An analysis of multiple scattering by two Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) spheres using translation Addition Theorem (AT) for spherical vector wave functions is presented. Specifically, the Cruzan formalism is used to represent the AT for spherical harmonics, which introduces the translation coefficients for transformation of spherical harmonics from one coordinate to another. The adoption of these coefficients with the use of two PEC spheres in a near zone region makes the calculation of multiple scattering electric fields very efficient. As an illustration, the mathematical formation using advanced computational approaches was inspected. Then, the generic truncation criteria in the scattered electric field by two PEC spheres was deeply investigated using translation AT. However, the numerical validation was obtained using Comsol simulation software. This approach will allow to evaluate the scattering from macro-structures composed of spherical particles, i.e., biological molecules, clouds of airborne particles, etc. An original and fully general solution to the problem using vector quantities is introduced, and the convergence of the solution in several numerical examples is also demonstrated. This approach takes into account the effect of multiple scattering by two PEC spheres for spherical vector function.
With the development of digital signal processing and advanced algorithms, real-time signal processing based on FPGA and DSP is suitable for high-speed radar signal processing. With the rapid development of science and technology, war has entered the information age guided by high technology, and advanced science and technology has played a vital role in the trend of war. In recent years in the modern war, many countries invest a lot of research effort on the stealth technology, and advanced stealth technology can use a variety of technical means to alter or weaken the feature information of the target, confuse the enemy radar detection system effectively, reduce the chance of being detected to the largest extent, and prolong the lifecycle of aircraft and weapons. This research mainly discusses the electromagnetic occlusion algorithm and its optimization based on FPGA and panel grouping. The FPGA model selected for this study is XC6VLX240T-1FF1156I. Because the amount of data processed here is not very large, the cache part directly uses the on-chip storage resources of the FPGA, and the AD device is used to perform analog-to-digital/digital-to-analog conversion on the signal and perform digital up-down conversion. For a facet, it is necessary to first verify whether it is a bright facet and set the flag to mark it, then the facet needs to be occluded with the triangular facet marked as a bright facet, and all bright facets that have been marked need to be traversed. Open MP parallelization of the occlusion algorithm is as follows: The physical optics method is used to calculate the target RCS, and the focus of parallelism is placed on the part with a large amount of calculation. When using Open MP to design a program on a multicore computer, each group is assigned a thread to give full play to the core computing power. The total field is scattered and superimposed by each surface element. This part uses the parallel processing mode of Open MP, which allows the panel judgment in the group to be carried out at the same time. This part requires schedule to allocate resources and use different parallel mechanisms for different calculations to optimize debugging. In the angular range where there is multiple scattering at
, the calculation results and the measurement results are in good agreement, and when the two planes are simulated with 1820 triangular faces, the fast multiple scattering in this paper only needs 4 minutes. This research has realized the general radar signal processing method based on FPGA structure, and the design has important engineering realization significance.
We study cloaking of a cluster of electrostatically deﬁned core-shell quantum dots in graphene. Guided by the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, the Dirac electron scattering from a cluster of quantum dots is addressed. Indeed distant quantum dots may experience a sort of individual cloaking. But despite the multiple scattering of an incident electron from a set of adjacent quantum dots, collective cloaking may happen. Via a proper choice of the radii and bias voltages of shells, two most important scattering coeﬃcients and hence the scattering eﬃciency of the cluster dramatically decrease. Energy-selective electron cloaks are realizable. More importantly, clusters simultaneously transparent to electrons of diﬀerent energies, are achievable. Being quite sensitive to applied bias voltages, clusters of core-shell quantum dots may be used to develop switches with high on-oﬀ ratios.
Abstract. The appearance of second-trip echoes generated by mirror images over the ocean and by multiple scattering tails in correspondence with deep convective cores has been investigated for space-borne nadir-looking W-band cloud radar observations. Examples extracted from the CloudSat radar are used to demonstrate the mechanisms of formation and to validate the modelling of such returns. A statistical analysis shows that, for CloudSat observations, second-trip echoes are rare and appear only above 20 km (thus easy to remove). CloudSat climatology is then used to estimate the occurrence of second-trip echoes in the different configurations envisaged for the operations of the EarthCARE radar, which will adopt pulse repetition frequencies much higher than the one used by the CloudSat radar in order to improve its Doppler capabilities. Our findings predict that the presence of such echoes in EarthCARE observations cannot be neglected: in particular, over the ocean, mirror images will tend to populate the EarthCARE sampling window with a maximum frequency at its upper boundary. This will create an additional fake cloud cover in the upper troposphere (of the order of 3 % at the top of the sampling window and steadily decreasing moving downwards), and, in much less frequent instances, it will cause an amplification of signals in areas where clouds are already present. Multiple scattering tails will also produce second-trip echoes but with much lower frequencies: less than 1 profile out of 1000 in the tropics and practically no effects at high latitudes. At the moment, level-2 algorithms of the EarthCARE radar do not account for such occurrences. We recommend to properly remove these second-trip echoes and to correct for reflectivity enhancements, where needed. More generally this work is relevant for the design of future space-borne Doppler W-band radar missions.
Analytical solution for the reflected light ions Pass Length Distribution Function (PLDF) equation is obtained. Reflected ions energy spectra calculated on the basis of the developed method shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The effectiveness of the developed methodology in the procedure for verifying the stopping power value is indicated.