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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-42
Michael Tannen

Based upon the highly innovative Project TALENT Longitudinal Database, this study tracks the starting earnings and subsequent early earnings growth of young males who began their work careers at either a smaller (<100 employees) or larger private firm more than a generation ago.  Prior evidence based upon less rich databases found that earnings were systematically higher in larger firms but did not have access to many other variables that could affect projected earnings which are available in the TALENT database. Earnings regressions are estimated here including not only usual explanatory variables of years of schooling and labor market experience, but also adding other variables pertaining to prior job experience, military service, IQ, socioeconomic background and some other factors.  The findings indicate that while starting earnings of those in this database were indeed higher in larger firms, the gap evaporated fairly quickly with projected earnings of those in smaller firms featuring a small earnings premium. The results here suggest guidance based upon the body of prior evidence may have been less reliable than thought, and that evidence itself may not provide as useful a baseline as desired for subsequent research addressing whether this pattern continues for recent cohorts.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003884
Ipek Gurol-Urganci ◽  
Lara Waite ◽  
Kirstin Webster ◽  
Jennifer Jardine ◽  
Fran Carroll ◽  

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted maternity services worldwide and imposed restrictions on societal behaviours. This national study aimed to compare obstetric intervention and pregnancy outcome rates in England during the pandemic and corresponding pre-pandemic calendar periods, and to assess whether differences in these rates varied according to ethnic and socioeconomic background. Methods and findings We conducted a national study of singleton births in English National Health Service hospitals. We compared births during the COVID-19 pandemic period (23 March 2020 to 22 February 2021) with births during the corresponding calendar period 1 year earlier. The Hospital Episode Statistics database provided administrative hospital data about maternal characteristics, obstetric inventions (induction of labour, elective or emergency cesarean section, and instrumental birth), and outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, small for gestational age [SGA; birthweight < 10th centile], prolonged maternal length of stay (≥3 days), and maternal 42-day readmission). Multi-level logistic regression models were used to compare intervention and outcome rates between the corresponding pre-pandemic and pandemic calendar periods and to test for interactions between pandemic period and ethnic and socioeconomic background. All models were adjusted for maternal characteristics including age, obstetric history, comorbidities, and COVID-19 status at birth. The study included 948,020 singleton births (maternal characteristics: median age 30 years, 41.6% primiparous, 8.3% with gestational diabetes, 2.4% with preeclampsia, and 1.6% with pre-existing diabetes or hypertension); 451,727 births occurred during the defined pandemic period. Maternal characteristics were similar in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, stillbirth rates remained similar (0.36% pandemic versus 0.37% pre-pandemic, p = 0.16). Preterm birth and SGA birth rates were slightly lower during the pandemic (6.0% versus 6.1% for preterm births, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.97; 5.6% versus 5.8% for SGA births, aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.93–0.96; both p < 0.001). Slightly higher rates of obstetric intervention were observed during the pandemic (40.4% versus 39.1% for induction of labour, aOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03–1.05; 13.9% versus 12.9% for elective cesarean section, aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11–1.14; 18.4% versus 17.0% for emergency cesarean section, aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.08; all p < 0.001). Lower rates of prolonged maternal length of stay (16.7% versus 20.2%, aOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.76–0.78, p < 0.001) and maternal readmission (3.0% versus 3.3%, aOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.86–0.90, p < 0.001) were observed during the pandemic period. There was some evidence that differences in the rates of preterm birth, emergency cesarean section, and unassisted vaginal birth varied according to the mother’s ethnic background but not according to her socioeconomic background. A key limitation is that multiple comparisons were made, increasing the chance of false-positive results. Conclusions In this study, we found very small decreases in preterm birth and SGA birth rates and very small increases in induction of labour and elective and emergency cesarean section during the COVID-19 pandemic, with some evidence of a slightly different pattern of results in women from ethnic minority backgrounds. These changes in obstetric intervention rates and pregnancy outcomes may be linked to women’s behaviour, environmental exposure, changes in maternity practice, or reduced staffing levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Divya Mittal ◽  
Shiv Ratan Agrawal

PurposeThe current study employs text mining and sentiment analysis to identify core banking service attributes and customer sentiment in online user-generated reviews. Additionally, the study explains customer satisfaction based on the identified predictors.Design/methodology/approachA total of 32,217 customer reviews were collected across 29 top banks on posted from 2014 to 2021. In total three conceptual models were developed and evaluated employing regression analysis.FindingsThe study revealed that all variables were found to be statistically significant and affect customer satisfaction in their respective models except the interest rate.Research limitations/implicationsThe study is confined to the geographical representation of its subjects' i.e. Indian customers. A cross-cultural and socioeconomic background analysis of banking customers in different countries may help to better generalize the findings.Practical implicationsThe study makes essential theoretical and managerial contributions to the existing literature on services, particularly the banking sector.Originality/valueThis paper is unique in nature that focuses on banking customer satisfaction from online reviews and ratings using text mining and sentiment analysis.

