child protection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Haozhe Yu ◽  
Minhui Xu ◽  
Yue Zhao ◽  
Jingyi Li ◽  
Wenyu Wu ◽  

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the health of people around the world and has reshaped social behaviors and clinical practice. The purpose of this perspective is to provide epidemiologists and clinicians with information about how the spectrum of ocular trauma diseases changed, as well as to optimize management for improving patient prognosis during this crisis. Analysis of current studies revealed that the prevalence of eye trauma decreased overall, with a trend of delayed medical treatment during the COVID-19 era. Irregular epidemic prevention and control measures, unprotected home activities, and unusual mental states are the main causes of ocular trauma. Strategies for reducing morbidity are also discussed, including popularizing the use norms of prevention and control supplies, taking heed to the safety of family activities, highlighting the special status of child protection, and paying attention to previous case data to implement region-specific precautions. The procedure of ophthalmological emergency and outpatient management should also be optimized, and mental health should be emphasized during this pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 183-196
Akbar Tanjung Juraid ◽  
Oryza Pneumatica Inderasari ◽  
Khalifatul Syuhada

The problem studied in this study is the exploitation of children in the tradition of horse racing in the Dompu community. The purpose of this study is to find out the form of expolocitation of children who act as child jockeys in community traditions in Dompu Regency, knowing the implications of parental parenting on the choice of being a child jockey in Dompu regency and knowing the potential implementation of child protection based on Law No. 35 of 2014 on child jockeys. This research uses a qualitative descriptive approach. The data collection techniques used are methods of observation, in-depth interviews and documentation. Analysis of data in this study in the form of narratives obtained during interview activities, as well as some documents related to research topics. Using the paradigm in social definition, with the theory used in this study is the social theory of Max Weber. The results of this study found that (1). A form of child exploitation that acts as a child jockey in the community tradition in Dompu Regency. Consisting of parental coercion, the risk of accidents of child jockeys, safety and health are threatened, educational challenges and an environment that is not conducive (2). Implications of parental parenting on the choice of being a child jockey in Dompu Regency. Consists of parenting models, family economic resources and hereditary habits (3). The potential  implementation of child protection under Law number 35 of 2014 on child jockeys. Consisting of a system of resusing and protecting the use of child jockeys, government regulations related to the use of children as child jockeys and horse racing are used as tourism promotion sectors of Dompu Regency, becoming a characteristic of the Dompu Regency area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Svein Arild Vis ◽  
Camilla Lauritzen ◽  
Øivin Christiansen ◽  
Charlotte Reedtz

Background: Parental mental health problems is a common source of concern reported to child welfare and protection services (CWPS). In this study we explored to what extent the child was invited to participate in the investigation process. We aimed to study: (a) what was the current practice in the child protection service in Norway when the CWPS received a report of concern about children whose parents were affected by mental health problems or substance abuse, (b) to what extent were children involved and consulted, (c) which factors predicted the decision to involve the children, and (d) in cases in which conversations with children were conducted: what was the main content of the conversations.Method: The study was a cross-sectional case file study (N = 1,123). Data were collected retrospectively from case records in 16 different child protection agencies. The cases were randomly drawn from all referrals registered in the participating agencies. Differences in how investigations were conducted in cases with and without concerns about parental mental health were analyzed using t-tests and chi-square testes. Predictors of child involvement in cases with parental mental health problems (N = 324) were estimated by logistic regression analyses.Results: When the referral to the CWPS contained concerns about parental mental health, there were more consultations with parents, more frequent home visits and the investigation took longer to conclude. The children, however, were less likely to be involved. Children in such cases were consulted in 47.5% of cases. Predictors for involving the children in those cases were child age, concern about the child's emotional problems and if the child was known from previous referrals.Conclusion: In Norwegian child protection investigations, in which there were concerns about the parent's mental health, conversations with children were conducted to a significantly lower degree compared to cases where the child's problem was the main concern. In such cases, the CWPS workers have to overcome a threshold before they consult with the child. The threshold decreases with child age and when case worker already knows the child.

