Screen Time
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Carina Nigg ◽  
Claudia Niessner ◽  
Claudio R. Nigg ◽  
Doris Oriwol ◽  
Steffen C. E. Schmidt ◽  

Abstract Background Outdoor play, sedentary behavior (SB), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are related to youth’s health, however, there are research gaps regarding 1) associations between outdoor play, SB, and MVPA across a broad pediatric age range (6–17 years), and 2) longitudinal associations between outdoor play, SB, and MVPA across childhood and adolescence. Two studies were conducted to address those research gaps: Study 1 aimed to investigate relationships between outdoor play and accelerometer-assessed SB and MVPA in a cross-sectional nationwide sample of children and adolescents in Germany. Study 2 aimed to investigate prospective associations between outdoor play and self-reported screen-time SB and MVPA and in a sample of children with three measurement timepoints across 11 years. Methods Data were obtained of the German national representative Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Study and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). In Study 1, N = 2278 participants (6–17 years) were included with self-reported outdoor play and accelerometer-assessed SB and MVPA. Associations were examined via multiple linear regressions. In Study 2, N = 570 participants (baseline: 4–7 years) were included in the longitudinal analysis with follow-ups six and 11 years later. Screen-time SB (TV watching and PC/Gaming), MVPA, and outdoor play were self-reported. Associations were investigated through a path prediction model. Results Study 1 showed that compared to <1 h outdoor play, higher engagement in daily outdoor play was related to lower SB (1-2 h: − 9.75 min/day, P = 0.017; ≥2 h: − 17.78 min/day, P < 0.001) and higher MVPA (≥2 h: + 3.87 min/day, P = 0.001). The cross-sectional relationship between MVPA and outdoor play was moderated by sex (in favor of males) and age (in favor of younger children). Study 2 showed that outdoor play in early childhood negatively predicted PC use/Gaming in later childhood, but was unrelated to MVPA. Conclusion In Study 1, outdoor play was negatively related to SB cross-sectionally. In Study 2, outdoor play in early childhood was negatively related to PC and Gaming time in later childhood. Thus, providing outdoor play opportunities, especially during early childhood, has potential to prevent SB. Future research should investigate longitudinal relationships using device-based assessments for SB and MVPA.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Maria E. Street ◽  
Chiara Sartori ◽  
Cecilia Catellani ◽  
Beatrice Righi

A significant increase in precocious puberty, rapidly progressive puberty and precocious menarche has been reported in Italy since the initial lockdown because of the pandemic, and this could represent a new emergency to be addressed during this pandemic. There is a need, therefore, for further understanding and research. Many causes could account for this. Initially, it was thought that the changes in life-style, in screen time, and sleeping habits could be the cause but if considered individually these are insufficient to explain this phenomenon. Likely, changes in central nervous mediators, and an increase in catecholamines could contribute as a trigger, however, these aspects are poorly studied and understood as well as the real perceptions of these children. Finally, staying more indoors has certainly exposed these children to specific contaminants working as endocrine disruptors which could also have had an effect. It would be of utmost importance to compare this phenomenon worldwide with appropriate studies in order to verify what is happening, and gain a new insight into the consequences of the covid-19 pandemic and into precocious puberty and for future prevention.

Huixuan Zhou ◽  
Xiaotong Dai ◽  
Litian Lou ◽  
Chan Zhou ◽  
Wei Zhang

Background: Sports university students are usually expected to lead an active life and have a lower risk of depression. Therefore, there are few studies on depression and its risk factors among this population. This study aimed to investigate depression and its association with sedentary behavior and physical activity in sports university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduates majoring in physical education in a sports university in Beijing in March 2021. Students were asked about sociodemographic information, domain-specific sedentary behavior, physical activity, and depression (using a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Chi-squared test and logistic regression were carried out to analyze the data. Results: Among a total of 584 participants, the detection rate of depression was 49.1%. The median of total sedentary time was 7.29 h per day. After adjusting for covariates, recreational screen time (OR = 1.540, p = 0.035), sedentary time spent completing schoolwork (OR = 0.658, p = 0.038), and participation in vigorous physical activity everyday (OR = 0.415, p = 0.001) and a few times per week (OR = 0.423, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions: Sports university students are not immune to depression and inactive lifestyles. Excessive recreational screen time may have an adverse effect on depression, which is somewhat independent of physical activity.

