distant metastasis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 514-522
Xiongsheng Xiao ◽  
Zhi Zhang ◽  
Hongpo Xie ◽  
Siyi Li ◽  
Jianwen Li

Our current study plans to dissect the impacts and its underlying mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the invasive and metastatic features of PTC. Clinical specimens from distantly metastatic PTC were collected to measure DRR2 level. After being identified via tri-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry, BMSCs were co-cultured with PTC cells followed by analysis of cell proliferation and migration by CCK-8 and Transwell assays, expression of DDR2 and EMT-associated proteins by Western blot. Eventually, shDDR2-transfected BMSCs were infused with PTC cells into the abdominal cavity of mice to establish a mouse model assess their effect on tumor growth and distant metastasis. DDR2 was upregulated in BMSCs and malignant cells located in the metastatic sites. Co-culture with BMSCs enhanced DRR2 expression in PTC cells, which was simultaneously accompanied by the escalated mesenchymalization process. In vivo experiments exhibited that co-injection with BMSCs facilitated disease progression and distant metastasis of malignancies. Instead, DDR2 knockdown significantly impeded BMSCs-triggered migrative and proliferative behaviors of malignant cells. In conclusion, DDR2 derived from BMSCs can function as a communication mediator to strengthen the invasiveness and metastasis of PTC.

2022 ◽  
Yu Lin ◽  
Zhenyu Wang ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Wenge Liu

Abstract Background:Spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma is a rare type of all osteosarcomas,and distant metastasis is an important factor for poor prognosis of this disease. There are no similar studies on prediction of distant metastasis of spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma. We aim to construct and validate a nomogram to predict the risk of distant metastasis of spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma.Methods:We collected the data on patients with spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results(SEER) database retrospectively. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to compare differences in survival time between patients with metastasis and non-metastasis. Total patients were randomly divided into training cohort and validation cohort. The risk factor of distant metastasis were identified via the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator(LASSO) regression and multivariate logistic analysis. The nomogram we constructed were validated internally and externally by C-index, calibration curves,receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve and Decision curve analysis (DCA).Results:The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the survival time of non-metastatic patients was longer than that of metastatic patients(P<0.001).All patients(n=358) were divided into training cohort(n=269) and validation cohort(n=89).The LASSO regression selected five meaningful variables in the training cohort. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that surgery(yes,OR=0.175, 95%CI=0.095-0.321,p=0.000) was the independent risk factors for distant metastasis of patients with spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma. The C-index and calibration curves showed the good agreement between the predicted results and the actual results. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC) values were 0.748(95%CI=0.687-0.817) and 0.758(95%CI=0.631-0.868) in the training and validation cohorts respectively. The DCA showed that the nomogram has a good clinical usefulness and net benefit.Conclusion:No surgery is the independent risk factor of distant metastasis of spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma. The nomogram we constructed to predict the probability of distant metastasis of patients with spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma is reliable and effective by internal and external verification.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Agnes Stephanie Harahap ◽  
Desty Gusti Sari ◽  
Marini Stephanie ◽  
Alvita Dewi Siswoyo ◽  
Litta Septina Mahmelia Zaid ◽  

Introduction. Thyroid cancer is the third most common cancer that occurs in children and adolescents. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Although the mortality rate of thyroid malignancy in children is usually low, the disease recurrence is higher in children with more severe clinical presentation than in adults. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of pediatric and adolescent patients with thyroid malignancy in Indonesia. Methods. The retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma aged <20 years, from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Twenty-nine subjects fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We retrieved baseline characteristics, pathology features, TSH and fT4 status, radioactive iodine therapy data, and patients’ outcomes. Then, data were analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact method. Results. We identified 29 eligible subjects, including 3 boys and 26 girls. The most common type of thyroid carcinoma was PTC (96.5%), and follicular type (31%) was the predominant variant of PTC. Lymph node involvement occurred in 24% of patients, while distant metastasis occurred in 17.2% of patients with PTC. Twenty-four (82.7%) patients had stage 1 disease. Disease recurrence was recorded in 31% of patients during the study period with a median follow-up time of 24 months. Conclusion. PTC is the most frequent type of thyroid carcinoma among children and adolescents. This malignancy has a low mortality rate, but the recurrence rate remains high among younger patients than adults even during a short-term follow-up analysis. Distant metastasis and lymph node involvement are commonly found in this age group.

