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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Moritz Alexander Messerschmidt ◽  
Sachith Muthukumarana ◽  
Nur Al-Huda Hamdan ◽  
Adrian Wagner ◽  
Haimo Zhang ◽  
...  

We present ANISMA, a software and hardware toolkit to prototype on-skin haptic devices that generate skin deformation stimuli like pressure, stretch, and motion using shape-memory alloys (SMAs). Our toolkit embeds expert knowledge that makes SMA spring actuators more accessible to human–computer interaction (HCI) researchers. Using our software tool, users can design different actuator layouts, program their spatio-temporal actuation and preview the resulting deformation behavior to verify a design at an early stage. Our toolkit allows exporting the actuator layout and 3D printing it directly on skin adhesive. To test different actuation sequences on the skin, a user can connect the SMA actuators to our customized driver board and reprogram them using our visual programming interface. We report a technical analysis, verify the perceptibility of essential ANISMA skin deformation devices with 8 participants, and evaluate ANISMA regarding its usability and supported creativity with 12 HCI researchers in a creative design task.


Author(s):  
Roni Rinne ◽  
Hüseyin Emre Ilgın ◽  
Markku Karjalainen

To date, in the literature, there has been no study on the comparison of hybrid (timber and concrete) buildings with counterparts made of timber and concrete as the most common construction materials, in terms of the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the carbon footprint. This paper examines the environmental impacts of a five-story hybrid apartment building compared to timber and reinforced concrete counterparts in whole-building life-cycle assessment using the software tool, One Click LCA, for the estimation of environmental impacts from building materials of assemblies, construction, and building end-of-life treatment of 50 years in Finland. Following EN 15978, stages of product and construction (A1–A5), use (B1–B6), end-of-life (C1–C4), and beyond the building life cycle (D) were assessed. The main findings highlighted are as following: (1) for A1–A3, the timber apartment had the smallest carbon footprint (28% less than the hybrid apartment); (2) in A4, the timber apartment had a much smaller carbon footprint (55% less than the hybrid apartment), and the hybrid apartment had a smaller carbon footprint (19%) than the concrete apartment; (3) for B1–B5, the carbon footprint of the timber apartment was larger (>20%); (4) in C1–C4, the carbon footprint of the concrete apartment had the lowest emissions (35,061 kg CO2-e), and the timber apartment had the highest (44,627 kg CO2-e), but in D, timber became the most advantageous material; (5) the share of life-cycle emissions from building services was very significant. Considering the environmental performance of hybrid construction as well as its other advantages over timber, wood-based hybrid solutions can lead to more rational use of wood, encouraging the development of more efficient buildings. In the long run, this will result in a higher proportion of wood in buildings, which will be beneficial for living conditions, the environment, and the society in general.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christopher Mark Pooley ◽  
Glenn Marion ◽  
Andrea Doeschl-Wilson

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease spread in populations is controlled by individuals' susceptibility (propensity to acquire infection), infectivity (propensity to pass on infection to others) and recoverability (propensity to recover/die). Estimating the effects of genetic risk factors on these host epidemiological traits can help reduce disease spread through genetic control strategies. However, the effects of previously identified "disease resistance SNPs" on these epidemiological traits are usually unknown. Recent advances in computational statistics make it now possible to estimate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on these traits from longitudinal epidemic data (e.g. infection and/or recovery times of individuals or diagnostic test results). However, little is known how to optimally design disease transmission experiments or field studies to maximise the precision at which pleiotropic SNP effects estimates for susceptibility, infectivity and recoverability can be estimated. RESULTS: We develop and validate analytical expressions for the precision of SNP effects estimates on the three host traits assuming a disease transmission experiment with one or more non-interacting contact groups. Maximising these leads to three distinct "experimental" designs, each specifying a different set of ideal SNP genotype compositions across groups: a) appropriate for a single contact-group, b) a multi-group design termed "pure", and c) a multi-group design termed "mixed", where "pure" and "mixed" refer to contact groups consisting of individuals with the same or different SNP genotypes, respectively. Precision estimates for susceptibility and recoverability were found to be less sensitive to the experimental design than infectivity. Data from multiple groups were found more informative about infectivity effects than from a single group containing the same number of individuals. Whilst the analytical expressions suggest that the multi-group pure and mixed designs estimate SNP effects with similar precision, the mixed design is preferable because it uses information from naturally occurring infections rather than those artificially induced. The same optimal design principles apply to estimating other categorical fixed effects, such as vaccinations status, helping to more effectively quantify their epidemiological impact. An online software tool SIRE-PC has been developed which calculates the precision of estimated substitution and dominance effects of a single SNP (or vaccine status) associated with all three traits depending on experimental design parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The developed methodology and software tool can be used to aid the design of disease transmission experiments for estimating the effect of individual SNPs and other categorical variables underlying host susceptibility, infectivity and recoverability.


