spherical particles
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2022 ◽  
Vol 05 ◽  
Wanda Jones ◽  
Bedanga Sapkota ◽  
Brian Simpson ◽  
Tarig A. Hassan ◽  
Shaik Jeelani ◽  

Background: Thermoplastic expandable microspheres (TEMs) are spherical particles that consist of polymer shell encapsulating a low boiling point liquid hydrocarbon that acts as the blowing agent. When TEMs are heated at 80-190 C, the polymer shell softens and the hydrocarbon gasifies, causing the microspheres expand leading to increase in volume and decrease in density. TEMs are used in food packaging, elastomeric cool roof coatings, shoe soles, fiber and paper board, and various applications in the automotive industry. It is noted that TEMs are known by its brand name ‘Expancel’ which is also used to refer TEMs in this paper. Objective: The objective of this work was to develop and characterize forms prepared from TEMs with/without carbon nanofibers (CNFs) coatings to study the effect of CNFs on structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Method: Sonochemical method was used to coat TEMs with various weight percentage (1, 2, and 3 %) of CNF. Neat foam (without CNF) and composite foams (TEMs coated with various wt.% of CNF) were prepared by compression molding the TEMs and TEMs-CNF composites powders. Thermal and mechanical properties of the neat and composite foams were investigated. Result: The mechanical properties of the composite foam were notably improved, which is exhibited by a 54% increase in flexural modulus and a 6% decrease in failure strain with the TEMs-(2 wt.% CNF) composite foam as compared to the neat foam. Improvement in thermal properties of composite foam was demonstrated by a 38% increase in thermal stability at 800 ºC with the TEMs-(1 wt.% CNF) composite foam as compared to the neat foam. However, no change in glass transition of TEMs was observed with the CNF coating. SEM-based analysis revealed that CNFs were well dispersed throughout the volume of the TEMs matrix forming a strong interface. Conclusions: Straightforward sonochemical method successfully triggered efficient coating of TEMs with CNFs resulting to strong adhesion interface. The mechanical properties of composite foams increased up to 2% of CNFs coating and then decreased with the higher coating presumably due to interwoven bundles and aggregation of CNFs, which might have acted as critical flaws to initiate and propagate cracking. Thermal properties of foams increased with the CNFs coating while no change in glass transition temperature was observed due to coating.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Chih-Yuan Ko ◽  
Jian-Hua Xu ◽  
Yu-Wei Chang ◽  
Yangming Martin Lo ◽  
James Swi-Bea Wu ◽  

Background and objectives: This study aimed to investigate the enhancing effect of vitamin-like alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on phagocytosis of oligomeric beta-amyloid (oAβ)1–42 in BV-2 mouse microglial cells.Methods: An in vitro model was established to investigate phagocytosis of oAβ1–42 in BV-2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the morphology of prepared oAβ1–42 was spherical particles. BV-2 cells treated with ALA were incubated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled oAβ1–42 (FAM-oAβ1–42) for 24 h, followed by flow cytometer analysis, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis to assess the in vitro phagocytosis ability of oAβ1–42.Results: Alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the CD36 receptor in BV-2 cells. ICC analysis showed that ALA significantly elevated CD36 protein expression in BV-2 cells both with and without oAβ1–42 treatment. Results from the flow cytometry analysis indicated that the CD36 receptor inhibitor significantly attenuated ALA-promoted phagocytosis of FAM-oAβ1–42 in BV-2 cells. Moreover, ICC analysis revealed that ALA caused the translocation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), which is known to regulate the expression of CD36 mRNA in BV-2 cells. ALA also elevated both the mRNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 in BV-2 cells.Conclusion: We postulated that ALA enhances oAβ1–42 phagocytosis by upregulating the COX-2/15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2/PPAR-γ/CD36 pathway in BV-2 cells. Finally, future studies should be conducted with an in vivo study to confirm the findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
E. B. Watkins ◽  
R. C. Huber ◽  
C. M. Childs ◽  
A. Salamat ◽  
J. S. Pigott ◽  