2022 ◽  
Samantha Bouchard ◽  
Rachel Langevin ◽  
Francis Vergunst ◽  
Melissa Commisso ◽  
Pascale Domond ◽  

Importance: Individuals who have been sexually abused are at a greater risk for poor health, but associations with economic outcomes in mid-life have been overlooked. Objectives: We investigated associations between child sexual abuse (≤18 years) and economic outcomes at 33-37 years, while considering type of report (official/retrospective) and characteristics of abuse (type, severity, and chronicity). Design: This cohort study used data collected for the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Setting: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is a population-based sample. Participants: Participants were 3,020 boys and girls attending kindergarten in the Canadian Province of Quebec in 1986/88 and followed up until 2017. Main outcome/Measures: Child sexual abuse (0-18 years old) was assessed using both retrospective self-report questionnaires and objective reports (notification to Child Protection Services). Information on employment earnings was obtained from government tax return records. Tobit regressions were used to test associations of sexual abuse with earnings adjusting for sex and family socioeconomic background. Results: Of the 3,020 participants 1,320 [43.7%] self-reported no sexual abuse, 1,340 [44.3%] had no official report but were missing on the retrospective questionnaire, 340 [11.3%] reported retrospective sexual abuse, and 20 [0.7%] had official report. In the fully adjusted model, individuals who retrospectively reported being sexually abused earned US$4,031 (CI=-7,134 to -931) less per year at age 33-37 years, while those with official reports earned US$16,042 (CI=-27,465 to -4,618) less, compared to participants who were not abused. Among individuals with retrospectively reported abuse, those who experienced intra-familial abuse earned US$4,696 (CI=-9,316 to -75) less than individuals who experienced extra-familial abuse, while participants who experienced penetration earned US$6,188 (CI=-12,248 to -129) less than those who experienced non-contact abuse. Conclusion and Relevance: Child sexual abuse puts individuals at risk for lasting reductions in employment earnings in adulthood. Early identification and support for sexual abuse victims could help reduce the economic gap and improve long-term outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 277-289
Rafaquat Ali ◽  
Furrukh Bashir ◽  
Abou Bakar ◽  
Ismat Nasim

The learning approaches consist of students’ learning intentions and strategies to learn. The ramification of their different learning approaches ends in various academic achievements. Their learning approaches mediate the impacts of students’ epistemological beliefs, learning conceptions, personality, and ability to learn on their academic achievements. Apart from personal variables, differences in students’ socioeconomic background, gender, disciplines of study, duration of experience in education, teaching approaches, and teaching methods produce differences in students’ learning approaches. The cultural and social differences produce specific personal attributes in students that impact learning approaches. Therefore, this study explored the impacts of Pakistani university students’ socioeconomic background, gender, study disciplines, and university education experience on their learning approaches. The sample of this study comprised 488 university students. The sampling technique to select this sample was a convenient non-probability sampling technique. The structural equation modeling approach was used to calculate the direct and total effects of students’ socioeconomic background, gender, disciplines of study, and duration of university education experience on their learning approaches. The Pakistani university students’ socioeconomic classes, disciplines of study, and duration of university education experience have significant direct and total effects on their learning approaches. The variable gender did not cause a significant direct or total effect on Pakistani university students’ learning approaches. The study contributed knowledge regarding factors that impact university students ‘learning approaches in the context of Pakistan.

Maximilian Andreas Storz ◽  
Alexander Müller ◽  
Mauro Lombardo

An increasing number of individuals adopt plant-based diets for their potential health benefits. Understanding vegetarians’ dietary behavior in the context of their socioeconomic background is essential for pro-vegetarian messaging and to influence public beliefs about plant food consumption. Thus, this study sought to investigate diet and consumer behaviors in U.S. vegetarians. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with data from the Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys (2007–2010). Selected items from three modules (diet and nutrition behavior, consumer behavior, and food security) were compared between vegetarians (n = 352) and the general population (n = 14,328). U.S. vegetarians consumed significantly fewer calories and less cholesterol but more fiber than their omnivorous counterparts. Moreover, vegetarians had significantly fewer soft drinks and salty snacks available at home. We also observed significant intergroup differences with regard to the availability of fruit and dark green vegetables. Vegetarians spent less money on eating out and indicated a lower number of not-home-prepared meals and ready-to-eat foods. We found no differences regarding money spent at supermarkets or grocery stores. Our study contributes to a better understanding of dietary and consumer behaviors in vegetarians. We shed a new light on the economic feasibility of vegetarian diets, highlighting that these diets are not necessarily more expensive than an omnivorous diet.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261108
Yaron Zelekha

