Induction Chemotherapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthew R. Woeste ◽  
Khaleel D. Wilson ◽  
Edward J. Kruse ◽  
Matthew J. Weiss ◽  
John D. Christein ◽  
...  

BackgroundIrreversible electroporation (IRE) has emerged as a viable consolidative therapy after induction chemotherapy, in which this combination has improved overall survival of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Optimal timing and patient selection for irreversible electroporation remains a clinically unmet need. The aim of this study was to investigate preoperative factors that may assist in predicting progression-free and overall survival following IRE.MethodsA multi-institutional, prospectively maintained database was reviewed for patients with LAPC treated with induction chemotherapy followed by open-technique irreversible electroporation from 7/2015-5/2019. RECIST 1.1 criteria were used to assess tumor response and radiological progression. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were recorded. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan Meier and Cox multivariable regression analyses.Results187 LAPC patients (median age 62 years range, 21 – 91, 65% men, 35% women) were treated with IRE. Median PFS was 21.7 months and median OS from diagnosis was 25.5 months. On multivariable analysis, age ≤ 61 (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.21-0.78, p<0.008) and no prior radiation (HR 0.49, 95%CI 0.26-0.94, p=0.03) were positive predictors of OS after IRE. Age ≤ 61(HR 0.53, 95%CI, 0.28-.99, p=0.046) and FOLFIRINOX followed by gemcitabine/abraxane induction chemotherapy (HR 0.37,95%CI 0.15-0.89, p=0.027) predicted prolonged PFS after IRE. Abnormal CA19-9 values at the time of surgery negatively impacted both OS (HR 2.46, 95%CI 1.28-4.72, p<0.007) and PFS (HR 2.192, 95%CI 1.143-4.201, p=0.018) following IRE.ConclusionsAge, CA 19-9 response, avoidance of pre-IRE radiation, and FOLFIRINOX plus gemcitabine/abraxane induction chemotherapy are prominent factors to consider when referring or selecting LAPC patients to undergo IRE.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Pei ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Hai Liao ◽  
Xiaobo Chen ◽  
Yunyun Wei ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundThe present study aimed to explore the application value of random survival forest (RSF) model and Cox model in predicting the progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC) after induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (IC+CCRT).MethodsEligible LANPC patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan before treatment were subjected to radiomics feature extraction. Radiomics and clinical features of patients in the training cohort were subjected to RSF analysis to predict PFS and were tested in the testing cohort. The performance of an RSF model with clinical and radiologic predictors was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and Delong test and compared with Cox models based on clinical and radiologic parameters. Further, the Kaplan-Meier method was used for risk stratification of patients.ResultsA total of 294 LANPC patients (206 in the training cohort; 88 in the testing cohort) were enrolled and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans before treatment. The AUC value of the clinical Cox model, radiomics Cox model, clinical + radiomics Cox model, and clinical + radiomics RSF model in predicting 3- and 5-year PFS for LANPC patients was [0.545 vs 0.648 vs 0.648 vs 0.899 (training cohort), and 0.566 vs 0.736 vs 0.73 vs 0.861 (testing cohort); 0.556 vs 0.604 vs 0.611 vs 0.897 (training cohort), and 0.591 vs 0.661 vs 0.676 vs 0.847 (testing cohort), respectively]. Delong test showed that the RSF model and the other three Cox models were statistically significant, and the RSF model markedly improved prediction performance (P<0.001). Additionally, the PFS of the high-risk group was lower than that of the low-risk group in the RSF model (P<0.001), while comparable in the Cox model (P>0.05).ConclusionThe RSF model may be a potential tool for prognostic prediction and risk stratification of LANPC patients.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xianggui Yuan ◽  
Teng Yu ◽  
Yurong Huang ◽  
Huawei Jiang ◽  
Xiaohua Xu ◽  
...  

Abstract Induction chemotherapy based on high-dose methotrexate is considered as the standard approach for newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs). However, the best combination chemotherapeutic regimen remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and toxicities of rituximab with methotrexate (R-M regimen). Consecutive 37 Chinese patients receiving R-M regimen as induction chemotherapy were retrospectively identified from January 2015 to June 2020 from our center in eastern China. Fourteen patients receiving rituximab plus methotrexate with cytarabine (R-MA regimen) at the same period were identified as the positive control group. The response rates, survival, toxicities, length of hospital stay (LOS), and cost were compared. Compared with the R-MA regimen, the R-M regimen showed comparable response rate and survival outcomes, but had fewer grade 3-4 hematological toxicities, shorter LOS, lower mean total hospitalization cost and lower mean total antibiotic cost. Overall response after two cycles of chemotherapy, complete remission at the end of induction chemotherapy and ECOG>3 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. In conclusion, R-M regimen is an effective and well-tolerated combination treatment for PCNSLs, which warrants further evaluation in randomized trials.


