International Journal of Yoga Therapy
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Published By International Association Of Yoga Therapists


Ashli Owen-Smith ◽  
Holle Black ◽  
David Emerson ◽  
Michaela Cotner ◽  
Herschel Smith ◽  

Abstract The purpose of the present study was to adapt and pilot a trauma-informed, mindfulness-based yoga (TIMBY) intervention focused on enhancing self-regulation among youth in the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice system. In this article we (1) describe the process by which we systematically adapted an evidence-based protocol specifically for this population, (2) describe the nature of and rationale for those adaptations, (3) present some preliminary qualitative findings based on interviews with youth participants, and (4) briefly summarize how the adapted protocol will be evaluated in the subsequent feasibility trial. The iterative drafting and revision process involved modifications to a well-established, protocolized Trauma-Informed Yoga program and was identified by the project advisory board and t h rough formal interviews with intervention staff. Qualitative interviews were conducted with youth participants concerning intervention impact, credibility, and satisfaction. Several needed modifications were identified so that the intervention would be contextually appropriate for justice-involved youth. Thirty youth were enrolled in the pilot study: 77% we re Non - Hispanic Black/African-American, 18% were Non-Hispanic White, and 5% were Hispanic White. The average age was 16.45 years (range 14–20). The youth consistently reported satisfaction with the sessions and positive beliefs about how the sessions were helping them with a range of physical and psychological/ emotional challenges. Adaptations to the protocol in the present study highlight how mindfulness-based interventions for justice-involved youth need to consider what is both developmentally suitable for youth and appropriate in a justice setting. A feasibility study using this revised TIMBY protocol is underway at four Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice facilities to formally identify the barriers and facilitators to implementation for the present study and a future, larger-scale trial.

Andrea Zaccaro ◽  
André Riehl ◽  
Andrea Piarulli ◽  
Gaspare Alfì ◽  
Bruno Neri ◽  

Nidrâ yoga is an ancient yogic practice capable of inducing altered states of consciousness characterized by deep relaxation, strong concentration, acute self-awareness, and joy. In modern contemplative neuroscience language, it is known by the name yoga nidra, and few studies have investigated its phenomenological and psychophysiological effects. Six healthy volunteers (four females aged 31–74) performed 12 yoga nidra sessions guided by an expert during a 6-day retreat. Each session consisted of 10 minutes in a resting state (baseline) followed by 2 hours of yoga nidra. Psychometric data regarding dissociative experiences (Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale) and the state of consciousness (Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) were collected after baseline and yoga nidra, while high-density EEG was recorded during the entire session. During nidra sessions, no sleep hallmarks (i.e., K-complexes and sleep spindles) were detected by the EEG in any subject. Psychometric data we re analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test corrected with the false discovery rate approach for multiple comparisons. Compared to baseline, yoga nidra practice was related to: (1) increased dissociative effects (p = 0.022); (2) perception of being in an altered state of consciousness (p = 0.026); (3) alterations in perceived body image (p = 0.022); (4) increased “meaningfulness” attributed to the experience (p = 0.026); (5) reduced rational thinking (p = 0.029); and (6) reduced volitional thought control (p = 0.026). First-person experience is discussed in relation to descriptive EEG power spectral density analysis, which was performed in one subject because of severe EEG artifacts in the other recordings; that subject showed, compared to baseline: (1) early increase of alpha and beta power, followed by a progressive widespread reduction; (2) widespread early increase of theta power, followed by a progressive reduction; and (3) widespread increase of gamma power in the latest stages. The present preliminary results enrich the knowledge of yoga nidra, elucidating its phenomenology and suggesting some psychophysiological correlates that future studies may address.

Dipak Chetry ◽  
Shirley Telles ◽  
Acharya Balkrishna

Yoga research citations from 1948 to 2020 in PubMed were filtered and sorted in 10-year intervals to explore the occurrence and time frame of change in (1) the focus of research; (2) the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews (SRs), and meta-analyses (MAs); (3) health conditions researched for yoga as therapy; (4) journals with yoga research; and (5) the research on yoga from different countries. Publications on yoga between 1948 and 1970 (1.25%) focused on exceptional abilities of experienced yoga practitioners, apparently related to the spiritual goal of yoga; from 1971 to 2000 (6.87%), the focus was on yoga in health and therapy; and from 2001 to 2020 (91.88%), research publications on yoga increased and continued to focus on health and therapy, with fewer RCTs relative to the SRs and MAs on yoga in PubMed. Publications on yoga reported the following health conditions most often: from 1981 to 1990, (1) asthma, (2) stress, and (3) diabetes; from 1991 to 2000, (1) stress followed by (2) asthma, anxiety, and pain (all three with equal percentages); from 2001 to 2010, (1) depression, (2) stress, and (3) anxiety; and from 2011 to 2020, (1) stress, (2) depression, and (3) pain. The journals publishing research on yoga in PubMed have changed between 1971 and 2020 as follows: highly clinically relevant, broad-interest medical journals (1971 to 1990); journals relevant to mind-body interventions (1991 to 2000); and specialized journals for complementary and alternative medicine, particular branches of medicine, or research study designs (2001 to 2020). The highest yoga research output from 1971 to 1980 came from the United Kingdom (RCTs); from 1981 to 1990 the most research came from the United States (RCTs); from 1991 to 2000 the most research came from India (RCTs) and the United Kingdom (SRs); from 2001 to 2010 the most research came from the United States (RCTs, SRs) and the United Kingdom (MAs); and from 2011 to 2020 the most research came from the United States (RCTs, SRs, MAs). The trends in yoga research from this analysis reflect increased research related to yoga and health while suggesting areas for future research based on the strengths and gaps that have emerged.