This research examines the entrepreneurship gender gap by offering an additional novel explanation for the higher share of men in entrepreneurial activity focusing on intergenerational parental role. Participants (N = 1288) aged 18–81, including 259 actual entrepreneurs, completed questionnaires about entrepreneurship tendency, personality traits and socioeconomic background. The gender gap in actual entrepreneurship continues a significant difference in entrepreneurial tendency, which is developed in the first and the second stages of the entrepreneurial trajectory. When women reach the third stage of entrepreneurial development, the execution stage, they have already acquired a self-perception of an incapable and incommensurate entrepreneurial personality. The results indicate that role modeling behavioral channel significantly accounts for the gender gap in entrepreneurial personality. The results suggest that both parents contribute to women’s’ inferior perception of entrepreneurial personality and that their contribution affects all four aspects of the entrepreneurial tendency. It appears that the impact of fathers’ role modeling is larger than that of mothers, and furthermore fathers transfer other entrepreneurial role models from their side in the family.

2021 ◽  
Tut Galai ◽  
Gal Friedman ◽  
Michal Moses MA ◽  
Kim Shemer ◽  
Dana L Gal ◽  

Abstract Background: Knowledge and understanding of risk mechanisms associated with pediatric feeding disorders (PFD) remain limited. We aimed to investigate causative factors associated with PFD and their relation to specific PFD types according to the recent consensus WHO-based definition. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with PFD and retrieved their demographic and clinical characteristics. Healthy age- and sex-matched children served as controls. Results: Included were 254 children with PFD [median (interquartile range) age 16.4 (9.5-33) months at diagnosis] and 108 children in the control group [median age 24.85 (14.5-28.5) months]. According to the WHO-based definition, disturbances in oral intake were predominantly related to nutritional dysfunction in 118 (46.6%), feeding skill dysfunction in 83 (32.3%), medical conditions in 42 (16.7%) and psychosocial dysfunction in 11 (4.4%). In multivariate analysis, children with PFD had a higher risk for lower socioeconomic background (P<0.01) and low birth weight (26.8% compared to 7.4% ,P<0.001). Moreover, significantly fewer children in the PFD group were breastfed (75% versus 89%, P=0.003). There were no significant differences in any of those variables between PFD types. Conclusions: Low socioeconomic status, lack of breastfeeding, and low birth weight were significantly more frequent in children with PFD. PDF manifest as multiple dysfunctions, thus highlighting the need to offer these children and their families multidisciplinary care.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (24) ◽  
pp. 3280
María Inés Barbosa-Camargo ◽  
Antonio García-Sánchez ◽  
María Luisa Ridao-Carlini

In Colombia, the gaps of regional inequalities and social opportunities permeate people’s economic, political, and social participation. Additionally, the initial endowments of individual and socioeconomic background, barriers to financial aid, and academic and personal skills restrict decision-making about studying. In this context, the main objective is to analyze the determinants of dropout rates in Colombia and the differences between the type of institutions, field of study, and regions. We used data from three public administrative agencies for the period 2000–2012. The methodology combines multiple correspondence analysis and a lineal hierarchical model to explain the effect of variables operating at different levels. As a result, we retained four dimensions to represent the individuals’ socioeconomic and financial conditions. The findings obtained from the multilevel model suggest the variation between institutions (11%) and the interaction between institutions and the program cycle (17.8%). It confirms the influence of inequities on desertion. The student chooses between programs with differences in fees and study costs in general, such as quality, social recognition, and employment. In sum, contextual and institutional disparities in the dropout phenomenon’s behavior are explained mainly by the supply conditions in these regions and the individuals’ socioeconomic backgrounds.

Demography ◽  
2021 ◽  
Diederik Boertien ◽  
Fabrizio Bernardi

Abstract The prevalence of nontraditional family structures has increased over time, particularly among socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Because children's socioeconomic attainments are positively associated with growing up in a two-parent household, changing family structures are considered to have strengthened the reproduction of social inequalities across generations. However, several studies have shown that childhood family structure relates differently to educational outcomes for sons than for daughters. Therefore, we ask whether there are gender differences in the extent to which changing family structures have contributed to the college attainment gap between children from lower and higher socioeconomic backgrounds. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts to estimate extended Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition models that take into account cross-cohort changes in the prevalence of family structures and heterogeneity in the effects of childhood family structure on college attainment. We find that the argument that changes in family structures contributed to diverging destinies in college attainment holds for daughters but not for sons. This result is due to the different changes over time in the effects of childhood family structure by gender and socioeconomic background.

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