Abstract The antioxidant, photoprotective and antinociceptive Marcetia macrophylla active extract was investigated as an active ingredient in a sunscreen cream formulation. Thus, the M. macrophylla extract showed IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml of the antioxidant (DPPH∙ scavenging test) and Sun Protection Factor of 20.25 (SPF/UV-B, at 250 µg/ml) and UV-A of 78.09% (photobleaching trans-resveratrol test). The antinociceptive activity was superior to all standards tested using the in vivo acetic acid-induced writhing test (99.14% at the dose of 200 mg/kg) and the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectroscopy multi-stage (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) enabled the structural characterization of the quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin-3-O-pentoside and quercetin-3-O-desoxihexoside. The pharmaceutical formulation containing the Marcetia macrophylla crude active extract was prepared and the physicochemical tests (organoleptic characteristics, pH analysis and centrifugation), the in vitro UVB (sun protection factor, SPF) and UVA (β-carotene) using the spectroscopic method were investigated. The formulation showed satisfactory results concerning the physicochemical parameters evaluated and active against the UV test. Thus, M. macrophylla showed biological activities with potential use in pharmaceutical preparations.
Child malnutrition is still a public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire, mainly due to poor feeding practice linked to the low nutritional value of the staple foods used for child nutrition. However, the introduction of tigernut, proteins and lipids rich tuber, in the dietary habits of these children could constitute an interesting nutritional alternative to solve this problem. The objective of this work was to valorize the tigernut-based porridges for their use as complementary food in the diet of weaning children. To this end, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of four formulations AB1, AB4, RB2 and SB3 were studied. The atadjon formulations, especially AB1, presented the highest density in energy (95.70 Kcal/100g), protein (5.37 %), lipids (3.8 %) and the lowest contents in anti-nutrients with 2.17% in fiber, 36.6% in oxalates, 65.54% in tannin and 0% in phytates, contrary to the rice (RB2) and tigernut (SB3) control porridges. In addition, the atadjon formulations AB4 and AB1 were preferred to the control because of their sweet taste, tigernut flavor, brown color and flowability according to PCA analysis. Thus, this study indicates that these traditionally prepared porridges could be suitable for children receiving an average level of breastfeeding and three meals per day.
Wheat bread is a widely consumed commodity around the world. It is poor and imbalanced in some essential amino acids. The aim of this study is to fortify wheat bread with whey proteins (WP), in order to inhence its nutri-tional value and to improve the balance of its essential amino acids. The composition of the different flours and breads enriched with WP was deter-mined by standard methods. The alveograph’s results show that the tenacity increases and the deformation energy decreases with increasing incorpora-tion of WP. The addition of WP leads to a dough that is resistant to defor-mation, extensible for incorporation rates of 2.5% and 3% and less extensible for 10% and 20%. The results on the composition of the different breads show that the addition of WP contributes to the improvement of the amino acid profiles of the breads, especially for P10 and P20. It corrects, especially, the deficit and imbalance of the bread in essential amino acids. The assess-ments of the organoleptic characteristics show that the majority of the tast-ers find the P2.5 and P3 breads are very close to the commercial breads and sometimes better. These loaves have a nice external appearance, regular shape, crispy golden crust, light texture, good taste and smell. The develop-ment of the breads during vacuum storage is very satisfactory. They keep their crispness and a good crumbliness after 7 days.
Swordfish is the most widespread billfish in the aquatic environment. The industrial processing of swordfish fillets involves salting, drying, and smoking steps. Salting techniques, dry or wet, are the most common method of fish preservation. This work evaluated salt diffusion in swordfish fillets after traditional dry salting and wet industrial injection salting methods. The data obtained from the dry salting studies highlighted that the salt diffusion process in swordfish meat was an unfavorable process depending on the contact time with the salt/meat. Moreover, irregularly shaped fillets negatively affected the salt migration in the different areas, leading to inhomogeneous and possibly unsafe final products. On the contrary, wet injection salting was suitable for processing swordfish fillets. As a result, the final products had a homogeneous salt concentration, maintained the organoleptic characteristics and health benefits for a long period, and achieved a longer shelf-life. Furthermore, the water activity (aw) values detected for the different processed fillets confirmed the physicochemical features of the final products and allow the classification of safe products. Moreover, injection salting is a quick process compatible with industrial production times.