Xiuli Zheng ◽  
Mingli Wu ◽  
Limian Er ◽  
Huiyan Deng ◽  
Gongning Wang ◽  

Abstract Purpose The detection rate of colorectal neuroendocrine tumours (CR-NETs) is increasing, but their treatment is still controversial. Lymph node metastasis is an important reference index for the selection of treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the factors associated with lymph node metastasis and prognosis of CR-NETs. Methods The case characteristics of patients with colorectal neuroendocrine tumours from January 2011 to December 2020 were retrospectively analysed, including age, gender, tumour size, tumour location, lymph node metastasis, pathological grade and follow-up. Results A total of 195 cases of CR-NETs were included in this study. When 15 mm was used as the cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) of lymph node metastases were 95.9%, 95.2% and 0.986, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that tumour size ≥ 15 mm (OR: 30.517, 95% CI: 1.250 ~ 744.996, p = 0.036) and lymphovascular invasion (OR: 42.796, 95% CI: 2.882 ~ 635.571, p = 0.006) were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. Age ≥ 56 (HR: 7.434, 95% CI: 1.334 ~ 41.443, p = 0.022) and distant metastasis (HR: 24.487, 95% CI: 5.357 ~ 111.940, p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors in multivariable analyses. Conclusions When the size of a CR-NET is ≥ 15 mm, the risk of lymph node metastasis is higher, and it is recommended to choose the surgical method carefully. Tumour size and lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. Age ≥ 56 and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hui-Ju Chang ◽  
Ueng-Cheng Yang ◽  
Mei-Yu Lai ◽  
Chen-Hsin Chen ◽  
Yang-Cheng Fann

AbstractAlthough the function of the BRCA1 gene has been extensively studied, the relationship between BRCA1 gene expression and tumor aggressiveness remains controversial in sporadic breast cancers. Because the BRCA1 protein is known to regulate estrogen signaling, we selected microarray data of ER+ breast cancers from the GEO public repository to resolve previous conflicting findings. The BRCA1 gene expression level in highly proliferative luminal B tumors was shown to be higher than that in luminal A tumors. Survival analysis using a cure model indicated that patients of early ER+ breast cancers with high BRCA1 expression developed rapid distant metastasis. In addition, the proliferation marker genes MKI67 and PCNA, which are characteristic of aggressive tumors, were also highly expressed in patients with high BRCA1 expression. The associations among high BRCA1 expression, high proliferation marker expression, and high risk of distant metastasis emerged in independent datasets, regardless of tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen therapy could improve the metastasis-free fraction of high BRCA1 expression patients. Our findings link BRCA1 expression with proliferation and possibly distant metastasis via the ER signaling pathway. We propose a testable hypothesis based on these consistent results and offer an interpretation for our reported associations.

Xiao-Yun Li ◽  
Dong-Hua Luo ◽  
Ling Guo ◽  
Hao-Yuan Mo ◽  
Rui Sun ◽  

PURPOSE Cumulative doses of 200 mg/m2 for concurrent cisplatin (DDP) were indicated by retrospective studies as sufficient in conferring survival benefit for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). We performed an open-label, phase II, randomized, controlled trial to test the noninferiority of a two-cycle 100 mg/m2 concurrent DDP regimen over three-cycle in patients with low-risk LA-NPC with pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels < 4,000 copies/mL. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligible patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive two cycles or three cycles concurrent DDP-based chemoradiotherapy. The primary end point was 3-year progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary end points included overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, etc. RESULTS Between September 2016 and October 2018, 332 patients were enrolled, with 166 in each arm. After a median follow-up of 37.7 months, the estimated 3-year PFS rates were 88.0% in the two-cycle group and 90.4% in the three-cycle group, with a difference of 2.4% (95% CI, –4.3 to 9.1, Pnoninferiority = .014). No differences were observed between groups in terms of PFS, overall survival, and the cumulative incidences of locoregional relapse and distant metastasis. Patients in the three-cycle group developed significantly more grade 3-4 mucositis (41 [24.8%] v 25 [15.1%]), hyponatremia (26 [15.8%] v 14 [8.4%]), and dermatitis (9 [5.5%] v 2 [1.2%]). The overall all-grade and grade 3-4 toxicity burdens were heavier in three-cycle group (T-scores, 12.33 v 10.57, P < .001 for all grades; 1.76 v 1.44, P = .05 for grade 3-4). Patients in the three-cycle group also showed more all-grade hearing impairment, dry mouth and skin fibrosis, and impaired long-term quality of life. CONCLUSION Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus two cycles of concurrent 100 mg/m2 DDP could be an alternative treatment option for patients with low-risk LA-NPC.

