In URTeC-123-2019, a group of operators and service companies presented a step-by-step procedure for interpretation of diagnostic fracture injection tests (DFITs). The procedure has now been applied on a wide variety of data across North and South America. This paper statistically summarizes results from 62 of these DFITs, contributed by ten operators spanning nine different shale plays. URTeC-123-2019 made several novel claims, which are tested and validated in this paper. We find that: (1) a ‘compliance method’ closure signature is apparent in the significant majority of DFITs; (2) in horizontal wells, early time pressure drop due to near-wellbore/midfield tortuosity is substantial and varies greatly, from 500 to 6000+ psi; (3) in vertical wells, early-time pressure drop is far weaker; this supports the interpretation that early- time pressure drop in horizontal wells is caused by near-wellbore/midfield tortuosity from transverse fracture propagation; (4) the (not recommended) tangent method of estimating closure yields Shmin estimates that are 100-1000+ psi lower than the estimate from the (recommended) compliance method; the implied net pressure values are 2.5x higher on average and up to 5-6x higher; (5) as predicted by theory, the difference between the tangent and compliance stress and net pressure estimates increases in formations with greater difference between Shmin and pore pressure; (6) the h-function and G-function methods allow permeability to be estimated from truncated data that never reaches late-time impulse flow; comparison shows that they give results that are close to the permeability estimates from impulse linear flow; (7) false radial flow signatures occur in the significant majority of gas shale DFITs, and are rare in oil shale DFITs; (8) if false radial signatures are used to estimate permeability, they tend to overestimate permeability, often by 100x or more; (9) the holistic-method permeability correlation overestimates permeability by 10-1000x; (10) in tests that do not reach late-time impulse transients, it is reasonable to make an approximate pore pressure estimate by extrapolating the pressure from the peak in t*dP/dt using a scaling of t^(-1/2) in oil shales and t^(3/4) in gas shales. The findings have direct practical implications for operators. Accurate permeability estimates are needed for calculating effective fracture length and for optimizing well spacing and frac design. Accurate stress estimation is fundamental to hydraulic fracture design and other geomechanics applications.
In this work, we present classification results on early supernova light curves from SCONE, a photometric classifier that uses convolutional neural networks to categorize supernovae (SNe) by type using light-curve data. SCONE is able to identify SN types from light curves at any stage, from the night of initial alert to the end of their lifetimes. Simulated LSST SNe light curves were truncated at 0, 5, 15, 25, and 50 days after the trigger date and used to train Gaussian processes in wavelength and time space to produce wavelength–time heatmaps. SCONE uses these heatmaps to perform six-way classification between SN types Ia, II, Ibc, Ia-91bg, Iax, and SLSN-I. SCONE is able to perform classification with or without redshift, but we show that incorporating redshift information improves performance at each epoch. SCONE achieved 75% overall accuracy at the date of trigger (60% without redshift), and 89% accuracy 50 days after trigger (82% without redshift). SCONE was also tested on bright subsets of SNe (r < 20 mag) and produced 91% accuracy at the date of trigger (83% without redshift) and 95% five days after trigger (94.7% without redshift). SCONE is the first application of convolutional neural networks to the early-time photometric transient classification problem. All of the data processing and model code developed for this paper can be found in the SCONE software package
located at github.com/helenqu/scone (Qu 2021).
Increased engineered nanomaterial (ENM) production and incorporation in consumer and biomedical products has raised concerns about the potential adverse effects. The DNA damaging capacity is of particular importance since damaged genetic material can lead to carcinogenesis. Consequently, reliable and robust in vitro studies assessing ENM genotoxicity are of great value. We utilized two complementary assays based on different measurement principles: (1) comet assay and (2) FADU (fluorimetric detection of alkaline DNA unwinding) assay. Assessing cell viability ruled out false-positive results due to DNA fragmentation during cell death. Potential structure–activity relationships of 10 ENMs were investigated: three silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) with varying degrees of porosity, titanium dioxide (TiO2-NP), polystyrene (PS-NP), zinc oxide (ZnO-NP), gold (Au-NP), graphene oxide (GO) and two multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). SiO2-NPs, TiO2-NP and GO were neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic to Jurkat E6-I cells. Quantitative interference corrections derived from GO results can make the FADU assay a promising screening tool for a variety of ENMs. MWNT merely induced cytotoxicity, while dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity of PS-NP was accompanied by DNA fragmentation. Hence, PS-NP served to benchmark threshold levels of cytotoxicity at which DNA fragmentation was expected. Considering all controls revealed the true genotoxicity for Au-NP and ZnO-NP at early time points.
