Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics
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Published By Frontiers Media Sa


Appanah R. Appadu ◽  
Yusuf O. Tijani

In this paper, we obtain the numerical solution of a 1-D generalised Burgers-Huxley equation under specified initial and boundary conditions, considered in three different regimes. The methods are Forward Time Central Space (FTCS) and a non-standard finite difference scheme (NSFD). We showed the schemes satisfy the generic requirements of the finite difference method in solving a particular problem. There are two proposed solutions for this problem and we show that one of the proposed solutions contains a minor error. We present results using FTCS, NSFD, and exact solution as well as show how the profiles differ when the two proposed solutions are used. In this problem, the boundary conditions are obtained from the proposed solutions. Error analysis and convergence tests are performed.

Cheng Huang ◽  
Xiaoming Huo

Testing for independence plays a fundamental role in many statistical techniques. Among the nonparametric approaches, the distance-based methods (such as the distance correlation-based hypotheses testing for independence) have many advantages, compared with many other alternatives. A known limitation of the distance-based method is that its computational complexity can be high. In general, when the sample size is n, the order of computational complexity of a distance-based method, which typically requires computing of all pairwise distances, can be O(n2). Recent advances have discovered that in the univariate cases, a fast method with O(n log  n) computational complexity and O(n) memory requirement exists. In this paper, we introduce a test of independence method based on random projection and distance correlation, which achieves nearly the same power as the state-of-the-art distance-based approach, works in the multivariate cases, and enjoys the O(nK log  n) computational complexity and O( max{n, K}) memory requirement, where K is the number of random projections. Note that saving is achieved when K < n/ log  n. We name our method a Randomly Projected Distance Covariance (RPDC). The statistical theoretical analysis takes advantage of some techniques on the random projection which are rooted in contemporary machine learning. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method, relative to numerous competitors.

Kayode Oshinubi ◽  
Mustapha Rachdi ◽  
Jacques Demongeot

The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the socio-economic status of countries around the world should not be underestimated, when we consider the role it has played in various countries. Many people were unemployed, many households were careful about their spending, and a greater social divide in the population emerged in 14 different countries from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and from Africa (that is, in developed and developing countries) for which we have considered the epidemiological data on the spread of infection during the first and second waves, as well as their socio-economic data. We established a mathematical relationship between Theil and Gini indices, then we investigated the relationship between epidemiological data and socio-economic determinants, using several machine learning and deep learning methods. High correlations were observed between some of the socio-economic and epidemiological parameters and we predicted three of the socio-economic variables in order to validate our results. These results show a clear difference between the first and the second wave of the pandemic, confirming the impact of the real dynamics of the epidemic’s spread in several countries and the means by which it was mitigated.

D. L. Hill ◽  
S. I. Abarzhi

Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities occur in many situations in Nature and technology from astrophysical to atomic scales, including stellar evolution, oceanic flows, plasma fusion, and scramjets. While RT and RM instabilities are sister phenomena, a link of RT-to-RM dynamics requires better understanding. This work focuses on the long-standing problem of RTI/RMI induced by accelerations, which vary as inverse-quadratic power-laws in time, and on RT/RM flows, which are three-dimensional, spatially extended and periodic in the plane normal to the acceleration direction. We apply group theory to obtain solutions for the early-time linear and late-time nonlinear dynamics of RT/RM coherent structure of bubbles and spikes, and investigate the dependence of the solutions on the acceleration’s parameters and initial conditions. We find that the dynamics is of RT type for strong accelerations and is of RM type for weak accelerations, and identify the effects of the acceleration’s strength and the fluid density ratio on RT-to-RM transition. While for given problem parameters the early-time dynamics is uniquely defined, the solutions for the late-time dynamics form a continuous family parameterised by the interfacial shear and include special solutions for RT/RM bubbles/spikes. Our theory achieves good agreement with available observations. We elaborate benchmarks that can be used in future research and in design of experiments and simulations, and that can serve for better understanding of RT/RM relevant processes in Nature and technology.

Christoph Werner ◽  
Abigail Colson ◽  
Alec Morton ◽  
Tim Bedford

The increasing impact of antibacterial resistance concerns various stakeholders, including clinicians, researchers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry, and healthcare policy-makers. In particular, possible multidrug resistance of bacteria poses complex challenges for healthcare risk assessments and for pharmaceutical companies’ willingness to invest in research and development (R&D). Neglecting dependencies between uncertainties of future resistance rates can severely underestimate the systemic risk for certain bug-drug combinations. In this paper, we model the dependencies between several important bug-drug combinations’ resistance rates that are of interest for the United Kingdom probabilistically through copulas. As a commonly encountered challenge in probabilistic dependence modelling is the lack of relevant historical data to quantify a model, we present a method for eliciting dependence information from experts in a formal and structured manner. It aims at providing transparency and robustness of the elicitation results while also mitigating common cognitive fallacies of dependence assessments. Methodological robustness is of particular importance whenever elicitation results are used in complex decisions such as prioritising investments of antibiotics R&D.

Srinjoy Das ◽  
Hrushikesh N. Mhaskar ◽  
Alexander Cloninger

This paper introduces kdiff, a novel kernel-based measure for estimating distances between instances of time series, random fields and other forms of structured data. This measure is based on the idea of matching distributions that only overlap over a portion of their region of support. Our proposed measure is inspired by MPdist which has been previously proposed for such datasets and is constructed using Euclidean metrics, whereas kdiff is constructed using non-linear kernel distances. Also, kdiff accounts for both self and cross similarities across the instances and is defined using a lower quantile of the distance distribution. Comparing the cross similarity to self similarity allows for measures of similarity that are more robust to noise and partial occlusions of the relevant signals. Our proposed measure kdiff is a more general form of the well known kernel-based Maximum Mean Discrepancy distance estimated over the embeddings. Some theoretical results are provided for separability conditions using kdiff as a distance measure for clustering and classification problems where the embedding distributions can be modeled as two component mixtures. Applications are demonstrated for clustering of synthetic and real-life time series and image data, and the performance of kdiff is compared to competing distance measures for clustering.

Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti ◽  
Jaime Klapp ◽  
Moncho Gómez Gesteira

Since its inception Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been widely employed as a numerical tool in different areas of science, engineering, and more recently in the animation of fluids for computer graphics applications. Although SPH is still in the process of experiencing continual theoretical and technical developments, the method has been improved over the years to overcome some shortcomings and deficiencies. Its widespread success is due to its simplicity, ease of implementation, and robustness in modeling complex systems. However, despite recent progress in consolidating its theoretical foundations, a long-standing key aspect of SPH is related to the loss of particle consistency, which affects its accuracy and convergence properties. In this paper, an overview of the mathematical aspects of the SPH consistency is presented with a focus on the most recent developments.

C. Rajivganthi ◽  
F. A. Rihan

In this paper, we propose a fractional-order viral infection model, which includes latent infection, a Holling type II response function, and a time-delay representing viral production. Based on the characteristic equations for the model, certain sufficient conditions guarantee local asymptotic stability of infection-free and interior steady states. Whenever the time-delay crosses its critical value (threshold parameter), a Hopf bifurcation occurs. Furthermore, we use LaSalle’s invariance principle and Lyapunov functions to examine global stability for infection-free and interior steady states. Our results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

Glenn Fung ◽  
Luisa F. Polania ◽  
Sou-Cheng T. Choi ◽  
Victor Wu ◽  
Lawrence Ma

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