Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
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Published By Springer Science And Business Media LLC

2730-7166, 2730-7174

Nora Trompeter ◽  
Kay Bussey ◽  
Miriam K. Forbes ◽  
Phillipa Hay ◽  
Mandy Goldstein ◽  

AbstractEmotion dysregulation has been posited as a key transdiagnostic factor of mental health difficulties, including eating disorders. However, how this transdiagnostic factor interacts with the disorder-specific factor of weight and shape concerns remains unclear. The current study examined whether emotion dysregulation is associated with eating disorder behaviors over and above the association between weight and shape concerns and whether these two factors interacted. The current study used data from two samples, a community sample of high school students (n = 2699), and a clinical sample of adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for an eating disorder (n = 149). Participants completed self-report measures on their eating behaviors, weight/shape concerns, and emotion dysregulation. Findings showed that emotion dysregulation had a unique association with engaging in binge eating and purging (community sample only). Weight and shape concerns were found to have a unique association with engaging in binge eating, fasting, purging, and driven exercise (community sample only). Additionally, weight and shape concerns moderated the association between emotion dysregulation and the probability of engaging in binge eating and driven exercise, whereby the strongest association between emotion dysregulation and these behaviors were observed among adolescents with the lowest levels of weight and shape concerns. Regarding the frequency of eating disorder behaviors, emotion dysregulation had a unique association with severity of binge eating and fasting. Weight and shape concerns were uniquely associated with severity of fasting and driven exercise (community sample only). Findings suggest that emotion dysregulation is a distinct factor of eating disorder behaviors among adolescents.

Anouck I. Staff ◽  
Saskia van der Oord ◽  
Jaap Oosterlaan ◽  
Rianne Hornstra ◽  
Pieter J. Hoekstra ◽  

AbstractBehavioral teacher training is an effective intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Intervention effectiveness may be enhanced by including intervention components that carry the strongest evidence for their effectiveness. A previous article of this group showed that both antecedent- (i.e., stimulus-control) and consequent-based (i.e., contingency management) techniques were highly effective in reducing daily teacher-rated, individually selected problem behaviors in a specific situation of the child. Effects were observed up to three months post intervention. Here, we tested whether effects were also present in teacher-rated and masked DSM-based assessments that comprise the full range of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, as well as on teacher-rated impairment. Teachers of 90 children with (subthreshold) ADHD (6–12 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a short (two sessions), individualized intervention consisting of either a) antecedent-based techniques or b) consequent-based techniques; or c) waitlist. Multilevel analyses showed that both sets of techniques were effective in reducing teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and impairment immediately after the intervention and up to three months later, as compared to waitlist. Masked observations of ADHD behavior were in line with teacher ratings, with effects being most pronounced for inattention. No effects on teacher-rated or masked ODD behavior were found. This study showed that antecedent- and consequent-based techniques were effective in improving classroom ADHD symptoms and impairment. Long-term changes in teacher-rated ADHD are promising. These results extend previous findings and show the potential of short individually tailored interventions in classroom settings as treatment of ADHD symptoms.

Michelle C. Fenesy ◽  
Steve S. Lee

AbstractGiven the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression, identification of its early predictors and elucidation of the mechanisms underlying its individual differences is imperative. Controlling for baseline executive functioning (EF), we tested separate ADHD dimensions (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity) as independent predictors of early adolescent depression, including temporally-ordered causal mediation by academic functioning and social problems, using structural equation modeling. At baseline, participants consisted of 216 children (67% male) ages 6–9 years old with (n = 112) and without (n = 104) ADHD who subsequently completed Wave 2 and 3 follow-ups approximately two and four years later, respectively. Predictors consisted of separate parent and teacher ratings of childhood ADHD and laboratory-based assessments of key EF domains. At Wave 2, parents and teachers completed normed rating scales of youth academic and social functioning; youth completed standardized assessments of academic achievement. At Wave 3, youth self-reported depression. Baseline inattention positively predicted early adolescent depression whereas childhood hyperactivity-impulsivity and EF did not. Neither academic nor social functioning significantly mediated predictions of depression from baseline ADHD and EF. We consider prediction of early adolescent depression from inattention, including directions for future intervention and prevention research.

Sören Kliem ◽  
Yvonne Krieg ◽  
Thimna Klatt ◽  
Dirk Baier

AbstractA large amount of research has addressed the issue of the latent status of psychiatric disorders and related phenomena. We used a new taxometric approach developed by Ruscio to examine the latent status of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in a large representative study of German ninth graders (N = 3,878). Rather than estimating a putative taxon base rate and using that estimate to generate the taxon comparative data, we estimated CCFI profiles with each base rate estimate between 2.5% and 97.5% in increments of 2.5%. Results of different indicator sets clearly suggested a dimensional solution. This finding is consistent with different studies showing the dimensionality of psychopathy in adolescents. In summary, the results of this study point to the need for critical reflection in defining a high-risk-group in the context of CU traits. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate this result in different samples using different measurement approaches.

Nicole B. Groves ◽  
Erica L. Wells ◽  
Elia F. Soto ◽  
Carolyn L. Marsh ◽  
Emma M. Jaisle ◽  

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