post intervention
Recently Published Documents





Valerie Wing Yu Wong ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  
Wan In Wei ◽  
Samuel Yeung Shan Wong ◽  
Kin On Kwok

Abstract Background Despite clear evidence of benefits in acute-care hospitals, controversy over the effectiveness of IPC measures for MDROs is perceptible and evidence-based practice has not been established. Objective To investigate the effects of IPC interventions on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Data sources Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to September 2020. Eligibility criteria Original and peer-reviewed articles examining the post-intervention effects on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Interventions (i) Horizontal interventions: administrative engagement, barrier precautions, education, environmental cleaning, hand hygiene, performance improvement, and source control; and (ii) vertical intervention: active surveillance plus decolonization. Study appraisal and synthesis We employed a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk ratios (pRRs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization by intervention duration; and conducted subgroup analyses on different intervention components. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tools. Results Of 3877 studies identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion (eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies reported outcomes associated with MRSA (15 studies), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) (four studies), Clostridium difficile (two studies), and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (two studies). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pRRs were close to unity regardless of intervention duration (long: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.60–1.10]; medium: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.25–2.68]; short: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.53–1.69]). Vertical interventions in studies with a small sample size showed significant reductions in MRSA colonization while horizontal interventions did not. All studies involving active administrative engagement reported reductions. The risk of bias was high in all but two studies. Conclusions Our meta-analysis did not show any beneficial effects from IPC interventions on MRSA reductions in LTCFs. Our findings highlight that the effectiveness of interventions in these facilities is likely conditional on resource availability—particularly decolonization and barrier precautions, due to their potential adverse events and uncertain effectiveness. Hence, administrative engagement is crucial for all effective IPC programmes. LTCFs should consider a pragmatic approach to reinforce standard precautions as routine practice and implement barrier precautions and decolonization to outbreak responses only.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Lersi D. Durán ◽  
Ana Margarida Almeida ◽  
Ana Cristina Lopes ◽  
Margarida Figueiredo-Braga

Digital interventions are important tools to promote mental health literacy among university students. “Depression in Portuguese University Students” (Depressão em Estudantes Universitários Portugueses, DEEP) is an audiovisual intervention describing how symptoms can be identified and what possible treatments can be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this intervention. A random sample of 98 students, aged 20–38 years old, participated in a 12-week study. Participants were recruited through social media by the academic services and institutional emails of two Portuguese universities. Participants were contacted and distributed into four study groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4): G1 received the DEEP intervention in audiovisual format; G2 was given the DEEP in text format; G3 received four news articles on depression; G4 was the control group. A questionnaire was shared to collect socio-demographic and depression knowledge data as a pre-intervention method; content was then distributed to each group following a set schedule; the depression knowledge questionnaire was then administered to compare pre-intervention, post-intervention and follow-up literacy levels. Using the Scheffé and Least Significant Difference (LSD) multiple comparisons test, it was found that G1, which received the DEEP audiovisual intervention, differed significantly from the other groups, with higher depression knowledge scores in post-intervention stages. The DEEP audiovisual intervention, compared to the other formats used (narrative text format; news format), proved to be an effective tool for increasing depression knowledge in university students.

2022 ◽  
Rachel Knight ◽  
Marc Patrick Bennett ◽  
Darren Lee Dunning ◽  
Alan Archer-Boyd ◽  
Sarah-Jayne Blakemore ◽  

Introduction. Decentering describes the ability to voluntarily adopt an objective self-perspective from which to notice internal, typically distressing, stressors (e.g. difficult thoughts, memories, and feelings). The reinforcement of this skill may be an active ingredient through which different psychological interventions accrue reductions in anxiety and/or depression. However, it is unclear if decentering can be selectively trained at a young age and if this might reduce psychological distress. The aim of the current trial is to address this research gap. Methods and analysis. Adolescents, recruited from partnering schools in the UK and the EU (n = 48 per group, age range = 16-19 years), will be randomised to complete of five-weeks of decentering training, or form an active control group that will take part in in light physical exercise and cognitive training. The co-primary training outcomes include a self-reported decentering inventory (i.e. the Experiences Questionnaire) and the momentary use of decentering in response to psychological stressors, using experience sampling. The secondary mental health outcomes will include self-reported inventories of depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as psychological wellbeing. The initial statistical analysis will use mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) to estimate the effect of training condition on self-rated inventories across three timepoints: baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention. Additionally, experience sampling data will be initially interrogated using hierarchical linear models. Ethics and dissemination. This study was approved by the Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee, University of Cambridge (PRE.2019.109). Findings will be disseminated through typical academic routes including poster/paper presentations at (intern)-national conferences, academic institutes and through publication in peer-reviewed journals.