2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 97-123
Author(s):  
Didier Lime ◽  
Olivier H. Roux ◽  
Charlotte Seidner

We investigate the problem of parameter synthesis for time Petri nets with a cost variable that evolves both continuously with time, and discretely when firing transitions. More precisely, parameters are rational symbolic constants used for time constraints on the firing of transitions and we want to synthesise all their values such that some marking is reachable, with a cost that is either minimal or simply less than a given bound. We first prove that the mere existence of values for the parameters such that the latter property holds is undecidable. We nonetheless provide symbolic semi-algorithms for the two synthesis problems and we prove them both sound and complete when they terminate. We also show how to modify them for the case when parameter values are integers. Finally, we prove that these modified versions terminate if parameters are bounded. While this is to be expected since there are now only a finite number of possible parameter values, our algorithms are symbolic and thus avoid an explicit enumeration of all those values. Furthermore, the results are symbolic constraints representing finite unions of convex polyhedra that are easily amenable to further analysis through linear programming. We finally report on the implementation of the approach in Romeo, a software tool for the analysis of time Petri nets.


Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 201
Author(s):  
Paolino Di Felice ◽  
Gaetanino Paolone ◽  
Romolo Paesani ◽  
Martina Marinelli

Model-Driven Engineering is largely recognized as the most powerful method for the design of complex software. This study deals with the automated archival of metadata about the content of UML class diagrams (a particularly relevant category of models) into a pre-existing repository. To define the structure of the repository, we started from the definition of a UML metamodel. From the latter, we derived the schema of the metadata repository. Then, a parser was developed that is responsible for extracting the useful information from the XMI file about class diagrams and enters it as metadata into the repository. The parser has been implemented as a Java web interface, while the metadata repository has been implemented as a PostgreSQL database based on the JSONB data type. The metadata repository is thought to support modelers in the initial phase of the process of the development of new models when looking for artifacts to start from. The schema of the metadata repository and the Java code of the parser are available from the authors.


Computers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Padmanabhan Balasubramanian ◽  
Raunaq Nayar ◽  
Okkar Min ◽  
Douglas L. Maskell

Approximate arithmetic circuits are an attractive alternative to accurate arithmetic circuits because they have significantly reduced delay, area, and power, albeit at the cost of some loss in accuracy. By keeping errors due to approximate computation within acceptable limits, approximate arithmetic circuits can be used for various practical applications such as digital signal processing, digital filtering, low power graphics processing, neuromorphic computing, hardware realization of neural networks for artificial intelligence and machine learning etc. The degree of approximation that can be incorporated into an approximate arithmetic circuit tends to vary depending on the error resiliency of the target application. Given this, the manual coding of approximate arithmetic circuits corresponding to different degrees of approximation in a hardware description language (HDL) may be a cumbersome and a time-consuming process—more so when the circuit is big. Therefore, a software tool that can automatically generate approximate arithmetic circuits of any size corresponding to a desired accuracy would not only aid the design flow but also help to improve a designer’s productivity by speeding up the circuit/system development. In this context, this paper presents ‘Approximator’, which is a software tool developed to automatically generate approximate arithmetic circuits based on a user’s specification. Approximator can automatically generate Verilog HDL codes of approximate adders and multipliers of any size based on the novel approximate arithmetic circuit architectures proposed by us. The Verilog HDL codes output by Approximator can be used for synthesis in an FPGA or ASIC (standard cell based) design environment. Additionally, the tool can perform error and accuracy analyses of approximate arithmetic circuits. The salient features of the tool are illustrated through some example screenshots captured during different stages of the tool use. Approximator has been made open-access on GitHub for the benefit of the research community, and the tool documentation is provided for the user’s reference.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Margarita Ruiz-Olazar ◽  
Evandro Santos Rocha ◽  
Claudia D. Vargas ◽  
Kelly Rosa Braghetto