Food fermentation has led to the improvement of the safety characteristics of raw materials and the production of new foodstuffs with elevated organoleptic characteristics. The empirical observation that these products could have a potential health benefit has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Therefore, several studies have been conducted in animal and human hosts to decipher which of these products may have a beneficial outcome against specific ailments. However, despite the accumulating literature, a relatively small number of products have been authorized as ‘functional foods’ by regulatory bodies. Data inconsistency and lack of in-depth preclinical characterization of functional products could heavily contribute to this issue. Today, the increased availability of omics platforms and bioinformatic algorithms for comprehensive data analysis can aid in the systematic characterization of microbe–microbe, microbe–matrix, and microbe–host interactions, providing useful insights about the maximization of their beneficial effects. The incorporation of these platforms in food science remains a challenge; however, coordinated efforts and interdisciplinary collaboration could push the field toward the dawn of a new era.
Many decades of improvement in cacao have aided to obtain cultivars with characteristics of tolerance to diseases, adaptability to different edaphoclimatic conditions, and higher yields. In Ecuador, as a result of several breeding programs, the clone CCN 51 was obtained, which gradually expanded through the cacao-production regions of Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Peru. Recognized for its high yield and adaptability to different regions and environments, it has become one of the most popular clones for breeding programs and cultivation around the world. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the origin, genetics, morphological, volatile compounds, and organoleptic characteristics of this clone. Physiological evidence, production dynamics, and floral biology are also included to explain the high yield of CCN 51. Thus, characteristics such as osmotic adjustment, long pollen longevity, and fruit formation are further discussed and associated with high production at the end of the dry period. Finally, the impact of this popular clone on the current and future cacao industry will be discussed highlighting the major challenges for flavor enhancement and its relevance as a platform for the identification of novel genetic markers for cultivar improvement in breeding programs.
The article presents the research results of studying the influence of various groups of microorganisms — coliform bacteria, lactic acid microorganisms, yeast, and spore bacteria — on the quality and storage capacity of cream used as a raw material for buttermaking. The objects of study were the following: cream as a raw material before and after pasteurization, as well as pasteurized cream seeded with testing cultures of various types of spoilage microorganisms. The samples were stored at temperature conditions of 30 ± 1 °C, 10 ± 1 °C, and 4 ± 2 °C. To evaluate the quality and storage capacity of cream used as a raw material, its microbiological and physicochemical indicators were determined by standardized methods: bacterial number, titratable acidity, indicators of oxidative spoilage of the fat phase. Organoleptic characteristics were evaluated in terms of taste, consistency and appearance. Research results have shown that the greatest microbiological risks during storage of cream used as a raw material are associated with lactococci, coliform bacteria and yeast. Microbiological risks caused by seeding of cream with thermophilic streptococcus, spore bacteria of the genus Bacillus and spore anaerobic microorganisms of the genus Clostridium are less significant, which is associated with the lack of development and metabolism of these groups of microorganisms at storage temperatures of 10 ± 1 °C and 4 ± 2 °C. At the same time, the reason for the rejection of cream contaminated with these testing cultures, at a storage temperature of 4 ± 2 °C, is primarily a decrease in organoleptic indicators, and at a temperature of 10 ± 1 °C — an excess in bacterial number.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction effect of storage time and concentration of plantain peel extract and lemongrass on organoleptic characteristics (color, aroma, texture, and elasticity) and total microbes in chicken meatballs. This study used a 2-Factorial Completely Randomized Design method. The first factor was storage time with three levels, namely 0 days (T0), 2 days (T1), and 4 days (T2. Meanwhile, the second factor was the concentration of plantain peel and lemongrass extract with three levels, namely 0% (C0), 30% plantain peel extract + 20% lemongrass extract (C1), 20% banana peel extract + 30% lemongrass extract (C2), and 25% banana peel extract + 25% lemongrass extract (C3). Observation variables were organoleptic tests which included color, aroma, texture, elasticity, and shelf life after treatment based on the results of the total plate count (TPC) calculation. The results show that the 2-day storage period with the addition of 25% plantain peel extract and 25% lemongrass extract (T1C3) was the best treatment for organoleptic characteristics (color, aroma, texture, and elasticity). Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the administration of plantain peel extract and lemongrass was able to maintain the quality of chicken meatballs for two different days compared to the control. Treatment with a storage period of 2 days with 25% plantain peel extract and 25% lemongrass extract (T1C3) was the best treatment that was most favored by the panelists and had the least number of microbial colonies.Keywords: Meatballs, preservatives, banana peel extract and lemongrass, storage time.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi lama penyimpanan dan konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja dan serai terhadap uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur dan kekenyalan) dan total mikroba pada bakso ayam. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial 2 Faktor. Faktor Pertama adalah lama penyimpanan yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 0 hari (T0), 2 hari (T1) dan 4 hari (T2), faktor kedua yaitu perlakuan ekstrak kulit pisang raja yang terdiri atas tiga taraf yaitu konsentrasi 0% (C0), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 30% + konsentrasi ekstrak serai 20% (C1), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 20% + konsentrasi ekstrak serai 30% (C2), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% + konsentrasi serai 25% (C3). Variabel pengamatan yaitu uji organoleptik yang meliputi warna, aroma, tekstur, kekenyalan dan daya simpan setelah perlakuan berdasarkan hasil perhitungan jumlah total plate count (TPC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan lama penyimpanan 2 hari dengan penambahan ekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% dab serai 25% (T1C3) merupakan perlakuan terbaik untuk uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur dan kekenyalan). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak kulit pisang raja dan serai mampu mempertahankan kualitas bakso ayam selama dua hari yang berbeda dengan kontrol. Perlakuan dengan lama penyimpanan 2 hari dengan pemberianekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% dan serai 25% (T1C3) merupakan perlakuan terbaik yang paling disukai oleh panelis dan memiliki jumlah koloni mikroba paling sedikit.Kata kunci: Bakso, pengawet, ekstrak kulit pisang dan serai, lama penyimpanan
ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effect of golden apple snail and chicken meat substitution on the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of chicken nuggets. This study used a single factor completely randomized design (CRD), with five levels of treatment, namely P0 (0% golden apple snail meat: 50% chicken meat: 50% wheat flour), P1 (45% golden apple snail meat: 5% chicken meat: 50% flour), P2 (40% golden apple snail meat: 10% chicken meat: 50% flour), P3 (35% golden apple snail meat: 15% chicken meat: 50% flour), and P4 (30% golden apple snail meat: 52% chicken meat: 50% flour). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results show that the substitution treatment of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata l.) and chicken meat had a very significant effect on increasing color, taste, aroma, and texture. The P1 treatment (45% golden apple snail meat; 5% chicken meat and 50% wheat flour) was the most preferred treatment by panelists with preference scores of color, aroma, texture, and taste reached 3.74 (like), 3.93 (like), 3.68 (like), and 3.68 (like), respectively. Meanwhile, the analysis of the nutritional values shows that the selected treatment contained 30.68% water, 2.44% ash, 10.24% fat, 9.04% protein, and 47.6% carbohydrates. Based on the standard of SNI 01-6638-2002, the golden apple snail and chicken meat nuggets met the quality standards on water, ash, and protein contents.Keywords: golden apple snail meat, chicken meat, nuggets.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh subtitusi keong mas dan daging ayam terhadap karakteristik organoleptik dan nilai gizi pada pembuatan nugget. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak lengkap (RAL) faktor tunggal, dengan lima Perlakuan P0 (daging keong mas 0% : daging ayam 50% : tepung terigu 50%), P1 (daging keong mas 45% : daging ayam 5% : tepung terigu 50%), P2 (daging keong mas 40% : daging ayam 10% : tepung terigu 50%), P3 (daging keong mas 35% : daging ayam 15% : tepung terigu 50%) dan P4 (daging keong mas 30% : daging ayam 52% : tepung terigu 50%). Data dianalisis menggunakan Analysis of Varian (ANOVA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan Substitusi daging keong mas (pomacea canaliculata l.) dan daging ayam berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan warna, rasa, aroma dan tekstur.. Perlakuan P1 (daging keong mas 45%; daging ayam 5% dan tepung terigu 50%) merupakan perlakuan yang paling disukai panelis dengan skor penilaian kesukaan terhadap warna, aroma, tekstur dan rasa berturut-turut sebesar 3,74 (suka), 3,93 (suka), 3,68 (suka), 3,68 (suka), sedangkan berdasarkan analisis nilai gizi meliputi kadar air, abu, lemak, protein dan karbohidrat berturut-turut sebesar 30,68%, 2,44%, 10,24%, 9,04% dan 47,6%. Berdasarkan standar mutu SNI 01-6638-2002 produk nugget daging keong mas dan daging ayam telah memenuhi standar mutu pada kadar air, kadar abu, dan kadar protein. Sedangkan kadar lemak dan kadar karbohidrat belum memenuhi standar mutu SNI 01-6638-2002Kata kunci: daging keong mas, daging ayam, nugget.