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Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 327
Wiphada Mitbumrung ◽  
Numphung Rungraung ◽  
Niramol Muangpracha ◽  
Ploypailin Akanitkul ◽  
Thunnalin Winuprasith

The pretreatment process is an essential step for nanofibrillated cellulose production as it enhances size reduction efficiency, reduces production cost, and decreases energy consumption. In this study, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was prepared using various pretreatment processes, either chemical (i.e., acid, basic, and bleach) or hydrothermal (i.e., microwave and autoclave), followed by disintegration using high pressure homogenization from oat bran fibers. The obtained NFC were used as an emulsifier to prepare 10% oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsion containing chemically pretreated NFC exhibited the smallest oil droplet diameter (d32) at 3.76 μm, while those containing NFC using other pretreatments exhibited d32 values > 5 μm. The colors of the emulsions were mainly influenced by oil droplet size rather than the color of the fiber itself. Both NFC suspensions and NFC emulsions showed a storage modulus (G′) higher than the loss modulus (G″) without crossing over, indicating gel-like behavior. For emulsion stability, microwave pretreatment effectively minimized gravitational separation, and the creaming indices of all NFC-emulsions were lower than 6% for the entire storage period. In conclusion, chemical pretreatment was an effective method for nanofiber extraction with good emulsion capacity. However, the microwave with bleaching pretreatment was an alternative method for extracting nanofibers and needs further study to improve the efficiency.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 486
Waseem Ahmed ◽  
Rafia Azmat ◽  
Ebtihal Khojah ◽  
Rasheed Ahmed ◽  
Abdul Qayyum ◽  

Today, the most significant challenge encountered by food manufacturers is degradation in the food quality during storage, which is countered by expensive packing, which causes enormous monetary and environmental costs. Edible packaging is a potential alternative for protecting food quality and improving shelf life by delaying microbial growth and providing moisture and gas barrier properties. For the first time, the current article reports the preparation of the new films from Ditriterpenoids and Secomeliacins isolated from Melia azedarach (Dharek) Azadirachta indica plants to protect the quality of fruits. After evaluating these films, their mechanical, specific respirational, coating crystal elongation, elastic, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), film thickness, and nanoindentation test properties are applied to apple fruit for several storage periods: 0, 3, 6, 9 days. The fruits were evaluated for postharvest quality by screening several essential phytochemical, physiological responses under film coating and storage conditions. It was observed that prepared films were highly active during storage periods. Coated fruits showed improved quality due to the protection of the film, which lowered the transmission rate and enhanced the diffusion rate, followed by an increase in the shelf life. The coating crystals were higher in Film-5 and lower activity in untreated films. It was observed that the application of films through dipping was a simple technique at a laboratory scale, whereas extrusion and spraying were preferred on a commercial scale. The phytochemicals screening of treated fruits during the storage period showed that a maximum of eight important bioactive compounds were present in fruits after the treatment of films. It was resolved that new active films (1–5) were helpful in the effective maintenance of fruit quality and all essential compounds during storage periods. It was concluded that these films could be helpful for fruits growers and the processing industry to maintain fruit quality during the storage period as a new emerging technology.

yage xing ◽  
Jing Tang ◽  
Xuanlin Li ◽  
Ruihan Huang ◽  
Lin Wu ◽  

This study investigated the ultraviolet (UV) light-induced effect of chitosan-titanium dioxide-silver (CTS-TiO2-Ag) nanocomposite film solution against Penicillium steckii ( ( P. steckii ) , as well as the underlying the physiological mechanism. The results indicated that the longer the UV exposure time, the better the pathogenic inhibition effect. After UV photoinduced treatment for 120 min, the colony diameter of P. steckii was the smallest at 4.85 mm. However, when this process is followed by an 8-h storage period, the conductivity of the P. steckii culture medium reached its highest level at 713 μs/cm. After a 120 h growth period in the same conditions, the lesion diameters and pathogenicity of the mangoes reached 12.61 mm and 41.67%, respectively. Since the cell membrane was severely disrupted, its permeability increased, causing serious intracellular protein and nucleic acid material extravasation. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde (MDA) , catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the   P. steckii reached maximum levels after 8 h of incubation, at 2.1106 μmol/mL, 44.06 U/mL, and 24.67 U/mL respectively. These results indicated significant P. steckii inhibition via the UV light induction of the CTS-TiO 2 -Ag composite film solution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 97-99
M. A. Starostina ◽  
N. G. Lapenko

