spread of infection
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Vito Carlo Alberto Caponio ◽  
Maria Rosaria Lipsi ◽  
Francesca Fortunato ◽  
Fabio Arena ◽  
Lorenzo Lo Muzio

To raise awareness about preventive measures in COVID-19 pandemic, even though fully vaccinated. Although recent trials showed high efficacy of vaccines in preventing symptomatic infections, there are some individuals experiencing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case report, a fully vaccinated young dental practitioner experienced symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection 55 days postvaccination with BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine with evident ageusia. Diagnostic swabs were performed and used for viral genome sequencing. The patient fully recovered 15 days after diagnosis. Loss of smell and taste, together with nasal congestion were the main reported symptoms. The use of personal protective equipment prevented spread of infection in patients and co-workers. With the increase of people being fully vaccinated, it is still necessary to follow infection preventive protocols by correctly applying personal protective equipment. Although high efficacy has been proved, some individuals may still be vulnerable to symptomatic infection and new guidelines and markers should be adopted and investigated to find out patients for whom vaccination may not determine full immunization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 8
Dami A. Collier ◽  
Rachel Bousfield ◽  
Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas ◽  
Ravindra K. Gupta

Background: National lockdowns have led to significant interruption to children’s education globally. In the Autumn term in 2020, school absence in England and Wales was almost five times higher than the same period in 2019. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in schools and ongoing interruption to education remains a concern. However, evaluation of rapid point of care (POC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in British schools has not been undertaken. Methods: This is a survey of secondary schools in England that implemented PCR-based rapid POC testing. The study aims to measure the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools, to assess the impact of this testing on school attendance and closures, and to describe schools experiences with testing. All schools utilised the SAMBA II SARS-CoV-2 testing platform. Results: 12 fee-paying secondary schools in England were included. Between September 1st 2020 and December 16th 2020, 697 on site rapid POC PCR tests were performed and 6.7% of these were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were five outbreaks in three schools during this time which were contained. Seven groups of close contacts within the school known as bubbles had to quarantine but there were no school closures. 84% of those tested were absent from school for less than one day whilst awaiting their test result. This potentially saved between 1047 and 1570 days off school in those testing negative compared to the NHS PCR laboratory test. Schools reported a positive impact of having a rapid testing platform as it allowed them to function as fully as possible during this pandemic. Conclusions: Rapid POC PCR testing platforms should be widely available and utilised in school settings. Reliable positive tests will prevent outbreaks and uncontrolled spread of infection within school settings. Reliable negative test results will reassure students, parents and staff and prevent disruption to education.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 195
Matvey Pavlyutin ◽  
Marina Samoyavcheva ◽  
Rasul Kochkarov ◽  
Ekaterina Pleshakova ◽  
Sergey Korchagin ◽  

To predict the spread of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, the critical values of spread indicators have been determined for deciding on the introduction of restrictive measures using the city of Moscow as an example. A model was developed using classical methods of mathematical modeling based on exponential regression, the accuracy of the forecast was estimated, and the shortcomings of mathematical methods for predicting the spread of infection for more than two weeks. As a solution to the problem of the accuracy of long-term forecasts for more than two weeks, two models based on machine learning methods are proposed: a recurrent neural network with two layers of long short-term memory (LSTM) blocks and a 1-D convolutional neural network with a description of the choice of an optimization algorithm. The forecast accuracy of ML models was evaluated in comparison with the exponential regression model and one another using the example of data on the number of COVID-19 cases in the city of Moscow.

Kayode Oshinubi ◽  
Mustapha Rachdi ◽  
Jacques Demongeot

The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the socio-economic status of countries around the world should not be underestimated, when we consider the role it has played in various countries. Many people were unemployed, many households were careful about their spending, and a greater social divide in the population emerged in 14 different countries from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and from Africa (that is, in developed and developing countries) for which we have considered the epidemiological data on the spread of infection during the first and second waves, as well as their socio-economic data. We established a mathematical relationship between Theil and Gini indices, then we investigated the relationship between epidemiological data and socio-economic determinants, using several machine learning and deep learning methods. High correlations were observed between some of the socio-economic and epidemiological parameters and we predicted three of the socio-economic variables in order to validate our results. These results show a clear difference between the first and the second wave of the pandemic, confirming the impact of the real dynamics of the epidemic’s spread in several countries and the means by which it was mitigated.