2022 ◽  
Samantha Bouchard ◽  
Rachel Langevin ◽  
Francis Vergunst ◽  
Melissa Commisso ◽  
Pascale Domond ◽  

Importance: Individuals who have been sexually abused are at a greater risk for poor health, but associations with economic outcomes in mid-life have been overlooked. Objectives: We investigated associations between child sexual abuse (≤18 years) and economic outcomes at 33-37 years, while considering type of report (official/retrospective) and characteristics of abuse (type, severity, and chronicity). Design: This cohort study used data collected for the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Setting: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is a population-based sample. Participants: Participants were 3,020 boys and girls attending kindergarten in the Canadian Province of Quebec in 1986/88 and followed up until 2017. Main outcome/Measures: Child sexual abuse (0-18 years old) was assessed using both retrospective self-report questionnaires and objective reports (notification to Child Protection Services). Information on employment earnings was obtained from government tax return records. Tobit regressions were used to test associations of sexual abuse with earnings adjusting for sex and family socioeconomic background. Results: Of the 3,020 participants 1,320 [43.7%] self-reported no sexual abuse, 1,340 [44.3%] had no official report but were missing on the retrospective questionnaire, 340 [11.3%] reported retrospective sexual abuse, and 20 [0.7%] had official report. In the fully adjusted model, individuals who retrospectively reported being sexually abused earned US$4,031 (CI=-7,134 to -931) less per year at age 33-37 years, while those with official reports earned US$16,042 (CI=-27,465 to -4,618) less, compared to participants who were not abused. Among individuals with retrospectively reported abuse, those who experienced intra-familial abuse earned US$4,696 (CI=-9,316 to -75) less than individuals who experienced extra-familial abuse, while participants who experienced penetration earned US$6,188 (CI=-12,248 to -129) less than those who experienced non-contact abuse. Conclusion and Relevance: Child sexual abuse puts individuals at risk for lasting reductions in employment earnings in adulthood. Early identification and support for sexual abuse victims could help reduce the economic gap and improve long-term outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 476-502
Yayan Sopyan

As one of the countries that ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 which was subsequently promulgated into the Child Protection Act, Indonesia is still unsuccessful in protecting children. This mainly occurs in the context of protection illegal migrant workers’ children who were born in the country where their parents work. In Sarawak, Malaysia, for instance, there are 43,445 stateless children. This study aims to portray the stateless children in Sarawak, Malaysia, and the efforts of the Indonesian government to protect their right to access justice. This research is normative-qualitative with observations and in-depth interviews with consultant general staff and Indonesian volunteers In Sarawak as one of the main research methods. The results of this study indicate that stateless condition makes it possible for the children to get other rights, such as education. Meanwhile, the Indonesian government has already made regulations and efforts to provide access to basic human rights for children of stateless migrant workers, including itsbat nikah abroad to legalize unregistered marriage among workers. However, it has not been fully successful because the problems are so complex that it needs to involve several parties, especially the Malaysian government, and plantation owners as employers of the migrant workers. Likewise, harder and more coordinated efforts are also needed to fulfill their citizenship right. (Sebagai salah satu negara yang meratifikasi Konvensi PBB tentang Hak Anak pada 1990 dan kemudian dikristalkan menjadi Undang-undang Perlidungan Anak, Indonesia ternyata belum sepenuhnya berhasil melindungi hak-hak anak. Ini utamanya berlaku dalam konteks perlindungan terhadap anak para buruh migran yang lahir dan tinggal di negara tempat orang tuanya bekerja. Di Sarawak, Malaysia, ada 43.445 anak-anak tanpa kewarganegaraan. Penelitian ini bertujuan memotret kondisi anak buruh migran ilegal tanpa kewarganegaraan di Serawak, Malaysia, serta menjelaskan upaya pemerintah Indonesia untuk melindungi hak-hak mereka. Penelitian ini bersifat normatif-kualitatif dengan observasi dan wawancara mendalam kepada pegawai Konsulat Jenderal dan relawan Indonesia sebagai salah satu metode penggalian data utamanya. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa status tanpa kewarganegaraan menghalangi anak-anak tersebut mengakses hak-haknya yang lain, semisal pendidikan. Sementara itu, pemerintah Indonesia sudah memiliki beberapa aturan tertulis dan berupaya memberikan akses keadilan bagi anak para buruh migran tersebut, termasuk melalui program itsbat nikah di luar negeri. Namun demikian, situasi belum sepenuhnya terkendali karena permasalahan yang begitu kompleks dan mengharuskan keterlibatan banyak pihak, utamanya pemerintah Malaysia dan para pemilik perkebunan. Perlu juga dilakukan upaya yang lebih keras dan terkordinasi agar hak-hak tersebut dapat terpenuhi.)

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