Relevance. Biological features (morphometric indicators, viability and germinating power) of Poterium polygamum seeds found in natural communites of the Stavropol Territory have been studied. The conservation of wild-growing plant species in the natural population and the rational use of their potential are relevant.Methods. Years of study — 2013–2021. The subject of the study is Poterium polygamum seeds. Seeds were collected in 2013. Studies were carried out according to the methods of studying seed material. Freshly harvested seeds and seeds of different shelf life were germinated in petri dishes at a temperature of 18–20 °C.Results. The collected seeds of Poterium polygamum are quite large. The length of the seeds is 4–5 mm, the width is about 2.5 mm. The mass of 1000 pieces of seeds on average was 10.59 grams. Complete absence of viability of freshly harvested Poterium polygamum seeds was revealed. After three months, seed viability was 97%. This is a shallow physiological rest associated with the post-harvest maturation period. During the storage of seeds, their high germination was established — from 70 to 100%. The duration of seed storage is 8 years. The largest number of germinated seeds and their germinating power were noted in the third year of their storage (100%). Seeds germinated on the third or fourth day. The differences between the viability of seeds and their germinating power are not great. In the eighth year of storage of Poterium polygamum seeds, viability and germinating power were slightly reduced. The storage period of seeds, in which they retain the ability to germinate and the germinating power, is long. It has been found that the wild species Poterium polygamum belongs to plants with a high (70 to 100%) viability. This species is regularly resumed in the natural population. The revealed biological features of Poterium polygamum seeds can become the scientific basis during the reconstruction of degraded natural grass stand and in selection work.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Ammara Ainee ◽  
Sarfraz Hussain ◽  
Muhammad Nadeem ◽  
Asaad R. Al-Hilphy ◽  
Azhari Siddeeg

Galactomannan from fenugreek and guar seeds were extracted, purified, and used in edible coatings, optimized via response surface methodology. The results showed that the emulsifying capacity and stability of fenugreek galactomannan (FG) and guar galactomannan (GG) increased with increase in the concentration of galactomannan up to 0.5–1%. The average optimized values of FG and GG in edible coatings were predicted to be 1.71% and 2.11% for weight loss, 0.72% and 2.14% for firmness, 1.02% and 1.44% for TSS, 0.83% and 1.36% for pH, 1.03% and 1.44% for acidity, respectively. Significant decrease in weight loss and maximum retention of firmness was observed in coated guava. The TSS increased up to a certain storage period in all treatments and decreased as the storage period progressed, whereas pH exhibited an increasing trend while a significant decrease in acidity was observed. The findings revealed that the shelf life of guava could considerably be improved by incorporating 1.24% galactomannan from GG and 1.01% from FG in the edible coating.

2022 ◽  
Francois Marie Ngako Kadji ◽  
Kazuki Kotani ◽  
Hiroshi Tsukamoto ◽  
Yosuke Hiraoka ◽  
Katsuro Hagiwara

Abstract The thermal stability of relevant viruses in gelatin liquid formulations for medical research and application is poorly understood. Bovine herpesvirus (BHV) was used as a model virus to examine the molecular weight (MW), concentration and gelatin type and to optimize virus stability in liquid formulations at 25 °C and 4 °C. Using the model virus stable liquid formulation, the stability of multiple enveloped and nonenveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including parainfluenza virus (PIV), reovirus (RV), BHV, and adenovirus (AdV), was monitored over up to a 30-week storage period. The BHV model virus was considered stable after 3 weeks in hydrolyzed gelatin (MW: 4000) with a 0.8 LRV (log10 reduction value) at 25 °C or a 0.2 LRV at 4 °C, compared to the stabilities observed in higher MW gelatin (60000 and 160000) with an LRV above 1. Based on the gelatin type, BHV in B-type gelatin samples were unexpectantly more stable than in A-type gelatin sample. All four viruses exhibited stability at 4 °C for at least 8 weeks, BHV or AdV remained stable for over 30 weeks of storage, and at 25 °C, AdV and RV remained stable for 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that 5% hydrolyzed gelatin can act as a relevant stabilizer for the thermal stability of viruses in medical research and application.

Muhammad Akhlaq ◽  
Shinawar Waseem Ali ◽  
Ayesha Murtaza ◽  
Muhammad Arshad Javed ◽  
Aftab Ahmad Khan ◽  

Food systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 294-307
K. A. Kanina ◽  
N. A. Zhizhin ◽  
E. A. Karakulova ◽  
P. R. Atanasov