2022 ◽  
David Martín-Caro Álvarez ◽  
Diego Serrano-Muñoz ◽  
Juan José Fernández-Pérez ◽  
Julio Gómez-Soriano ◽  
Juan Avendaño-Coy

Abstract BackgroundFormer studies investigated the application, both transcutaneous and with implanted electrodes, of high frequency alternating currents (HFAC) in humans for blocking the peripheral nervous system. The present trial aimed to assess the effect of HFAC on motor response, somatosensory thresholds, and peripheral nerve conduction, when applied percutaneously with ultrasound-guided needles at frequencies of 10 kHz and 20 kHz in healthy volunteers. MethodsA parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ultrasound-guided HFAC at 10 kHz and 20 kHz and sham stimulation were delivered to the median nerve of 60 healthy volunteers (n=20 per group) for 20 minutes. The main assessed variables were maximum isometric flexion strength (MFFS) of the index finger, myotonometry, pressure pain threshold (PPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT), and antidromic sensory nerve action potential (SNAP). Measurements were recorded pre-intervention, during the intervention 15 minutes after its commencement, immediately post-intervention, and at 15 minutes post-intervention.ResultsA decrease in the MFFS was observed immediately post-intervention compared to baseline, both in the 10 kHz group [-8.5 %; 95% confidence interval (CI) -14.9 to -2.1] and the 20 kHz group (-12.0%; 95%CI -18.3 to -5.6). At 15 minutes post-intervention, the decrease in the MFFS was -9.5% (95%CI -17.3 to -1.8) and -11.5% (95%CI -9.3 to -3.8) in the 10 kHz and 20 kHz groups, respectively. No changes over time were found in the sham group. The between-group comparison of changes in MFFS showed a greater reduction of -10.8% (95%CI -19.8 to -1.8) immediately post-intervention in the 20 kHz compared to the sham stimulation group. Muscle tone increased over time in both the 10 kHz and 20 kHz groups, but not in the sham group. The intergroup comparison of myotonometry showed a superior effect in the 20 kHz (6.7%, 95%CI 0.5 to 12.9) versus the sham group. No significant changes were observed in the rest of the assessed variables. ConclusionsThe ultrasound-guided percutaneous stimulation applying 10 kHz and 20 kHz HFAC to the median nerve produced reversible reductions in strength and increases in muscle tone with no adverse effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Denise Maria Conroy ◽  
Amy Errmann ◽  
Jenny Young ◽  
Ilaisaane M.E. Fifita

Purpose This research aims to gain insight into how consumers interact with a commercially available genetic nutrition programme, DNAfit, to explore health change via an intervention. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups were conducted between June and October 2019, pre-, during- and post-intervention, with a total sample of 14 younger (aged 25–44 years) and 14 mature (aged 45–65 years) cohorts from New Zealand. Qualitative thematic analysis was completed with the help of NVivo software. Findings Younger participants in this study engaged less overall with DNAfit, felt the service did not match their lifestyles and did not encourage their believability of genetic personalised nutrition (GPN). In contrast, mature participants had positive engagement with GPN, as their motivation to use the service fit with their motivation for longevity. Overall, social uptake in health changes based on GPN is likely to depend on life stage. Originality/value This paper adds to limited social marketing research, which seeks novel avenues to explore how consumers engage with GPN technologies to drive social change, assisting social marketers on how to more effectively deliver health programmes that allow consumer-driven interaction to build health capabilities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Annarosa Cipriano ◽  
Cristina Aprea ◽  
Ludovica Bellone ◽  
Paolo Cotrufo ◽  
Stefania Cella

Introduction: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) constitutes a major health concern among youth. However, less is known about the useful ways to prevent NSSI. As such, the NSSI- Peer Education Program (NSSI-PEP) aims to intervene on the vulnerability factors that predispose to NSSI by applying a peer education approach. The NSSI-PEP is grounded on the psychoanalytic tradition's tenets, implementing modules targeting four crucial risk factors for NSSI: pubertal transformation, body image, self-esteem, and emotion regulation.Methods: Selected 8th grade students were trained to serve as peer educators and held a peer-education intervention for 6th and 7th grade students. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were conducted in order to evaluate the program's effectiveness.Results: Results revealed preliminary support for the program's feasibility, as students reported greater emotion regulation abilities (p = 0.038) and significant changes in self-esteem (p<0.001), personal alienation (p = 0.005), body image (p < 0.001), and maturity fear (p < 0.001). Also, NSSI-PEP was positively evaluated by participants.Discussion: Our pilot study provides preliminary empirical support for the NSSI-PEP, representing a promising way to address areas of vulnerability for NSSI onset. Findings may also help current policies to promote targeted preventive activities and produce sizable benefits to society.