Chengrun Du ◽  
Mengshan Ni ◽  
Jianyun Jiang ◽  
Fangfang Kong ◽  
Ruiping Zhai ◽  

Abstract Purpose To evaluate treatment outcomes of de novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) patients receiving taxane/gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy followed by locoregional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and analyze potential prognostic factors. Methods A total of 118 patients between March 2008 and November 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were treated with taxane/gemcitabine-containing systemic chemotherapy followed by definitive locoregional IMRT. Potential prognostic factors including baseline absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and the subdivision of metastasis were analyzed. Results The median follow-up time for the whole group was 31.5 months (range 5–138 months). Of the 118 patients, 9 (7.6%) patients experienced local regional failure and 60 (50.8%) patients had progression of distant metastasis. At the time of the last follow-up, 61 (51.7%) patients were dead. The 5-year actuarial progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS),distant metastasis relapse free survival (DMFS) and local regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) were 34.2%, 44%, 41.1% and 82.6%, respectively. Baseline lymphocyte count ≥ 1600/μl prior to the treatment conferred better locoregional control (5y-LRFS 96% vs. 64.7%, p < 0.001) and distant metastasis control (5y-MFS 50.4% vs. 32.4%, p = 0.023). The multivariate analysis showed that high lymphocyte count was the most relevant predictor of superior PFS (HR = 0.236, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.518, p = 0.04). M subdivision was found as another independent prognostic factor for OS but not for PFS. Conclusion Taxane/gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy combined with IMRT represents an effective treatment modality for mNPC. Baseline ALC is an independent significant prognostic factor for PFS and OS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Hsueh-Ju Lu ◽  
Yu-Wei Chiu ◽  
Wen-San Lan ◽  
Chih-Yu Peng ◽  
Hsien-Chun Tseng ◽  

Patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) who develop distant metastasis (DM) face poor outcomes, and effective prediction models of DM are rare. A total of 595 patients with OCSCC were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Because pathological N staging significantly influences the development and mechanisms of DM, the patients were divided into nodal-negative (pN−) and -positive (pN+) groups. Clinical outcomes, prognoses, and prediction models were analyzed separately for both groups. Overall, 8.9% (53/595) of these patients developed DM. Among the DM cases, 84.9% (45/53) of them developed DM within the first 3 years. The median overall survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, time until DM development, and postmetastatic survival were 19.8, 12.7, 14.6, and 4.1 months, respectively. Distinguishing patients who only developed locoregional recurrence from those with DM according to locoregional conditions was difficult. Age, surgical margin, and early locoregional recurrence were predictors of DM that were independent of time until DM in the pN− group; the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and early locoregional recurrence in the pN+ group were determined. If one point was scored for each factor, then two scoring systems were used to classify the patients into low- (score = 0), intermittent- (score = 1), or high- (score = 2 or 3) risk for the pN− and pN+ groups. According to this scoring system, the 3-year DM rates for the low, intermittent, and high risk subgroups were 0.0%, 5.9%, and 17.8% for the pN− group and 7.1%, 44.9%, and 82.5% for the pN+ group, respectively. These systems also effectively predicted DM, and the areas under the curve predicted DM occurring within the first 3 years were 0.744 and 0.820 for the pN− and pN+ groups, respectively. In conclusion, effective scoring models were established for predicting DM.

Nanoscale ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yonghui Wang ◽  
Binfan Chen ◽  
Zhidi He ◽  
Bin Tu ◽  
Pengfei Zhao ◽  

Lung cancer is the top cause of cancer mortality in the world. Distant metastasis leads to high mortality. Abdominal metastasis of lung cancer is characterized by a very poor prognosis...

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