acid fermentation
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2022 ◽  
George D Metcalfe ◽  
Frank Sargent ◽  
Michael Hippler

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a facultative anaerobe that can grow in a variety of environmental conditions. In the complete absence of O2, E. coli can perform a mixed-acid fermentation that contains within it an elaborate metabolism of formic acid. In this study, we use cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (CERS), FTIR, liquid Raman spectroscopy, isotopic labelling, and molecular genetics to make advances in the understanding of bacterial formate and H2 metabolism. It is shown that, under anaerobic conditions, formic acid is generated endogenously, excreted briefly from the cell, and then taken up again to be disproportionated to H2 and CO2 by formate hydrogenlyase (FHL-1). However, exogenously added D-labelled formate behaves quite differently from the endogenous formate and is taken up immediately, independently, and possibly by a different mechanism, by the cell and converted to H2 and CO2. Our data support an anion-proton symport model for formic acid transport. In addition, when E. coli was grown in a microaerobic environment it was possible to analyse aspects of formate and O2 respiration occurring alongside anaerobic metabolism. While cells growing under microaerobic conditions generated endogenous formic acid, no H2 was produced. However, addition of exogenous formate at the outset of cell growth did induce FHL-1 biosynthesis and resulted in formate-dependent H2 production in the presence of O2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Nor Atikah Husna Ahmad Nasir ◽  
Nurul Syafiqah Mohd Yaminudin ◽  
Atikah Kamaludin ◽  
Sharir Aizat Kamaruddin ◽  
Siti Nurbalqis Aziman

For ages, pure sugars or edible crops have produced lactic acid. However, a major concern on lactic acid production lies in the cost of the raw materials used. Thus, an alternative to overcome this situation is urgently needed. Characterization of banana peels shows that it contains promising sugar that can be utilized for lactic acid production, which are xylose (0.774 g/L), glucose (0.756 g/L) and fructose (0.532 g/L). Thus, this study aims to screen the potential of banana peel as a substrate by using Rhizopus oryzae through batch fermentation for lactic acid production, as R. oryzae can synthesize lactic acid in low nutrient requirements. Two-level factorial analysis was designed to screen the effects of moisture content (60% and 80%), temperature (27 °C and 40 °C), pH (4.5 and 6.5) and inoculum size (1x104 spores/mL and 1x108 spores/g) on the lactic acid production. Based on the Two-level factorial (2LF) analysis, the highest lactic acid production of 0.0813 g/L was detected at 80 % moisture content, pH 4.5, the temperature of 27 °C and inoculum size of 1x104 spores/g. The findings show that most of the conditions have a significant difference between each other (p<0.05). Therefore, the fermentation of banana peels by R. oryzae could be a promising method to produce a lactic acid concentration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Magdalena Prochazkova ◽  
Eva Budinska ◽  
Marek Kuzma ◽  
Helena Pelantova ◽  
Jaromir Hradecky ◽  

Background and Aim: Plant-based diets are associated with potential health benefits, but the contribution of gut microbiota remains to be clarified. We aimed to identify differences in key features of microbiome composition and function with relevance to metabolic health in individuals adhering to a vegan vs. omnivore diet.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved lean, healthy vegans (n = 62) and omnivore (n = 33) subjects. We assessed their glucose and lipid metabolism and employed an integrated multi-omics approach (16S rRNA sequencing, metabolomics profiling) to compare dietary intake, metabolic health, gut microbiome, and fecal, serum, and urine metabolomes.Results: The vegans had more favorable glucose and lipid homeostasis profiles than the omnivores. Long-term reported adherence to a vegan diet affected only 14.8% of all detected bacterial genera in fecal microbiome. However, significant differences in vegan and omnivore metabolomes were observed. In feces, 43.3% of all identified metabolites were significantly different between the vegans and omnivores, such as amino acid fermentation products p-cresol, scatole, indole, methional (lower in the vegans), and polysaccharide fermentation product short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, MCFAs), and their derivatives (higher in the vegans). Vegan serum metabolome differed markedly from the omnivores (55.8% of all metabolites), especially in amino acid composition, such as low BCAAs, high SCFAs (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, butyric acids), and dimethylsulfone, the latter two being potential host microbiome co-metabolites. Using a machine-learning approach, we tested the discriminative power of each dataset. Best results were obtained for serum metabolome (accuracy rate 91.6%).Conclusion: While only small differences in the gut microbiota were found between the groups, their metabolic activity differed substantially. In particular, we observed a significantly different abundance of fermentation products associated with protein and carbohydrate intakes in the vegans. Vegans had significantly lower abundances of potentially harmful (such as p-cresol, lithocholic acid, BCAAs, aromatic compounds, etc.) and higher occurrence of potentially beneficial metabolites (SCFAs and their derivatives).

