the Scheffé and Least Significant Difference (LSD) multiple comparisons test, it was found that G1, which received the DEEP audiovisual intervention, differed significantly from the other groups, with higher depression knowledge scores in post-intervention stages. The DEEP audiovisual intervention, compared to the other formats used (narrative text format; news format), proved to be an effective tool for increasing depression knowledge in university students.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 284-290
Kranti Tekulapally

Medical and Dental students are exposed to online classes for the first time during the COVID pandemic. The current study was planned to understand their perceptions about these online classes in contrast to classroom teaching and suggest strategies to improve them.A cross-sectional study was carried out among all the students of Malla Reddy Medical College for Women and Malla Reddy Dental College for Women during September 2020. The study questionnaire containing 20 questions was prepared, prevalidated and distributed to all the study participants as google form. Data from completed questionnaires was entered into an excel sheet and analyzed using descriptive statistics.Analysis of data from 279 students revealed that the 69% of the students used smartphones to attend online classes, 96% of them reported having internet problems and 42% of the students enjoyed the online classes. Understanding of the topic and knowledge gained during online classes were rated average and above average by 59% and 53% of the students respectively. Many students felt that long screen hours have made the classes less interesting and caused health issues like headaches, eyestrain, and backache. They also felt that online classes were less interactive and did not provide much clinical and practical knowledge.Students showed a negative response to online classes. There is a need to make online classes more interactive and interesting by using certain strategies like problem-solving activities, quizzes, discussions, surveys, and polls. Faculty should be trained in good online teaching practices to ensure its success.

Julie Von Behren ◽  
Michelle Wong ◽  
Daniela Morales ◽  
Peggy Reynolds ◽  
Paul B. English ◽  

After the devastating wildfire that destroyed most of the town of Paradise, California in 2018, volatile organic compounds were found in water distribution pipes. Approximately 11 months after the fire, we collected tap water samples from 136 homes that were still standing and tested for over 100 chemicals. Each participant received a customized report showing the laboratory findings from their sample. Our goal was to communicate individual water results and chemical information rapidly in a way that was understandable, scientifically accurate, and useful to participants. On the basis of this process, we developed a framework to illustrate considerations and priorities that draw from best practices of previous environmental results return research and crisis communication, while also addressing challenges specific to the disaster context. We also conducted a follow-up survey on participants’ perceptions of the results return process. In general, participants found the results return communications to be understandable, and they felt less worried about their drinking water quality after receiving the information. Over one-third of the participants reported taking some kind of action around their water usage habits after receiving their results. Communication with participants is a critical element of environmental disaster research, and it is important to have a strategy to communicate results that achieves the goals of timeliness, clarity, and scientific accuracy, ultimately empowering people toward actions that can reduce exposure.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262651
Natálie Cibulková ◽  
Klára Daďová ◽  
Kateřina Mašková ◽  
Andrew Busch ◽  
Alena Kobesová ◽  

This study aimed to analyze the changes in postural stability of individuals with obesity after bariatric surgery, and the effect of three months of regular exercise on the static postural stability. Twenty-two subjects (7 females and 15 males) aged 31 to 68 years (Body mass index 35–55 kg.m-2) completed the study. Participants were divided into two groups: one group participated in an exercise program after the bariatric surgery (n = 10; age 48.9 ± 7.5 years; Body mass index 42 ± 5.6 kg.m-2) while the second group did not exercise at all after bariatric surgery (n = 12; age 44.7 ± 13.6 years, Body mass index 42.6 ± 6.0 kg.m-2). Static postural stability was measured using a Tekscan MobileMat pressure plate before and 4 months after the bariatric surgery. The exercise program included exercising three times a week including: one hour of strengthening, one hour of aerobic group exercise and at least one session of individual exercise at home. There were no significant differences in Center of force sway, Center of force ranges and average speed before and 4 months after bariatric surgery. Also, no effect of exercise was found. Post-pre differences of some parameters were negatively related to age (r from—0.46 to—0.72). Further studies are needed to explore this topic in depth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Sarah Alonzi ◽  
Thomas J. Caruso ◽  
Sayantani B. Sindher ◽  
Shu Cao ◽  
Sara Varadharajulu ◽  

Phlebotomy procedures required in food allergy (FA) diagnosis and clinical trials often induce fear and anxiety for pediatric patients. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether virtual reality (VR) applications were effective in reducing anxiety for pediatric FA patients undergoing phlebotomy during FA clinical trials. Secondary aims assessed fear, pain, procedural compliance, and adverse events. Participants undergoing phlebotomy were enrolled and randomized to a VR group or standard of care (SOC) group for this prospective pilot randomized, pragmatic study. Participants in the VR group played interactive applications on a customized Samsung Gear VR headset and those in the SOC group received the standard of care. Participants' anxiety, fear, and pain were assessed with the Children's Anxiety Meter, Children's Fear Scale, and FACES pain scale pre, during, and post phlebotomy procedure. Compliance was assessed using the modified Induction Compliance Checklist during the procedure and compared between two groups. Forty-nine participants were randomized to VR (n = 26) and SOC (n = 23) groups. Although both the VR and SOC groups experienced a decrease in anxiety and fear from pre- to post-procedure, those in the VR group experienced less anxiety and fear during the procedure than SOC participants. Similarly, both groups experienced an increase in pain from pre- to post-procedure; however, the VR group reported less pain during the procedure than SOC. Fewer symptoms of procedural non-compliance were reported in the VR group. Interactive VR applications may be an effective tool for reducing fear, anxiety, and pain during phlebotomy for FA clinical trials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andreas Hinz ◽  
Michael Friedrich ◽  
Tobias Luck ◽  
Steffi G. Riedel-Heller ◽  
Anja Mehnert-Theuerkauf ◽  

Background: Multiple studies have shown that people who have experienced a serious health problem such as an injury tend to overrate the quality of health they had before that event. The main objective of this study was to test whether the phenomenon of respondents overrating their past health can also be observed in people from the general population. A second aim was to test whether habitual optimism is indeed focused on events in the future.Method: A representatively selected community sample from Leipzig, Germany (n = 2282, age range: 40–75 years) was examined. Respondents were asked to assess their current health, their past health (5 years before), and their expected future health (in 5 years) on a 0–100 scale. In addition, the study participants completed several questionnaires on specific aspects of physical and mental health.Results: Respondents of all age groups assessed their health as having been better in the past than it was at present. Moreover, they also assessed their earlier state of health more positively than people 5 years younger did their current state. Habitual optimism was associated with respondents having more positive expectations of how healthy they will be in 5 years time (r = 0.37), but the correlation with their assessments of their current health was nearly as high (r = 0.36).Conclusion: Highly positive scores of retrospectively assessed health among people who have experienced a health problem cannot totally be accounted for by a response to that health problem.

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