MM Hafeez ◽  
S Javed ◽  
S Hanif ◽  
M Haseeb ◽  
AF Butt ◽  

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 pandemic started in December and spread around the globe in a few months. Nosocomial transmission of this virus shut down the dental clinics and creates many problems for patients. This study was designed to assess the experiences and problems faced by the dentist during the pandemic. The was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted in different dental sectors of Lahore. The questionnaire was distributed through online Microsoft form and total of seventy-eight complete responses were received out of 156 dentists contacted.69.2 % of participants reported that they stop taking appointments during the peaks of pandemic or have planned to stay at home till the end of the pandemic where 27% claimed to perform only emergency procedures. 86% of dentists reported having difficulty finding PPE and 97% had to buy it at a much higher cost. Dentists (96%) also reported that they are facing a significant decrease in income and needed some other source of income. Regarding financial issues they did not get any government support.The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on dentistry. Most dental clinics remained closed, placing a financial burden on the dental profession. This burden was further increased as a result of the scarcity and high cost of PPE. There is a need for standardized protocols to prevent the spread of infection, and government agencies should also consider private clinics for funding and provision of low-cost PPE.

Noor Hafizah Abdul Salim ◽  
Aneesa Abdul Rashid ◽  
Ahmad Luqman Md Pauzi ◽  
Mohd Hisham Isa

Every year, the Federation of Islamic Medical Association (FIMA) conducts a basic life support (BLS) course for the public, not just in one, but in several countries. It is held in mosques as a method of raising awareness on the importance of BLS among the public, apart from highlighting the function of a mosque as a place of obtaining knowledge. Traditionally, it was conducted as face-to-face training. However, with the 2019 novel coronavirus pandemic, the training was changed to a hybrid method to balance between the needs to teach BLS skills to the public and the necessity of avoiding the spread of infection. This article discussed the Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia (IMAM)’s experience in organizing a mass BLS course for public in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic while utilising a small mosque as a hub of learning.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 6-10

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Diane M. Janosek

Governments in liberal democracies, such as the U.S. and in Europe, derive their authority from the consent of the people and exist for the “public good.” This chapter explores the proper role of government in communicating information and in enacting public health measures to prevent the spread of infection during a pandemic. This chapter includes historical context and exemplars of government policy makers' dissemination of COVID-19 health information, both accurate and inaccurate ones. Government officials have a responsibility to promote and support public policy initiatives that balance public safety with individual rights and self-determination. In some cases, citizens did not trust the government initiatives nor the associated misinformation or lockdowns. People reacted by exercising their right to protest. This chapter highlights government actions that were not based on accurate information and contributed to its spread and an increase of cyberchondria across the population, demonstrating the public good may not have been well served.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 133-139
Eun Ju Yoo ◽  
Jae Hyuk Oh ◽  
Hyun Joo Jung ◽  
Su Jin Lee ◽  
Ji Eun Park ◽  

Herein, we report two rare cases of renal infection. The first case was renal subcapsular urine reflux in a 8-month-old girl with recurrent urinary tract infection and the second was subcapsular abscess in a 14-year-old girl with diabetes, who was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage. It has been suggested that renal subcapsular abscesses could be caused by the direct reflux of urine into the subcapsular space, rather than spread of infection from an existing parenchymal lesion, and that complete recovery can be achieved if percutaneous drainage is performed in a timely manner. We propose primary subcapsular reflux, in which urine directly refluxes upwards into the subcapsular space of the kidney, as one of the mechanisms for development of renal subcapsular abscesses.

Kanwal Ashiq ◽  
Bushra Naureen ◽  
Sana Ashiq

COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Being associated with high mortality rates, this pandemic has forced several countries worldwide to impose complete lockdowns to limit the spread of infection. Despite the development of various vaccines, there is still an urgent need to design novel treatments backed with safety data for fighting  SARS-CoV-2 and its various mutants. Currently, scientists are putting their strenuous efforts into finding the best treatment option for COVID-19. In this regard, metal complexes being active antiviral agents and immunity enhancers have great potential against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, metal complexes' therapeutic role and significance against treating SARS-CoV-2 or any of its target proteins are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 117-124
Christina Rony Nayoan ◽  
Indra Yohanes Kiling

Introduction: The importance of personal hygiene in preventing the spread of infection cannot be underestimated. Handwashing is an essential aspect of personal hygiene, especially among children. This study aimed to explore primary school students' hygiene in rural and remote areas in the Kupang regency. Methods: This study was conducted as a part of the end line evaluation of the MEMBACA II project. Teachers from four primary schools in three villages were purposively selected to participate in this study. The teachers were recruited from the participant schools of the MEMBACA II Project. Data was collected using phone interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: In total, there were 31 participants across four primary schools interviewed. The participants consisted of teachers, village leaders, village reading camp facilitators, and school supervisors. Participants were recruited as a proxy for providing information about students' hygiene. There were three themes identified as a result of the data analysis. The first theme is an improvement in children’s hygiene behavior. The second theme is the benefit of the little doctor program in children’s hygiene practices. The third theme challenges in children’s hygiene promotion and education. Overall, children were used to handwashing practices. They understood the importance of handwashing, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. They were also aware of four essential times of handwashing. However, the adults perceived the need for handwashing equipment and access to clean water were the main challenges to maintaining students' hygiene. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the significance of regularly teaching children about handwashing in making handwashing habits among these youngsters. A continuing provision of health literacy and access to clean water is required to maintain hygiene behavior 

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