AbstractPolyethylene (C2H4)n was compressed to pressures between 10 and 30 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and laser heated above 2500 K for approximately one second. This resulted in the chemical decomposition of the polymer into carbon and hydrocarbon reaction products. After quenching to ambient temperature, the decomposition products were measured in the DAC at pressures ranging from ambient to 29 GPa using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). XRD identified cubic diamond and methane as the predominant product species with their pressure–volume relationships exhibiting strong correlations to the diamond and methane equations of state. Length scales associated with the diamond products, obtained from SAXS measurements, indicate the formation of nanodiamonds with a radius of gyration between 12 and 35 nm consistent with 32–90 nm diameter spherical particles. These results are in good agreement with the predicted product composition under thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 779
Anastasia Nazarova ◽  
Luidmila Yakimova ◽  
Darya Filimonova ◽  
Ivan Stoikov

Novel monosubstituted pillar[5]arenes containing both amide and carboxyl functional groups were synthesized. Solid lipid nanoparticles based on the synthesized macrocycles were obtained. Formation of spherical particles with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 250 nm was shown for pillar[5]arenes containing N-(amidoalkyl)amide fragments regardless of their concentration. It was established that pillar[5]arene containing N-alkylamide fragments can form spherical particles with two different sizes (88 and 223 nm) depending on its concentration. Mixed solid lipid nanoparticles based on monosubstituted pillar[5]arenes and surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) were obtained for the first time. The surfactant made it possible to level the effect of the macrocycle concentration. It was found that various types of aggregates are formed depending on the macrocycle/surfactant ratio. Changing the macrocycle/surfactant ratio allows to control the charge of the particles surface. This controlled property will lead to the creation of molecular-scale porous materials that selectively interact with various types of substrates, including biopolymers.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 262
Neslihan Doğan-Sağlamtimur ◽  
Ahmet Bilgil ◽  
Sefa Ertürk ◽  
Vakkas Bozkurt ◽  
Elif Süzgeç ◽  

Waste ashes and radiation are hazardous environmental and health factors; thus, a lot of attention is paid to their reduction. We present eco-geopolymer building materials (GPBMs) based on the class F fly ashes (FFAs) from thermal power plants (TPPs) and their implementation as a barrier against radioactive radiation. Different methods of production, ratios of FFA to alkali activator, and temperatures of curing were tested. Small spherical particles and higher content of SiO2 resulted in developed surface area and higher reactivity of Isken TPP FFA than Catalagzi TPP FFA. Lower activator concentration (10% vs. 20%) and curing temperature (70 vs. 100 °C) caused an increase in GPBM compressive strength; the highest value was measured as 93.3 MPa. The highest RA was measured for GPBMs, provided alkali activator ratio (Na2SiO3/NaOH) was >2 and its concentration was 20%. The mathematical model developed in this study proved FFA quantity, and thus GPBM mechanical properties, as key factors influencing RA. In the light of these results, the lightweight GPBMs can be excellent materials for the construction sector dedicated to immobilization, storage, and disposal for radionuclides or barriers against radiation; however, multiple steps of their production require careful optimization.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 236
María Z. Saavedra-Leos ◽  
Manuel Román-Aguirre ◽  
Alberto Toxqui-Terán ◽  
Vicente Espinosa-Solís ◽  
Avelina Franco-Vega ◽  

A functional food based on blends of carbohydrate polymers and active ingredients was prepared by spray drying. Inulin (IN) and maltodextrin (MX) were used as carrying agents to co-microencapsulate quercetin as an antioxidant and Bacillus clausii (Bc) as a probiotic. Through a reduced design of experiments, eleven runs were conducted and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The physical characterizations showed fine and non-aggregated powders, composed of pseudo-spherical particles with micrometric sizes. The observation of rod-like particles suggested that microorganisms were microencapsulated in these particles. The microstructure of the powders was amorphous, observing diffraction peaks attributed to the crystallization of the antioxidant. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the blends was above the room temperature, which may promote a higher stability during storage. The antioxidant activity (AA) values increased for the IN-MX blends, while the viability of the microorganisms increased with the addition of MX. By a surface response plot (SRP) the yield showed a major dependency with the drying temperature and then with the concentration of IN. The work contributes to the use of carbohydrate polymers blends, and to the co-microencapsulation of active ingredients.

