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2311-7524
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 534
Author(s):  
Zhijiang Wu ◽  
Haiyan Deng ◽  
Guidong Liang ◽  
Xiaoying Ye ◽  
Yonghua Qin ◽  
...  

Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is one of the most economic fleshy fruit tree crops. This study aimed at producing a high-density linkage genetic map of pitaya based on the whole genome resequencing (WGrS) approach. For this purpose, a bi-parental F1 population of 198 individuals was generated and genotyped by WGrS. High-quality polymorphic 6434 single polymorphism nucleotide (SNP) markers were extracted and used to construct a high-density linkage map. A total of 11 linkage groups were resolved as expected in accordance with the chromosome number. The map length was 14,128.7 cM with an average SNP interval of 2.2 cM. Homology with the sequenced reference genome was described, and the physical and genetic maps were compared with collinearity analysis. This linkage map in addition to the available genomic resources will help for quantitative trait mapping, evolutionary studies and marker-assisted selection in the important Hylocereus species.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 535
Author(s):  
Piyachat Sunanta ◽  
Tanachai Pankasemsuk ◽  
Kittisak Jantanasakulwong ◽  
Thanongsak Chaiyaso ◽  
Noppol Leksawasdi ◽  
...  

This research examined the changes of black garlic (BG) quality attributes when raw materials of different initial moisture contents (iMC) were used. Fresh garlic bulbs (cv. Thai) were shade-dried for eight weeks at a controlled condition at 29 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 55% to the desired iMC (ranging from ca. 50–70%). BG processing was at 75 °C, RH = 80% for ten days. After processing, physiological characteristics and chemical properties of garlic were determined. Results illustrated that fresh garlic with higher moisture content (ca. 70%) resulted in BG of a dark brown colour, sloppy texture, and lesser acidity (pH = 4.44), while samples with lower iMCs (<50%) gave products that were completely black, elastic in texture, and with higher acidity (pH = 3.79). The analysed bioactive compounds, as well as their antioxidative potentials, suggested that the longer the curing time, the higher the functional properties of the finished products, possessing a total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of 15.54 mg/kg dry matter sample, 1.53 mg/kg dry matter sample, and 95.39%, respectively. Principle component analysis (PCA) of active metabolites confirmed that sulfur, S-allyl-L-cysteine, and flavonoid were among the main phytochemicals found in the BG. In summary, higher quality BG can be achieved by using raw materials of lower iMC.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 532
Author(s):  
Endre Kentelky ◽  
Zsolt Szekely-Varga ◽  
János Bálint ◽  
Adalbert Balog

Ornamental plants are cultivated worldwide. Chrysanthemum is classified as one of the most important cut and potted flowers in most of the countries. The consumer’s expectation is to find small–compact, and full of inflorescences plants. To meet these demands, growers are tending to use plant growth retardants. Three Chrysanthemum indicum L. varieties (‘Smola White’, ‘Arber’ and ‘Vienna White’) were assessed by using four plant growth regulators (PP–Bumper 250 EC; CC–Stabilan SL; MP–Medax Top SC; and PD–Toprex SC). Results indicate that treated plants show significant decrease in the assessed parameters, although in some cases growth could be a variety–dependent factor. It can also be concluded that retardants inhibit chrysanthemum growth. PD treatments greatly inhibited the growth of the plant, and also had a negative effect on inflorescences. In conclusion, the present work strengthens the possibility of using retardants as plant growth inhibitors in Chrysanthemum cultivation.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 533
Author(s):  
Irina Mitrofanova ◽  
Nina Lesnikova-Sedoshenko ◽  
Valentina Tsiupka ◽  
Anatoliy Smykov ◽  
Olga Mitrofanova

Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is among the most demanded fruit crops in the world. Biotechnological methods help to originate new hybrid forms in order to increase the cultivar diversity and create new valuable genotypes. Cross combinations between the cultivars Clyde Wilson, Jerseyglo, Loadel, Summerglo and the promising cultivar ‘Nikitskiy Podarok’ have been done. The embryos of these hybrids germinated and formed plantlets after stratification at 4 °C for 45–60 days. The best regeneration rates in the hybrids ‘Loadel’ × ‘Nikitskiy Podarok’ and ‘Summerglo’ × ‘Nikitskiy Podarok’ (96.30% and 92.59%, respectively) were noted on hormone-free Monnier culture medium supplemented with 400.0 mg L−1 casein hydrolyzate. When the newly formed plantlets had necrosis of the shoot apex or immature roots, nodal shoot segments were used. At the same time, a high regeneration capacity was noted in the hybrids ‘Summerglo’ × ‘Nikitskiy Podarok’ and ‘Loadel’ × ‘Nikitskiy Podarok’ on B5 culture medium with 0.75 mg L−1 6–benzyl–aminopurine (BAP) + 0.1 mg L−1 indole–3–butyric acid (IBA). After the second subculture, the number of new adventitious shoots was 5.18 ± 0.18 and 4.95 ± 0.18 shoots per explant, respectively. The plants obtained from the hybrid embryos in a soil mixture soil: peat: sand (3:1:1) were adapted. The main morphological and anatomical features of the leaf blades in newly originated peach hybrids have been studied: the thickness of their tissues and the distribution of stomatal apparatus, as well as the physiological parameters of the photosystem II activity in regenerants cultured in vitro and during their in vivo acclimatization. The high capacity to post aseptic adaptation in the obtained hybrids has been shown.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 531
Author(s):  
Ifeoma Nwafor ◽  
Christopher Nwafor ◽  
Idah Manduna

Growing demand for therapeutic products from indigenous medicinal plants has led to increased interest in its cultivation, which presents a viable option for improving smallholder farmers’ livelihoods, as well as sustaining the availability of these resources for future generations. Serious bottlenecks however exist for subsistent farmers in the cultivation of these valuable plants. It was pertinent to probe whether the cultivation of medicinal plants provides feasible solutions to rural poverty, while effectively conserving threatened indigenous biodiversity. The paper employed a comprehensive review of existing literature to explore issues constraining smallholder farmers from involvement in a potentially lucrative plant value chain. Findings indicate challenges such as inadequate domestication of valuable plants species, continued over-harvesting from wild populations, poor knowledge of required agronomic practices, low efficacy perception regarding derivatives from cultivated plants, among others. These constraints occur alongside the conservation-oriented strategy driven by international conservation agencies and wholly adopted by the South African government. Recommendations to improve smallholder involvement in the cultivation of medicinal plants include support to research and extension, targeted inducement to smallholders, contracting and off-take agreements, aimed at promoting an alternative poverty-alleviation-focused economic development strategy. The review adds to the conceptual discourse related to plant diversity, resource conservation, poverty alleviation, and economic development


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 529
Author(s):  
Emmy Dhooghe ◽  
Dirk Reheul ◽  
Marie-Christine Van Labeke

Hybridization in flowering plants depends, in the first place, on the delivery of pollen to a receptive stigma and the subsequent growth of pollen tubes through the style to the ovary, where the sperm nucleus of the pollen grain can ultimately fertilize the egg cell. However, reproductive failure is often observed in distant crosses and is caused by pre- and/or post-zygotic barriers. In this study, the reproductive pre-fertilization barriers of intertribal crosses between Anemone coronaria L. and Ranunculus asiaticus L., both belonging to the Ranunculaceae, were investigated. Despite the incongruity of intertribal crosses between A. coronaria and R. asiaticus having been of low intensity at the stigmatic level, interstylar obstructions of the pollen tube growth occurred, which confirmed the presence of pre-fertilization barriers. We show that these barriers could be partially bypassed by combining pollination with a stigma treatment. More specifically, a significantly higher ratio of the pollen tube length to the total style length and a better seed set were observed when the stigma was treated with the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1 mg.mL−1) together with the cytokinin kinetin (KIN, 0.5 mg.mL−1) 24 h after pollination, irrespective of the cross direction. More specifically, the stigma treatments with any form of auxin (combined or not combined with cytokinin) resulted in a full seed set, assuming an apomictic fruit set, because no pollination was needed to obtain these seeds.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 527
Author(s):  
Beatriz Bielsa ◽  
Jorge Israel Ávila-Alonso ◽  
Ángel Fernández i Martí ◽  
Jérôme Grimplet ◽  
María José Rubio-Cabetas