The paper examines the question of using the enzyme microbial transglutaminase (mTG) for bryndza cheese production. Microbial transglutaminase belongs to the enzyme family that catalyzes formation of bonds between amino groups. One of the problems in production of high-protein products, in particular, cheeses from goat milk is flabbiness of the clot. The use of mTG in the technological process would allow strengthening the product protein matrix, thereby improving its commercial characteristics. When performing the histological investigation of cheeses with this enzyme type to characterize the state of the protein matrix, the authors established that the product protein structure was more condensed compared to the control samples (without mTG), which affected cheese consistency. Consistency became more rubbery negatively influencing the product sensory properties, which are important traits for a consumer when buying a product. Using a Brookfield texture analyzer, it was shown that structural-mechanical characteristics were improved by 1.5 times for cheese samples produced from cow milk and by 2 times for goat cheese when mTG was used. Analysis of the enzyme catalytic activity showed that this enzyme retained its activity throughout the whole storage period, which is a potential hazard for human health. After shelf-life expiration, a change in the mTG activity was not more than 5% relative to the initial levels. The enzyme activity retained not only in cheese but also in the by-product — cheese whey, which made its processing more difficult.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Feren Feren ◽  
Sri Wahyuni ◽  
RH Fitri Faradilla

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction effect of storage time and concentration of plantain peel extract and lemongrass on organoleptic characteristics (color, aroma, texture, and elasticity) and total microbes in chicken meatballs. This study used a 2-Factorial Completely Randomized Design method. The first factor was storage time with three levels, namely 0 days (T0), 2 days (T1), and 4 days (T2. Meanwhile, the second factor was the concentration of plantain peel and lemongrass extract with three levels, namely 0% (C0), 30% plantain peel extract + 20% lemongrass extract (C1), 20% banana peel extract + 30% lemongrass extract (C2), and 25% banana peel extract + 25% lemongrass extract (C3). Observation variables were organoleptic tests which included color, aroma, texture, elasticity, and shelf life after treatment based on the results of the total plate count (TPC) calculation. The results show that the 2-day storage period with the addition of 25% plantain peel extract and 25% lemongrass extract (T1C3) was the best treatment for organoleptic characteristics (color, aroma, texture, and elasticity). Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the administration of plantain peel extract and lemongrass was able to maintain the quality of chicken meatballs for two different days compared to the control. Treatment with a storage period of 2 days with 25% plantain peel extract and 25% lemongrass extract (T1C3) was the best treatment that was most favored by the panelists and had the least number of microbial colonies.Keywords: Meatballs, preservatives, banana peel extract and lemongrass, storage time.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi lama penyimpanan dan konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja dan serai terhadap uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur dan kekenyalan) dan total mikroba pada bakso ayam. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial 2 Faktor. Faktor Pertama adalah lama penyimpanan yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 0 hari (T0), 2 hari (T1) dan 4 hari (T2), faktor kedua yaitu perlakuan ekstrak kulit pisang raja yang terdiri atas tiga taraf yaitu konsentrasi 0% (C0), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 30% + konsentrasi ekstrak serai 20% (C1), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 20% + konsentrasi ekstrak serai 30% (C2), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% + konsentrasi serai 25% (C3). Variabel pengamatan yaitu uji organoleptik yang meliputi warna, aroma, tekstur, kekenyalan dan daya simpan setelah perlakuan berdasarkan hasil perhitungan jumlah total plate count (TPC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan lama penyimpanan 2 hari dengan penambahan ekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% dab serai 25% (T1C3) merupakan perlakuan terbaik untuk uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur dan kekenyalan). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak kulit pisang raja dan serai mampu mempertahankan kualitas bakso ayam selama dua hari yang berbeda dengan kontrol. Perlakuan dengan lama penyimpanan 2 hari dengan pemberianekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% dan serai 25% (T1C3) merupakan perlakuan terbaik yang paling disukai oleh panelis dan memiliki jumlah koloni mikroba paling sedikit.Kata kunci: Bakso, pengawet, ekstrak kulit pisang dan serai, lama penyimpanan

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012048
Y Aisyah ◽  
E Murlida ◽  
T A Maulizar

Abstract Tomato is one of the fruit vegetables that had perishable properties so that it needs good postharvest handling to increase their shelf life. One of among other technologies, surface coating of tomatoes with edible ingredients added with natural antimicrobials is potential to be applied. Currently, nanotechnology represents an important area and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. The research aimed to investigate the effect of edible coating, containing cinnamon oil nanoemulsion, to extend the storage life and quality of tomato fruits. Treatments given were (a) dipping time in the edible coating formula (1 and 3 minutes), and the storage period of tomatoes, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days at room temperature (27°C). As a control treatment, the inspection was also applied on non-coated tomatoes. The results showed that coating treatment was significantly able to delay changes in the quality attributes of tomatoes and longer shelf life compared to fruit that was not coated with an edible coating. Tomato edible coating has better in maintaining physicochemical characteristics (weight loss of 1.83%, TSS 0.34 Brix, vitamin C 59.8 mg/100g and total plate count of 7.88 × 106 CFU/g) than control throughout the storage period. The study concludes that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion coating could be a good alternative to preserve the quality and extend the storage life of tomatoes.

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