scattering method
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Yoshitaro Sakata ◽  

Abstract Demand for flexible electronics is increasing due to recent global movements related to IoT. In particular, the ultra-thin glass substrate can be bent, its use is expanding for various applications such as thin liquid crystal panels. On the other hand, fine-polishing techniques such as chemical mechanical polishing treatments, are important techniques in glass substrate manufacturing. However, these techniques may cause microcracks under the surface of glass substrates because they use mechanical friction. We propose a novel non-contact thermal stress-induced light-scattering method (N-SILSM) using a heating device for inspecting surfaces to detect polishing-induced microcracks. In this report, we carry out the selective detection of microcracks and tiny particles using a N-SILSM with temperature variation. Our results show that microcracks and tiny particles can be distinguished and measured by a N-SILSM utilizing temperature change, and that microcrack size can be estimated based on the change in light-scattering intensity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
Nathaniel R. Shaffer ◽  
Charles E. Starrett

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 229
Marija Kavaliauskaite ◽  
Medeina Steponaviciute ◽  
Justina Kievisaite ◽  
Arturas Katelnikovas ◽  
Vaidas Klimkevicius

Synthesis and study of well-defined thermoresponsive amphiphilic copolymers with various compositions were reported. Kinetics of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) (co)polymerization of styrene (St) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEO5MEMA) was studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy, which allows calculating not only (co)polymerization parameters but also gives valuable information on RAFT (co)polymerization kinetics, process control, and chain propagation. Molecular weight Mn and dispersity Đ of the copolymers were determined by SEC with triple detection. The detailed investigation of styrene and PEO5MEMA (co)polymerization showed that both monomers prefer cross-polymerization due to their low reactivity ratios (r1 < 1, r2 < 1); therefore, the distribution of monomeric units across the copolymer chain of p(St-co-PEO5MEMA) with various compositions is almost ideally statistical or azeotropic. The thermoresponsive properties of p(St-co-PEO5MEMA) copolymers in aqueous solutions as a function of different hydrophilic/hydrophobic substituent ratios were evaluated by measuring the changes in hydrodynamic parameters under applied temperature using the dynamic light scattering method (DLS).

I.B. Sangulova ◽  
V.P. Selyaev ◽  
E.I. Kuldeev ◽  
R.E. Nurlybaev ◽  

The article discusses experimental studies of the size and shape of structured particles of microsilica small angle x-ray scattering method and a photophonon theoretical description of the heat transfer process in complex heterogeneous structures to assessment of the structural characteristics of granular systems for the properties of thermal insulating materials. The mechanism of heat transfer in granular, porous systems is quite complex, since heat exchange occurs in a material consisting of two phases (solid and gas) and at the phase boundary. Heat transfer in liquid thermal insulation coatings can be carried out from one solid particle to another. In this case, the thermal conductivity will depend on: the chemical and elemental composition of the material; particle granulometry; surface topology - the presence of inhomogeneities, defects on the surface; the number of touches and the contact area between the particles. The heat transfer of gas in the pores is carried out when gas molecules collide. Thermal conductivity will be determined by the ratio of the free path of molecules and linear pore sizes, temperature and dynamic viscosity of the gas phase, the nature of the interaction of gas molecules with the solid phase. Heat transfer by radiation depends on the nature of the particles, the dielectric, magnetic permeability and the degree of blackness of the particle surface. Based on the analysis of possible mechanisms of heat transfer in granular systems, it can be argued that the effective thermal conductivity of the system depends, all other things being equal, on the structure of the pore space of granular materials, topology and the number of particle touches. Considering idealized models of the structure of granular materials in the form of ordered folds of perfectly smooth balls, we can obtain several variants of structures: with tetrahedral; hexagonal; cubic packing of balls.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 013411
Claudia Lau ◽  
Nicholas G. Combs ◽  
Evguenia Karapetrova ◽  
Juan Jiang ◽  
Susanne Stemmer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 210378
Dongho Shin ◽  
Younghun Kim ◽  
Kee-Jung Hong ◽  
Gunhee Lee ◽  
Inyong Park ◽  

Biomimetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Simin Sharifi ◽  
Asma Zaheri Khosroshahi ◽  
Solmaz Maleki Dizaj ◽  
Yashar Rezaei

In this study, we prepared and evaluated hydroxyapatite–gelatin/curcumin nanofibrous composites and determined their antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans. Hydroxyapatite–gelatin/curcumin nanofibrous composites were prepared by the electrospinning method. The prepared nanocomposites were then subjected to physicochemical studies by the light scattering method for their particle size, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify their functional groups, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study their crystallinity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their morphology. For the microbial evaluation of nanocomposites, the disk diffusion method was used against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the nanofibers were uniform in shape without any bead (structural defects). The release pattern of curcumin from the nanocomposite was a two-stage release, 60% of which was released in the first two days and the rest being slowly released until the 14th day. The results of the microbial evaluations showed that the nanocomposites had significant antimicrobial effects against all bacteria (p = 0.0086). It seems that these nanocomposites can be used in dental tissue engineering or as other dental materials. Also, according to the appropriate microbial results, these plant antimicrobials can be used instead of chemical antimicrobials, or along with them, to reduce bacterial resistance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Kenichi Kato ◽  
Kazuya Shigeta

The total scattering method, which is based on measurements of both Bragg and diffuse scattering on an equal basis, has been still challenging even by means of synchrotron X-rays. This is because such measurements require a wide coverage in scattering vector Q, high Q resolution, and a wide dynamic range for X-ray detectors. There is a trade-off relationship between the coverage and resolution in Q, whereas the dynamic range is defined by differences in X-ray response between detector channels (X-ray response non-uniformity: XRNU). XRNU is one of the systematic errors for individual channels, while it appears to be a random error for different channels. In the present study, taking advantage of the randomness, the true sensitivity for each channel has been statistically estimated. Results indicate that the dynamic range of microstrip modules (MYTHEN, Dectris, Baden-Daettwil, Switzerland), which have been assembled for a total scattering measurement system (OHGI), has been successfully restored from 104 to 106. Furthermore, the correction algorithm has been optimized to increase time efficiencies. As a result, the correcting time has been reduced from half a day to half an hour, which enables on-demand correction for XRNU according to experimental settings. High-precision X-ray total scattering measurements, which has been achieved by a high-accuracy detector system, have demonstrated valence density studies from powder and PDF studies for atomic displacement parameters.

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