Late spring frosts can become one of the limiting factors for the expansion of cultivation area towards a harsher climate for the almond [Prunus amygdalus Batsch syn P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] crop as spring frost can damage up to 90% of the harvest. In order to identify key genes favoring cold tolerance in almonds, branches from three late-blooming genotypes: ‘Guara’, ‘Soleta’ and ‘Belona’ were exposed at −4 °C during 24 h in a constant climate chamber. Phenotype analysis showed that ‘Guara’ and ‘Soleta’ had a greater acclimation capacity to cold than ‘Belona’. The qRT-PCR BioMark System technology was used to monitor the relative expression of 30 candidate genes with a potential relation to cold response, which are either involved in the ICE-CBF-COR pathway or the independent CBF pathway, and also genes not yet characterized or with unknown function in almond genome. Differences in the gene expression profiles were found among the three studied genotypes and the three time-points of cold exposure (0, 2 and 24 h). BBX20 and CLO genes behaved as differentiator genes between tolerant and susceptible genotypes in cold stress response in almond pistils. In addition, the differences of expression among the tolerant genotypes suggested the intervention of different mechanisms responding to cold stress in almonds.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 528
Author(s):  
Shiwei Zheng ◽  
Ting Bian ◽  
Shuang Wang ◽  
Xiaolan Zhang ◽  
Xiao Li ◽  
...  

There is insufficient information regarding the stoichiometric variation and coupling status of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the leaves of nutrient-enriched greenhouse agroecosystems with increasing planting time. Therefore, we assessed the variation in elemental stoichiometry ratios in soil and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves, and the coupling status of elemental utilization in the leaves under continuous cropping systems using natural (only soil; i.e., control soil, CO) and artificial (soil + straw + chicken + urea; i.e., straw mixture soil, ST) soil via monitoring studies for 11 years in a solar greenhouse. Soil organic C, total N, and total P concentrations increased by 63.4%, 72.7%, and 144.3% in the CO, respectively, after 11 years of cultivation (compared to the first year), and by 18.1%, 24.3%, and 117.7% in the ST under continuous cropping conditions, respectively. Total K concentrations remained unchanged in both soils. Moreover, the availability of these soil elements increased to different degrees in both soils after 11 years of planting. Additionally, the leaf P concentration increased by 9.8% in the CO, while leaf N and K concentrations did not change, suggesting decoupling of P utilization from that of N and K in leaves under a continuous cropping system. These findings suggest that imbalanced soil nutrients under continuous cropping conditions results in decoupling of P from N and K in the utilization of leaf nutrients.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 530
Author(s):  
Arturo Cocco ◽  
Luca Mercenaro ◽  
Enrico Muscas ◽  
Alessandra Mura ◽  
Giovanni Nieddu ◽  
...  

Nitrogen is a key macronutrient for the quantitative and qualitative yield of grapes; in addition, it influences the development and reproduction of grape pests. The multiple effects of different nitrogen rates were investigated on the red berry cultivar ‘Carignano’ and the grape pest Planococcus ficus in a two-year field trial. Different amounts of ammonium nitrate were compared: 0, 80 and 160 Units ha−1 for mineral nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen fertilization supplied influenced the nitrogen status of vines and increased the pruning weight and leaf area, as well as the overall grape yield, by increasing the cluster weight. However, doubling the nitrogen rate did not generally increase the vegetative and productive parameters of grapevines. At harvest, nitrogen supply did not influence the anthocyanin content, tritatable acidity, and soluble solids, although the latter parameter showed a clear, yet not significant, decreasing trend. Planococcus ficus exhibited higher fecundity, survival and shorter development time on grapevines provided with nitrogen, whereas its fertility was unaffected by nitrogen fertilization. Ultimately, nitrogen had a direct and positive effect on grape yield and vine mealybug development, highlighting the importance of integrated cultural and pest control practices to promote grape production.


Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 525
Author(s):  
Masaru Sakamoto ◽  
Yoshiki Komatsu ◽  
Takahiro Suzuki

In hydroponics, a continuous supply of mineral nutrients is essential for plant growth. However, constitutive nutrient-rich conditions also increase the nitrate content in the plants, which can be harmful to human health. Here, we investigated the effect of nutrient deficiency on the growth and component composition of hydroponic radish by changing the timing of nutrient removal from the hydroponic solution. Radish plants that were 14 days old were transferred to four different nutrient conditions for 14 days: nutrient deficiency for 14 days (WW), full nutrient for 14 days (NN), nutrient deficiency for the last 7 days (NW), and nutrient deficiency for the first 7 days (WN). After the treatments, the NW plants had similar taproot growth to NN plants. In contrast, the WN plants significantly reduced taproot growth. The WW plants reduced the shoot and taproot weight and their water contents. The nitrate content in the taproots was reduced in the NW and WW plants. The WW plants contained lower total phenol and higher ascorbic acid and sugar contents. These results suggest that the uptake of nutrient minerals at the young growth stage is important for the growth of radish taproot. Nutrient deficiency management can be one of the most effective tools for regulating radish growth and composition.


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