Sumedh S. Vaidya ◽  
Bela Agarwal ◽  
Yuvraj Singh ◽  
Rajani Mullerpatan

Abstract Cricket-bowling performance is known to be influenced by speed of ball release and accuracy. Currently, training sessions typically involve fielding-specific drills and conditioning exercises. Scientific evidence for inclusion of a comprehensive yoga intervention in daily training and exercise sessions remains unexplored. The present study explored the effect of yoga on bowling performance and physical fitness in cricket bowlers. Sports fitness testing and training were conducted among 60 non-elite recreational-club male cricket players aged 13–25 years. Cricket-bowling speed was e valuated using a speed radar gun, accuracy with a test developed by Portus et al., cardiorespiratory endurance using the yo-yo intermittent recovery test, lower-extremity and trunk strength using a back-leg dynamometer, upper-limb power using a medicine ball–throw test, power using a vertical-jump test, and flexibility using a sit-and-reach test. In addition to bowling practice, the yoga intervention group (n = 30) performed pranayama and standing and prone asana, whereas the control group (n = 30) practiced conventional conditioning exercises, for 45 minutes/day, three times a week, for 12 weeks. Improvement in bowling speed, accuracy, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, and flexibility were comparable between the two groups. Statistically significant improvements in baseline scores in bowling speed, accuracy, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle flexibility, strength, and power were comparable between the two groups of non-elite male cricket players. Bowling speed improved by 6.52% in the yoga group and by 5.18% in the control group. Bowling accuracy improved by 35.40% in the yoga group and by 31.29% in the control group. Additional research on long-duration intervention in elite players may help to establish the role of yoga in conventional cricket-bowling training.

Abhishek Yadav ◽  
Rajeev Mohan Kaushik ◽  
Reshma Kaushik

Abstract This prospective study assessed the effects of diaphragmatic breathing and systematic relaxation on depression, anxiety, and stress levels, as well as glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). One hundred patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to two equal groups: Group A patients received conventional treatment for T2DM, and Group B patients received conventional treatment for T2DM plus training in diaphragmatic breathing and systematic relaxation and home practice of these stress-management techniques for 6 months. Stress, depression, and anxiety levels, blood sugar, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were recorded at baseline and after 6 months of treatment in all patients. Baseline characteristics were compared using the chi-square test and student’s t test. Changes in mental well-being and glycemic status were assessed for their significance in each group using student’s t test and compared between two groups using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Baseline levels of the respective change outcome and duration of diabetes were used as covariates in the ANCOVA. A significant decrease was seen in depression, anxiety, and stress scores in Group B, but in Group A only the stress score decreased after 6 months. A significant decline occurred in blood sugar (fasting, 2-hour postprandial, and random) and HbA1c in both groups after 6 months. There was a larger decrease in depression and anxiety scores and HbA1c in Group B than in Group A. The decrease in HbA1c was significantly correlated with the decrease in anxiety and stress scores in both groups and with the depression score in Group A. Thus, the addition of diaphragmatic breathing and systematic relaxation to conventional T2DM treatment appears to have led to improvement in mental well-being and glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

Satyajit Mohanty ◽  
Jyotiranjan Sahoo ◽  
Sandeep Kumar Panigrahi ◽  
Venkatarao Epari ◽  
Sandul Yasobant ◽  

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of yoga practice. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a larger study that included yoga as a form of physical activity. Data were collected during April and August 2019 from the adult urban population of Bhubaneswar, India. This study was conducted using a cluster random sampling method. A representative sample (n = 1,203) of adults aged 18–59 years, irrespective of gender, was interviewed using a questionnaire adapted from the 2012 U.S. National Health Interview Survey, with the Epicollect5 handheld data-collection tool. Predictors of yoga practice were explored using multivariable logistic regression. The mean age of the participants was 35.19 ± 10.67 years, with 55.3% males. The majority were Hindu (93.62%) and belonged to the unre s e rved category (65.60%), people generally of higher relative socioeconomic status. The lifetime prevalence of yoga was 16.9%. Prevalence of any form of yoga (yoga, pranayama, or meditation), all forms of yoga (yoga, pranayama, and meditation), pranayama, and meditation was 17.0%, 10.7%, 14.3%, and 11.4%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, female gender, Hindu religion, minimum of higher-secondary or graduate-level education, and having received advice from professionals for yoga practice had significantly higher odds of practicing yoga, and those of higher socioeconomic status had significantly lower odds of practicing yoga. We found a low prevalence of yoga. Sociodemographic characteristics like gender, religion, education, socioeconomic status, and other factors like learning yoga from professionals may be important predictors of continued yoga practice.