2022 ◽  
Hosoowi Lee ◽  
Jun Ho Hwang ◽  
Dajung Lee ◽  
Inhye Kim ◽  
Eunji Lee ◽  

Abstract Reversible supramolecular polymerisation and depolymerisation of biomacromolecules are common and fundamental phenomena in biological systems, which can be controlled by the selective modification of biomacromolecules through molecular recognition. Herein, a porphyrin tripod (DPZnT) connected through a triazole bridge was prepared as a monomeric building block for guest-induced supramolecular polymerisation. Although the lone pair electrons in triazolic nitrogen potentially bind to the zinc porphyrin units through axial ligation, the intrinsic steric hindrance suppressed the coordination of the triazole bridge to the porphyrin unit in DPZnT. Therefore, DPZnT formed spherical nanoparticles through π-π interactions. The addition of 1,3,5-tris(pyridine-4-yl)benzene (Py3B) caused the guest-induced fibrous supramolecular polymerisation of DPZnT by forming a 1:1 host-guest complex, which was further assembled into a fibrous polymer. Furthermore, addition of Cl− to DPZnT induced the transformation of spherical nanoparticles to fibrous supramolecular polymers. The fibrous supramolecular polymers of DPZnT obtained by adding Py3B or Cl− were depolymerised to their original spherical particles after adding Cu(ClO4)2 or AgNO3, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yong Wang ◽  
Gang-feng Yang ◽  
Cheng-liang Ma ◽  
Quan-li Jia ◽  
Qin-guo Jin

Wear resistance is one of the most important performance indicators of filling pipelines, but there are few studies on its quantitative test and life prediction. In this paper, an experimental device and its application method for testing the wear resistance of the pipeline are proposed, and the device is used to test the wear resistance of the self-developed lining composite pipeline, the traditional 16 Mn steel pipeline and the ordinary carbon structural steel pipeline. The results show that the wear resistance of the composite lining material is 12.35 times of that of 16 Mn steel and 7.32 times of that of ordinary carbon structural steel. The wear resistance mechanism is analyzed from the perspective of the material composition of the composite liner, mainly because the composite liner material uses fused alumina grain sand, silicon carbide and other extremely wear-resistant materials with high hardness as aggregate, and the aggregates are spherical or nearly spherical particles, with smooth surface and small friction resistance. Finally, through a comparison engineering application of a certain iron ore concentrate transportation. Compared with the traditional 16 Mn steel pipeline, the composite lined pipeline has been used for more than 5 years without any problems, while the traditional 16 Mn steel pipeline is worn through within 1 year. Engineering application shows that the composite lined pipeline has good wear resistance, and it also confirms the reliability of the detection method proposed in this paper.

2022 ◽  
Raj Kumar Sadhu ◽  
Sarah R. Barger ◽  
Samo Penic ◽  
Ales Iglic ◽  
Mira Krendel ◽  

Phagocytosis is the process of engulfment and internalization of comparatively large particles by the cell, that plays a central role in the functioning of our immune system. We study the process of phagocytosis by considering a simplified coarse grained model of a three-dimensional vesicle, having uniform adhesion interaction with a rigid particle, in the presence of curved membrane proteins and active cytoskeletal forces. Complete engulfment is achieved when the bending energy cost of the vesicle is balanced by the gain in the adhesion energy. The presence of curved (convex) proteins reduces the bending energy cost by self-organizing with higher density at the highly curved leading edge of the engulfing membrane, which forms the circular rim of the phagocytic cup that wraps around the particle. This allows the engulfment to occur at much smaller adhesion strength. When the curved proteins exert outwards protrusive forces, representing actin polymerization, at the leading edge, we find that engulfment is achieved more quickly and at lower protein density. We consider spherical as well as non-spherical particles, and find that non-spherical particles are more difficult to engulf in comparison to the spherical particles of the same surface area. For non-spherical particles, the engulfment time crucially depends upon the initial orientation of the particles with respect to the vesicle. Our model offers a mechanism for the spontaneous self-organization of the actin cytoskeleton at the phagocytic cup, in good agreement with recent high-resolution experimental observations.

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