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Paola Cremonesi ◽  
Giulio Curone ◽  
Filippo Biscarini ◽  
Elisa Cotozzolo ◽  
Laura Menchetti ◽  

Goji berries show health benefits, although the possible mechanisms of action, including compositional changes in the gut microbiome, are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Goji berry supplementation on microbiota composition and metabolites in the digestive tracts of rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand White rabbits were fed with a commercial feed (control group, C; n = 14) or the same diet supplemented with 3% of Goji berries (Goji group, G; n = 14), from weaning (35 days old) until slaughter (90 days old). At slaughter, samples from the content of the gastrointestinal tracts were collected and analyzed by Next Generation 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing to evaluate the microbial composition. Ammonia and lactic acid were also quantified in caecum. Results showed differences in microbiota composition between the groups for two phyla (Cyanobacteria and Euryarchaeota), two classes (Methanobacteria and Bacilli), five orders, fourteen families, and forty-five genera. Ruminococcaceae (p < 0.05) and Lachnospiraceae (p < 0.01) were more abundant in G than in C group. Lactobacillaceae also showed differences between the two groups, with Lactobacillus as the predominant genus (p = 0.002). Finally, Goji berry supplementation stimulated lactic acid fermentation (p < 0.05). Thus, Goji berry supplementation could modulate gastrointestinal microbiota composition and caecal fermentation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 319
Amal Buddhika ◽  
Buddhika Niroshie Perumpuli ◽  
Nirosha Dilrukshi

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 085-093
Sweta V. Lende ◽  
Heera Karemore ◽  
Milind J. Umekar

Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. from different sources of carbohydrates, such as molasses and starch-based media. In view of surges in demand and growing markets, there is always a need for the discovery and development of better production techniques and solutions to improve production yields and the efficiency of product recovery. To support the enormous scale of production, it is necessary and important for the production process to be environmentally friendly by utilizing readily available and inexpensive agro-industrial waste products, while maintaining high production yields. This review article for fermentation of citric acid and Microbial production of citric acid, Substrates and strategies of citric acid production for Surface fermentation, Submerged fermentation, Solid-state fermentation and also the effects of various Factors affecting of citric acid fermentation conditions are Carbon source, Nitrogen limitation, Phosphorus source, Lower Alcohols, pH of culture medium, Trace elements, Aeration and Other factors. citric acid recovery options and the numerous applications of citric acid, based on the literature review information of citric acid production by fermentation technology.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Jianjian Hou ◽  
Naoki Nishino

This study aimed to gain insights into the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with the acetic acid fermentation of tropical grass silage. Direct-cut (DC, 170 g dry matter [DM]/kg) and wilted (WT, 323 g DM/kg) guinea grass were stored in a laboratory silo at moderate (25 °C) and high (40 °C) temperatures. Bacterial and fungal microbiota were assessed at 3 days, 1 month, and 2 months after ensiling. Lactic acid was the primary fermentation product during the initial ensiling period, and a high Lactococcus abundance (19.7–39.7%) was found in DC silage. After two months, the lactic acid content was reduced to a negligible level, and large amounts of acetic acid, butyric acid, and ethanol were found in the DC silage stored at 25 °C. The lactic acid reduction and acetic acid increase were suppressed in the DC silage stored at 40 °C. Increased abundances of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Wallemia, as well as decreased abundances of Saitozyma, Papiliotrema, and Sporobolomyces were observed in DC silages from day three to the end of the 2 month period. Wilting suppressed acid production, and lactic and acetic acids were found at similar levels in WT silages, regardless of the temperature and storage period. The abundance of Lactobacillus (1.72–8.64%) was lower in WT than in DC silages. The unclassified Enterobacteriaceae were the most prevalent bacteria in DC (38.1–64.9%) and WT (50.9–76.3%) silages, and their abundance was negatively related to the acetic acid content. Network analysis indicated that Lactobacillus was involved in enhanced acetic acid fermentation in guinea grass silage.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Stavros Plessas

Lactic acid fermentation of fresh fruit juices is a low-cost and sustainable process, that aims to preserve and even enhance the organoleptic and nutritional features of the raw matrices and extend their shelf life. Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were evaluated in the fermentation of various fruit juices, leading in some cases to fruit beverages, with enhanced nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Among LAB, Lactiplantibacillus (Lpb.) plantarum subsp. plantarum strains are quite interesting, regarding their application in the fermentation of a broad range of plant-derived substrates, such as vegetables and fruit juices, since they have genome plasticity and high versatility and flexibility. L. plantarum exhibits a remarkable portfolio of enzymes that make it very important and multi-functional in fruit juice fermentations. Therefore, L. plantarum has the potential for the production of various bioactive compounds, which enhance the nutritional value and the shelf life of the final product. In addition, L. plantarum can positively modify the flavor of fruit juices, leading to higher content of desirable volatile compounds. All these features are sought in the frame of this review, aiming at the potential and challenges of L. plantarum applications in the fermentation of fruit juices.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Leyu Wang ◽  
Hexin Zhang ◽  
Hongjie Lei

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactic acid fermentation using three Lactobacillus strains (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 90, Lactobacillus helveticus 76, and Lacticaseibacillus casei 37) in monoculture and binary mixture on phenolics profile, antioxidant activity and flavor volatiles in pear juice. Results showed that the colony counts of binary mixture were higher than monoculture in fermented pear juice. The total content of phenols was increased, while that of flavonoids was decreased significantly during fermentation (p < 0.05). Antioxidant activities in fermented peer juice including DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Binary mixture of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 90 and Lacticaseibacillus casei 37 fermentation exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging ability, due to the increase in vanillic acid and arbutin contents. Furthermore, lactic acid fermentation improved the formation of alcohols, esters, acids and terpenoids, and reduced the contents of aldehydes and ketones. Thirty new compounds including 15 alcohols, seven esters, five acids, and three terpenoids were observed in fermented pear juice. Hierarchical cluster revealed that flavor volatiles in pear juice were improved dramatically by Lactobacillus strains fermentation, and there were dramatic differences between monoculture and binary mixture.

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