Jordan E. Cattie ◽  
Lucy J. Allbaugh ◽  
Katherine H. Visser ◽  
Ilana Ander ◽  
Nadine J. Kaslow

Abstract Low-income, racial-minority, high-risk populations have limited access to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their acceptance of complementary interventions is unknown. Trauma Center Trauma-Sensitive Yoga (TC-TSY), which has demonstrated efficacy in community samples, has not yet been widely used with ethnic minority low-income individuals. This article presents a culturally tailored version of a TC-TSY intervention delivered as a drop-in service in a public hospital–based clinic to patients with histories of interpersonal violence and suicide attempts. TC-TSY was iteratively tailored to meet the unique clinical needs of individuals within this setting. Group facilitator observations are summarized; they describe a successful initial implementation and culturally informed adaptation of the group intervention. The facilitators’ observations illustrated that group members accepted the integration of this structured, gentle yoga practice into outpatient behavioral health programming and identified site-specific modifications to inform formal study. The process by which TC-TSY was adapted and implemented for Black individuals with a history of interpersonal trauma at risk for suicidal behavior can serve as a guide for tailoring other complementary, integrative interventions to meet the needs of unique clinical settings. This process is offered as a foundation for future systematic testing of this complementary, integrated, culturally adapted trauma therapy in high-risk clinical populations.

Neena K. Sharma ◽  
Kosaku Aoyagi ◽  
Mary K. Crouch Young ◽  
Alyssa Parrish ◽  
Carol Smith ◽  

Abstract Currently, acute postoperative pain during hospitalization is primarily managed by medications, and patients must adhere to restrictive postoperative precautions for 3 months following lumbar spine surgeries. Yoga can be an alternative approach to assist in acute and subacute postoperative pain management, anxiety, and return to function. The purpose of the present work was to develop and test the feasibility and explore the effectiveness of a tailored yoga program, delivered in-person during the hospital stay and electronically after hospital discharge, as a potential new avenue for postoperative care. This pilot study will use a crossover randomized controlled design. Individuals aged between 40 and 80 years who are scheduled for lumbar laminectomy and/or fusion, and who have not practiced regular yoga within the past 6 months at the time of enrollment, will be recruited and randomized to either a tailored yoga program (intervention group) or usual care (control group) during the hospital stay (phase one). Bearing in mind postoperative precautions, all subjects will be instructed to perform a home-based tailored yoga program delivered electronically via YouTube links for 8 weeks post-hospital discharge (phase two). The primary outcome measures assessing feasibility are adherence/compliance. Secondary outcome measures include pain, anxiety, function, sleep, perceived stress, and pain-catastrophizing behavior. Length of hospital stay and pain medication use, gait distance, and overall physical activity during hospitalization will also be collected. Finally, a qualitative interview will be obtained after completion of the hospital and home-based programs. This study will determine the feasibility of a tailored yoga program for acute and subacute postoperative lumbar spine surgery pain, anxiety, and functional outcomes.

Boligarla Anasuya ◽  
K. K. Deepak ◽  
Ashok Jaryal

Abstract Yoga has been shown to improve autonomic conditioning in humans, as evidenced by the enhancement of parasym-pathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity. Therefore, we hypothesized that the experience of yoga may result in adaptation to acute hemodynamic changes. To decipher the long-term effects of yoga on cardiovascular variability, yoga practitioners were compared to yoga-naïve subjects during exposure to –40 mm Hg lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). A comparative study was conducted on 40 yoganaïve subjects and 40 yoga practitioners with an average age of 31.08 ± 7.31 years and 29.93 ± 7.57 years, respectively. Heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity, and correlation between systolic blood pressure and RR interval were evaluated at rest and during LBNP. In yoga practitioners, the heart rate was lower in supine rest (p = 0.011) and during LBNP (p = 0.043); the pNN50 measure of heart rate variability was higher in supine rest (p = 0.011) and during LBNP (p = 0.034). The yoga practitioners’ standard deviation of successive beat-to-beat blood pressure intervals of systolic blood pressure variability was lower in supine rest (p = 0.034) and during LBNP (p = 0.007), with higher sequence baroreflex sensitivity (p = 0.019) and ~ high-frequency baroreflex sensitivity. Mean systolic blood pressure and RR interval were inversely correlated in the yoga group (r = –0.317, p = 0.049). The yoga practitioners exhibited higher parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity with lower systolic blood pressure variability, indicating better adaptability to LBNP compared to the yoga-naïve group. Our findings indicate that the yoga module was helpful in conditions of hypovolemia in healthy subjects; it is proposed to be beneficial in clinical conditions associated with sympathetic dominance, impaired barore-flex sensitivity, and orthostatic intolerance.

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