Alexis Jones ◽  
Bridget Armstrong ◽  
R. Glenn Weaver ◽  
Hannah Parker ◽  
Lauren von Klinggraeff ◽  

Abstract Background Excessive screen time ($$\ge$$ ≥ 2 h per day) is associated with childhood overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, increased sedentary time, unfavorable dietary behaviors, and disrupted sleep. Previous reviews suggest intervening on screen time is associated with reductions in screen time and improvements in other obesogenic behaviors. However, it is unclear what study characteristics and behavior change techniques are potential mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of behavioral interventions. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the behavior change techniques and study characteristics associated with effectiveness in behavioral interventions to reduce children’s (0–18 years) screen time. Methods A literature search of four databases (Ebscohost, Web of Science, EMBASE, and PubMed) was executed between January and February 2020 and updated during July 2021. Behavioral interventions targeting reductions in children’s (0–18 years) screen time were included. Information on study characteristics (e.g., sample size, duration) and behavior change techniques (e.g., information, goal-setting) were extracted. Data on randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding was extracted and used to assess risk of bias. Meta-regressions were used to explore whether intervention effectiveness was associated with the presence of behavior change techniques and study characteristics. Results The search identified 15,529 articles, of which 10,714 were screened for relevancy and 680 were retained for full-text screening. Of these, 204 studies provided quantitative data in the meta-analysis. The overall summary of random effects showed a small, beneficial impact of screen time interventions compared to controls (SDM = 0.116, 95CI 0.08 to 0.15). Inclusion of the Goals, Feedback, and Planning behavioral techniques were associated with a positive impact on intervention effectiveness (SDM = 0.145, 95CI 0.11 to 0.18). Interventions with smaller sample sizes (n < 95) delivered over short durations (< 52 weeks) were associated with larger effects compared to studies with larger sample sizes delivered over longer durations. In the presence of the Goals, Feedback, and Planning behavioral techniques, intervention effectiveness diminished as sample size increased. Conclusions Both intervention content and context are important to consider when designing interventions to reduce children’s screen time. As interventions are scaled, determining the active ingredients to optimize interventions along the translational continuum will be crucial to maximize reductions in children’s screen time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Mohammad Sorowar Hossain ◽  
Iztiba M. Deeba ◽  
Mahmudul Hasan ◽  
Katharina E. Kariippanon ◽  
Kar Hau Chong ◽  

Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO) released guidelines for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep for children under 5 years of age in 2019. In response to these guidelines, this pilot study aimed to (i) determine the proportion of preschool children (ages 3-4 years) who met the WHO guidelines; (ii) examine the feasibility of the proposed protocol for the SUNRISE study; and (iii) assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on movement behaviors of preschool children in Bangladesh. Methods Time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep were objectively measured using two types of accelerometers (ActiGraph wGT3x-BT and ActivPAL4). Screen time and sleep quality were assessed via parent questionnaire. Fine and gross motor skills were measured using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (3rd edition). Three executive functions were assessed using the Early Years Toolbox. Focus groups were conducted with parents and childcare staff to determine the feasibility of the protocol. Follow-up data during COVID-19 pandemic was collected from parents over phone. Results Data from 63 preschool-aged children and their parents was analyzed in this pilot study. Only three children (4.7%) met all components of the WHO guidelines. Separately, children meeting physical activity, sedentary screen time and sleep guidelines were 71.9%, 17.5%, and 59.7% respectively. The proportion of all children who were developmentally on-track for the gross and fine motor skills was 58.7% and 50.8%, respectively. Parents and educators reported that the protocol was feasible except for the activPAL-4 accelerometer. Approximately, 39% of children (14 out of 37) who wore this device developed itchy skin and rashes resulting in the suspension of using this device mid-way through data collection. During COVID-19, there was a significant decrease in children’s total physical activity (− 193 min/day), and time spent outside on weekdays (− 75 min/day) and weekend days (− 131 min/day) and a significant increase in sedentary screen time (+85 min/day). Conclusion Only a low proportion of children met the WHO guidelines. Methods and devices (except ActivPAL4) used in this pilot study proved to be feasible and this has paved the way to conduct the main SUNRISE study in Bangladesh. Future measures should be taken to address the issue of movement behaviors of children during the time of pandemics like COVID-19.

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