Author(s):  
Shan-Shan Yang ◽  
Yi-Shan Wu ◽  
Ya-Jun Pang ◽  
Su-Ming Xiao ◽  
Bao-Yu Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives We aimed to develop and validate radiologic scores from [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI to guide individualized induction chemotherapy (IC) for patients with T3N1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A total of 542 T3N1M0 patients who underwent pretreatment [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI were enrolled in the training cohort. A total of 174 patients underwent biopsy of one or more cervical lymph nodes. Failure-free survival (FFS) was the primary endpoint. The radiologic score, which was calculated according to the number of risk factors from the multivariate model, was used for risk stratification. The survival difference of patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with or without IC was then compared in risk-stratified subgroups. Another cohort from our prospective clinical trial (N = 353, NCT03003182) was applied for validation. Results The sensitivity of [18F]FDG PET/CT was better than that of MRI (97.7% vs. 87.1%, p < 0.001) for diagnosing histologically proven metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Radiologic lymph node characteristics were independent risk factors for FFS (all p < 0.05). High-risk patients (n = 329) stratified by radiologic score benefited from IC (5-year FFS: IC + CCRT 83.5% vs. CCRT 70.5%; p = 0.0044), while low-risk patients (n = 213) did not. These results were verified again in the validation cohort. Conclusions T3N1M0 patients were accurately staged by both [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI. The radiologic score can correctly identify high-risk patients who can gain additional survival benefit from IC and it can be used to guide individualized treatment of T3N1M0 NPC. Key Points • [18F]FDG PET/CT was more accurate than MRI in diagnosing histologically proven cervical lymph nodes. • Radiologic lymph node characteristics were reliable independent risk factors for FFS in T3N1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. • High-risk patients identified by the radiologic score based on [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI could benefit from the addition of induction chemotherapy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 94-100
Author(s):  
Sushila Koirala

Malnutrition is a common problem in cancer patients. It has been recognized as an important component to influence on tolerance to treatment, increased morbidity, poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and increased health care costs. Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in children of which acute lymphoblastic leukemia accounts for majority of the cases (75%). Chemotherapy is the main treatment modality for acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL). Under nutrition can contribute to the incidence and severity of treatment side effects and increases the risk of infection, thereby reducing the chances of survival. Objectives: To evaluate pretreatment nutritional status (BMI) in children with ALL and its effects during first induction chemotherapy. Methodology: This observational study included sixty-two consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, admitted in Haemato-Oncology Ward of BPKMCH over a period of 27 months (15thy May, 2015 to 15th July, 2017) were measured for height and weight to calculate BMI for assessing nutritional status at presentation. Children were grouped into 2 group: normal weight and underweight usingCDC BMI percentile chart by World Health Organization(WHO). Day to day observation and documentation were maintained to identify any side effects and complications over a period of first induction chemotherapy. Findings of the study: Among 62 cases, majority were male (66%). Three forth of the cases were B-cell ALL. More than 34 percent of the cases (27) had under- weight (BMI< 5thpercentile). Effects like very severe neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, infections, musculoskeletal problems, severe pancytopenia, G/I problems were noted mostly in children with underweight. Conclusion: Baseline nutritional status negatively influences in the occurrence of complications during induction chemotherapy in children with ALL. The nutritional support has to be personalized according to the nutritional status of the single patient.


BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ari J. Rosenberg ◽  
Evgeny Izumchenko ◽  
Alexander Pearson ◽  
Zhen Gooi ◽  
Elizabeth Blair ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has a favorable prognosis which has led to efforts to de-intensify treatment. Response-adaptive de-escalated treatment is promising, however improved biomarkers are needed. Quantitative cell-free HPV-DNA (cfHPV-DNA) in plasma represents an attractive non-invasive biomarker for grading treatment response and post-treatment surveillance. This prospective study evaluates dynamic changes in cfHPV-DNA during induction therapy, definitive (chemo)radiotherapy, and post-treatment surveillance in the context of risk and response-adaptive treatment for HPV + OPC. Methods Patients with locoregional HPV + OPC are stratified into two cohorts: High risk (HR) (T4, N3, $$\ge$$ ≥ 20 pack-year smoking history (PYH), or non-HPV16 subtype); Low risk (LR) (all other patients). All patients receive induction chemotherapy with three cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel. LR with ≥ 50% response receive treatment on the single-modality arm (minimally-invasive surgery or radiation alone to 50 Gy). HR with ≥ 50% response or LR with ≥ 30% and < 50% response receive treatment on the intermediate de-escalation arm (chemoradiation to 50 Gy with cisplatin). All other patients receive treatment on the regular dose arm with chemoradiation to 70 Gy with concurrent cisplatin. Plasma cfHPV-DNA is assessed during induction, (chemo)radiation, and post-treatment surveillance. The primary endpoint is correlation of quantitative cfHPV-DNA with radiographic response. Discussion A de-escalation treatment paradigm that reduces toxicity without compromising survival outcomes is urgently needed for HPV + OPC. Response to induction chemotherapy is predictive and prognostic and can select candidates for de-escalated definitive therapy. Assessment of quantitative cfHPV-DNA in the context of response-adaptive treatment of represents a promising reliable and convenient biomarker-driven strategy to guide personalized treatment in HPV + OPC. Trial registration This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on October 1st, 2020 with Identifier: NCT04572100.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e2288
Author(s):  
Mahdiyar Iravani Saadi ◽  
Mani Ramzi ◽  
Aliasghar Karimi ◽  
Maryam Owjfard ◽  
Mahmoud Torkamani ◽  
...  

Background: Acute Myeloid Leukemia syndrome (AML) is a hematologic malignancy which is due to clonal extensive proliferation of leukemic precursor cells and is rapidly fatal unless treated or response to chemotherapy. Cytogenetic findings have important role in prognosis and categorization of AML. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression changes in CX3CL1 and Interlukin-6 (IL-6) genes before and after chemotherapy as remission induction therapy in AML patients. Materials and Methods: In this study 69 patients (36 males, 33 female) with AML was selected from tertiary medical heath center. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done for mRNA expression of CX3CL1 and IL-6genes before and after induction chemotherapy. To obtain expression changes in CX3CL1 and IL-6genes, we used 2-ΔΔCT method. Results: The expression of CX3CL1 and IL-6 was significantly increased after induction chemotherapy. Also, the ΔCt mean of CX3CL1 and IL-6 mRNA was not significant between AML subtype groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, as we showed that chemotherapy significantly increase the expression of CX3CL1 and IL-6 which can be used as a prognostic factor of AML.


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