In this work, the individual difference of the honk effect is explored on two lanes via traffic modeling of the lattice model under Vehicle to X (V2X) environment. We study the impact of individual difference corresponding to honk cases on traffic stability through linear stability analysis for a two-lane highway. Furthermore, the mKdV equation under the lane changing phenomena is conducted via nonlinear analysis. Simulation cases for the early time and longtime impact reveal that individual difference of driving characteristics has a distinct impact on two lanes under the whistling environment.
This paper aims at re-evaluating two of Hungarian artist Dóra Mauer’s films, the video work Proportions (1979) and the 16mm film Timing (1973/80). Both films follow a rigid structure. In Proportions, Maurer uses a paper roll to compare her own body measures repeatedly; in Timing, she repeatedly folds a white linen to compare the rhythm of her arm movements. Through her use of paper and the gesture of folding, the two films can be read as references to the very origin of the term format, as coined in early letterpress printing. When the notion of format is understood as a determination of a ratio and, as such, as an indexical reference to given social relationships (Summers, 2003), these films unfold sociocultural and political meanings. The present paper traces this spectrum of meaning through the pointed inclusion of historical discourses surrounding early motion studies, the art scene in socialist Hungary in the 1970s, and early time experiments before the advent of precision clocks.
Background and Purpose:
Sex-related differences exist in many aspects of acute stroke and were mainly investigated in the early time window with conflicting results. However, data regarding sex disparities in late presenters are scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate differences in outcomes between women and men treated with endovascular treatment in the late time window.
Analyses were based on the SOLSTICE Consortium (Selection of Late-Window Stroke for Thrombectomy by Imaging Collateral Extent), which was an individual-patient level analysis of seven trials and registries. Baseline characteristics, 90-day functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2), mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were compared between women and men. Effect of sex on the association of age and successful reperfusion (final Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b–3) with outcomes was assessed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, time from onset to puncture, occlusion location, intravenous thrombolysis, and successful reperfusion, with interaction terms.
Among 608 patients treated with endovascular treatment, 50.5% were women. Women were older than men (median age of 72 versus 68 years,
=0.02) and had a lower prevalence of tandem occlusions (14.0% versus 22.9%,
=0.005). Workflow times were similar between sexes. Adjusted outcomes did not differ between women and men. Functional independence at 90 days was achieved by 127 out of 292 women (43.5%) and 135 out of 291 men (46.4%). Mortality at 90 days (54 [18.5%] versus 48 [16.5%]) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (37 [13.3%] versus 33 [11.6%]) were similar between women and men. There was no sex-by-age interaction on functional outcomes. However, men had higher likelihood of mortality (
=0.003) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (
=0.017) with advancing age. Sex did not influence the relation between successful reperfusion and outcomes.
In this multicenter analysis of late patients treated with endovascular treatment, sex was not associated with functional outcome. However, sex influenced the association between age and safety outcomes, with men experiencing worse outcomes with advancing age.
Owing to the spatial overlap of the ion plasma sheet (ring current) with the Earth’s neutral-hydrogen geocorona, there is a significant rate of occurrence of charge-exchange collisions in the dipolar portion of the Earth’s magnetosphere. During a charge-exchange collision between an energetic proton and a low-energy hydrogen atom, a low-energy proton is produced. These “byproduct” cold protons are trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field where they advect via E×B drift. In this report, the number density and behavior of this cold-proton population are assessed. Estimates of the rate of production of byproduct cold protons from charge exchange are in the vicinity of 1.14 cm−3 per day at geosynchronous orbit or about 5 tons per day for the entire dipolar magnetosphere. The production rate of cold protons owing to electron-impact ionization of the geocorona by the electron plasma sheet at geosynchronous orbit is about 12% of the charge-exchange production rate, but the production rate by solar photoionization of the neutral geocorona is comparable or larger than the charge-exchange production rate. The byproduct-ion production rates are smaller than observed early time refilling rates for the outer plasmasphere. Numerical simulations of the production and transport of cold charge-exchange byproduct protons find that they have very low densities on the nightside of geosynchronous orbit, and they can have densities of 0.2–0.3 cm−3 at geosynchronous orbit on the dayside. These dayside byproduct-proton densities might play a role in shortening the early phase of plasmaspheric refilling.
Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities occur in many situations in Nature and technology from astrophysical to atomic scales, including stellar evolution, oceanic flows, plasma fusion, and scramjets. While RT and RM instabilities are sister phenomena, a link of RT-to-RM dynamics requires better understanding. This work focuses on the long-standing problem of RTI/RMI induced by accelerations, which vary as inverse-quadratic power-laws in time, and on RT/RM flows, which are three-dimensional, spatially extended and periodic in the plane normal to the acceleration direction. We apply group theory to obtain solutions for the early-time linear and late-time nonlinear dynamics of RT/RM coherent structure of bubbles and spikes, and investigate the dependence of the solutions on the acceleration’s parameters and initial conditions. We find that the dynamics is of RT type for strong accelerations and is of RM type for weak accelerations, and identify the effects of the acceleration’s strength and the fluid density ratio on RT-to-RM transition. While for given problem parameters the early-time dynamics is uniquely defined, the solutions for the late-time dynamics form a continuous family parameterised by the interfacial shear and include special solutions for RT/RM bubbles/spikes. Our theory achieves good agreement with available observations. We elaborate benchmarks that can be used in future research and in design of experiments and simulations, and that can serve for better understanding of RT/RM relevant processes in Nature and technology.
We extend previous work on gamma-ray burst afterglows involving hot thermal electrons at the base of a shock-accelerated tail. Using a physically motivated electron distribution based on first-principles simulations, we compute the broadband emission from radio to TeV gamma rays. For the first time, we present the effects of a thermal distribution of electrons on synchrotron self-Compton emission. The presence of thermal electrons causes temporal and spectral structure across the entire observable afterglow, which is substantively different from models that assume a pure power-law distribution for the electrons. We show that early-time TeV emission is enhanced by more than an order of magnitude for our fiducial parameters, with a time-varying spectral index that does not occur for a pure power law of electrons. We further show that the X-ray closure relations take a very different, also time-dependent, form when thermal electrons are present; the shape traced out by the X-ray afterglows is a qualitative match to observations of the traditional decay phase.
This work describes the development of a hybrid framework of Runge–Kutta (RK), discontinuous Galerkin (DG), level set (LS) and direct ghost fluid (DGFM) methods for the simulation of near-field and early-time underwater explosions (UNDEX) in early-stage ship design. UNDEX problems provide a series of challenging issues to be solved. The multi-dimensional, multi-phase, compressible and inviscid fluid-governing equations must be solved numerically. The shock front in the solution field must be captured accurately while maintaining the total variation diminishing (TVD) properties. The interface between the explosive gas and water must be tracked without letting the numerical diffusion across the material interface lead to spurious pressure oscillations and thus the failure of the simulation. The non-reflecting boundary condition (NRBC) must effectively absorb the wave and prevent it from reflecting back into the fluid. Furthermore, the CFD solver must have the capability of dealing with fluid–structure interactions (FSI) where both the fluid and structural domains respond with significant deformation. These issues necessitate a hybrid model. In-house CFD solvers (UNDEXVT) are developed to test the applicability of this framework. In this development, code verification and validation are performed. Different methods of implementing non-reflecting boundary conditions (NRBCs) are compared. The simulation results of single and multi-dimensional cases that possess near-field and early-time UNDEX features—such as shock and rarefaction waves in the fluid, the explosion bubble, and the variation of its radius over time—are presented. Continuing research on two-way coupled FSI with large deformation is introduced, and together with a more complete description of the direct ghost fluid method (DGFM) in this framework will be described in subsequent papers.