Computational tools can transform the manner by which neuroscientists perform their experiments. More than helping researchers to manage the complexity of experimental data, these tools can increase the value of experiments by enabling reproducibility and supporting the sharing and reuse of data. Despite the remarkable advances made in the Neuroinformatics field in recent years, there is still a lack of open-source computational tools to cope with the heterogeneity and volume of neuroscientific data and the related metadata that needs to be collected during an experiment and stored for posterior analysis. In this work, we present the Neuroscience Experiments System (NES), a free software to assist researchers in data collecting routines of clinical, electrophysiological, and behavioral experiments. NES enables researchers to efficiently perform the management of their experimental data in a secure and user-friendly environment, providing a unified repository for the experimental data of an entire research group. Furthermore, its modular software architecture is aligned with several initiatives of the neuroscience community and promotes standardized data formats for experiments and analysis reporting.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mehmet Cagri Kaymak ◽  
Ali Rahnamoun ◽  
Kurt A. O'Hearn ◽  
Adri C. T. van Duin ◽  
Kenneth M. Merz Jr. ◽  
...  

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations facilitate the study of physical and chemical processes of interest. Traditional classical MD models lack reactivity to explore several important phenomena; while quantum mechanical (QM) models can be used for this purpose, they come with steep computational costs. The reactive force field (ReaxFF) model bridges the gap between these approaches by incorporating dynamic bonding and polarizability. To achieve realistic simulations using ReaxFF, model parameters must be optimized against high fidelity training data, typically with QM accuracy. Existing parameter optimization methods for ReaxFF consist of black-box techniques using genetic algorithms or Monte-Carlo methods. Due to the stochastic behavior of these methods, the optimization process can require millions of error evaluations for complex parameter fitting tasks, significantly hampering the rapid development of high quality parameter sets. In this work, we present JAX ReaxFF, a novel software tool that leverages modern machine learning infrastructure to enable extremely fast optimization of ReaxFF parameters. By calculating gradients of the loss function using the JAX library, we are able to utilize highly effective local optimization methods, such as the limited Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (LBFGS) and Sequential Least Squares Programming (SLSQP) methods. As a result of the performance portability of JAX, JAX-ReaxFF can execute efficiently on multi-core CPUs, GPUs (or even TPUs). By leveraging the gradient information and modern hardware accelerators, we are able to decrease parameter optimization time for ReaxFF from days to mere minutes. JAX-ReaxFF framework can also serve as a sandbox environment for domain scientists to explore customizing the ReaxFF functional form for more accurate modeling.


Doklady BGUIR ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (8) ◽  
pp. 72-80
Author(s):  
V. Yu. Skobtsov ◽  
N. V. Lapitskaya

The paper presents solutions for estimation and analysis of complex system (CS) reliability and survivability indicators based on the logical-probabilistic approach. Modified logical-probabilistic method and software tool for evaluating the reliability and survivability of onboard equipment (OE) of small satellites were developed (SS). The correctness of the suggested method and software tool was shown by computational experiments on some systems of CS SS similar to Belarusian SS, and later compared with the “Arbitr” software complex results.


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