2022 ◽  
Kristin Pullyblank ◽  
Melissa Scribani ◽  
Lynae Wyckoff ◽  
Nicole Krupa ◽  
Jennifer Flynn ◽  

The evidence-based Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP) has been shown to improve a variety of health-related outcomes, but the program has been challenging to implement in rural areas, and rural dissemination has been low. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of implementing the DSMP on self-reported outcomes in a rural region. Through a collaboration with multiple partners, the Living Well program delivered 28 DSMP workshops from 2017 to 2019. Data were collected to determine whether there were post-intervention changes in patient-reported outcomes on measures of diabetes distress, self-management, and patient activation. In addition, secondary analysis of A1C was abstracted from the medical records of participants with type 2 diabetes who completed at least four sessions of a DSMP workshop between 2017 and 2019 and whose medical records had a A1C value in the year before the program and at least one A1C value >3 months after the program. Statistically significant improvements were seen for the Diabetes Distress Scale (P = 0.0017), the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (P <0.0001) and the 10-item Patient Activation Measure (P <0.0001). There was no evidence of change in A1C over time in analyses of all participants (P = 0.5875), but a consistent though nonsignificant (P = 0.1087) decline in A1C was seen for a subset of participants with a baseline A1C ≥8%. This evaluation provides preliminary support for implementing the DSMP as part of a comprehensive treatment and self-management plan for people living with diabetes in rural areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Oluseun Olufade

Background: There are few prospective studies evaluating the efficacy of various non-operative strategies for treatment of greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS). There is a diversity of available interventions and lack of clear consensus for the best modality thus far. Design: Observational prospective cohort study performed during the period of October 2017 and March 2019. Methods: The main objective was to determine if there is a difference in outcome of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) for subjects treated with conservative management (PT), corticosteroid injection (CSI), or percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy (PUT). Participants were assigned based on physician treatment in a non-randomized manner to PT, a single CSI, or the PUT treatment arm. Subjects participated in outcome assessments at baseline and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months post intervention. Results: 112 individuals with unilateral GTPS were recruited for this study with 69 PT patients, 31 CSI patients, and 12 PUT patients. The adjusted mean LEFS scores averaged across all time periods remained statistically different between PT, CSI, and PUT (p = 0.0093), indicating significant difference between each treatment arm. PT group saw the greatest improvements from baseline score starting at 1 month and up to 1 year (p = .0004). CSI group did not see significant LEFS improvement until 6 months (p = 0.04) and did not maintain clinically significant improvement by 1 year. PUT group saw significant LEFS improvement at 3 months (p = 0.0001) and maintained clinically significant improvements (≥ 9 LEFS points) throughout the course of the study. Conclusion: PT patients over the study period showed the greatest improvements in LEFS scores compared to CSI and PUT patients. We believe that PT is the best indicated course of treatment for GTPS. PUT may be considered as an additional option if patients have failed other treatment modalities. CSI shows benefit at 6 months, but overall inferior to PT and PUT.

2022 ◽  
Marita McCabe ◽  
David J. Mellor ◽  
Denisa Goldhammer ◽  
David John Hallford ◽  
Tanya Davison

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy of palliative care staff and thus enable them to better detect and manage depression among palliative care patients and their families. Participants were 90 professional carers who completed a four-session training program. Knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and barriers to working with depressed patients were assessed pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a three-month follow-up. The results demonstrated that compared to the control group, the intervention group had improved in all of these areas. Improvements were maintained at the three-month follow-up in all areas except attitudes. The results of this study indicate the importance of training in managing depression among palliative care staff. Booster sessions may be needed to ensure that training program gains are maintained.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rowena B. Russell ◽  
Kate Theodore ◽  
Julie Lloyd

Purpose This study aims to explore how care staff working with people with learning disabilities experienced psychologist-facilitated team formulation sessions in a cognitive analytic style (contextual reformulation). Design/methodology/approach Eleven participants attended at least one contextual reformulation session regarding a client their team referred because of challenging behaviour. Post-intervention semi-structured interviews were analysed using qualitative inductive thematic analysis. Findings Five themes were developed: multiple roles and functions of sessions and clinicians; challenging behaviour in relationship; making links – understanding can be enlightening, containing and practical; the process of developing a shared understanding and approach; and caught between two perspectives. Findings suggested contextual reformulation helped staff see challenging behaviour as relational, provided them with the space to reflect on their emotions and relate compassionately to themselves and others, and ultimately helped them to focus their interventions on understanding and relationally managing rather than acting to reduce behaviour. Research limitations/implications Qualitative methodology allows no causal inferences to be made. Ten of 11 participants were female. Originality/value This qualitative study adds to the limited research base on team formulation in learning disabilities settings and specifically that using a cognitive analytic approach.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document