general method
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Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 242
Almudena Marti ◽  
Jurriaan Huskens

Affinity sensing of nucleic acids is among the most investigated areas in biosensing due to the growing importance of DNA diagnostics in healthcare research and clinical applications. Here, we report a simple electrochemical DNA detection layer, based on poly-l-lysine (PLL), in combination with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a signal amplifier. The layer shows excellent reduction of non-specific binding and thereby high contrast between amplified and non-amplified signals with functionalized AuNPs; the relative change in current was 10-fold compared to the non-amplified signal. The present work may provide a general method for the detection of tumor markers based on electrochemical DNA sensing.

2022 ◽  
Bichen Che ◽  
Zhao Dou ◽  
Xiubo Chen ◽  
Yu Yang ◽  
Li Jian ◽  

Abstract The unextendible product bases (UPB) are interesting members of the family of orthogonal product bases. In this paper, we investigate the construction of 3-qudit UPB with strong nonlocality. First, a UPB set in ${{C}^{3}}\otimes {{C}^{3}}\otimes {{C}^{3}}$ of size 19 is presented based on the Shifts UPB. By mapping the system to a Rubik's Cube, we provide a general method of constructing UPB in ${{C}^{d}}\otimes {{C}^{d}}\otimes {{C}^{d}}$ of size ${{\left(d-1 \right)}^{3}}+2d+5$, whose corresponding Rubik's Cube is composed of four parts. Second, for the more general case where the dimensions of parties are different, we extend the classical tile structure to the 3-qudit system and propose the Tri-tile structure. By means of this structure, a ${{C}^{4}}\otimes {{C}^{4}}\otimes {{C}^{5}}$ system of size 38 is obtained based on a ${{C}^{3}}\otimes {{C}^{3}}\otimes {{C}^{4}}$ system of size 19. Then, we generalize this approach to ${{C}^{{{d}_{1}}}}\otimes {{C}^{{{d}_{2}}}}\otimes {{C}^{{{d}_{3}}}}$ system which also consists of four parts. Our research provides a positive answer to the open question raised in [Halder, et al., PRL, 122, 040403 (2019)], indicating that there do exist UPB that can exhibit strong quantum nonlocality without entanglement.

SeMA Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jie Chen ◽  
Yousef Saad ◽  
Zechen Zhang

AbstractThe general method of graph coarsening or graph reduction has been a remarkably useful and ubiquitous tool in scientific computing and it is now just starting to have a similar impact in machine learning. The goal of this paper is to take a broad look into coarsening techniques that have been successfully deployed in scientific computing and see how similar principles are finding their way in more recent applications related to machine learning. In scientific computing, coarsening plays a central role in algebraic multigrid methods as well as the related class of multilevel incomplete LU factorizations. In machine learning, graph coarsening goes under various names, e.g., graph downsampling or graph reduction. Its goal in most cases is to replace some original graph by one which has fewer nodes, but whose structure and characteristics are similar to those of the original graph. As will be seen, a common strategy in these methods is to rely on spectral properties to define the coarse graph.

2022 ◽  
Zhe Feng ◽  
Yuanyuan Li ◽  
Siyi Chen ◽  
Xiaoming Yu ◽  
Yanyun Ying ◽  

High-definition fluorescence imaging of deep-buried organs is still challenging. Here, we develop bright fluorophores emitting to 1700 nm by enhancing electron donating ability and reducing donor-acceptor distance. In parallel, the heavy water functions as the solvent of the delicately designed fluorophores, effectively reducing the fluorescent signal loss caused by the absorption by water. The near-infrared-II (NIR-II, 900-1880 nm) emission is eventually recovered and extended beyond 1400 nm. Compared with the spectral range beyond 1500 nm, the one beyond 1400 nm gives a more accurate fluorescence visualization of the hollow organs, owing to the absorption-induced scattering suppression. In addition, the intraluminal lesions containing much water are simultaneously negatively stained, leading to a stark contrast for precise diagnosis. Eventually, the intraluminally perfused fluorescent probes are excreted from mice and thus no obvious side effects emerge. This general method can provide new avenues for future biomedical imaging of deep and highly scattering tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 183 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 67-96
David de Frutos Escrig ◽  
Maciej Koutny ◽  
Łukasz Mikulski

In reversible computations one is interested in the development of mechanisms allowing to undo the effects of executed actions. The past research has been concerned mainly with reversing single actions. In this paper, we consider the problem of reversing the effect of the execution of groups of actions (steps). Using Petri nets as a system model, we introduce concepts related to this new scenario, generalising notions used in the single action case. We then present properties arising when reverse actions are allowed in place/transition nets (PT-nets). We obtain both positive and negative results, showing that allowing steps makes reversibility more problematic than in the interleaving/sequential case. In particular, we demonstrate that there is a crucial difference between reversing steps which are sets and those which are true multisets. Moreover, in contrast to sequential semantics, splitting reverses does not lead to a general method for reversing bounded PT-nets. We then show that a suitable solution can be obtained by combining split reverses with weighted read arcs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Liya Li ◽  
Wangxiao He ◽  
Weiming You ◽  
Jin Yan ◽  
Wenjia Liu

Abstract Background Clinical translation of therapeutic nuclear acid, particularly those targeting tumor progression, has been hampered by the intrinsic weaknesses of nuclear acid therapeutic including poor systemic stability, rapid clearance, low membrane permeability and lack of targeting ability. Small nuclear acid engineered into carrier-free nanodrugs with structural stability and disease targeting may be viable to overcome pharmaceutical obstacles of nuclear acid. Methods A general method through a mild and simple chemistry was established to convert therapeutic miRNA into an infinite Auric-sulfhydryl coordination supramolecular miRNA termed IacsRNA with near-spherical nanostructure, high colloid as well as anti-hydrolysis stability and low macrophage uptakes. Results IacsRNA presented the increased half-life period in circulation and accumulation at tumor sites in comparison to normal miRNA. Moreover, Iacs-miR-30c showed no toxicity of viscera and sanguis system in the 5-time injection dosage of the treatment. More importantly, Iacs-miR-30c potently suppressed the Wnt signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo, and effectively sensitized both potency of 5-Fu in PDX model of colon cancer and Anti-PD1 in B16F10 homograft model of melanoma. Conclusion Collectively, this work amply confirmed the design of IacsRNA as a general and viable strategy of nano-pharmaceutic to concert flimsy therapeutic miRNA into potential drugs. Considering from a broader perspective, the miRNA-initiated infinite coordination self-assembly strategy has distinct advantages in resurrecting nuclear acid therapeutics, probably bringing new inspiration to RNA-derived therapeutics of a great variety of human diseases including cancer. Graphical Abstract

Kleyser Ribeiro ◽  
Daniel Domingues Loriggio ◽  
Mauro de Vasconcellos Real

Abstract To analyze the reliability of slender columns subjected to axial force and uniaxial bending moment, with a slenderness index between 100 and 140, 216 columns were modeled. The square cross-section was adopted, with three different configurations for longitudinal reinforcement. In the calculation, the general method with the linear creep theory was applied. Several factors were varied: slenderness index, reinforcement ratio, steel bars arrangement, compressive strength of concrete, and first-order relative eccentricity. For analysis purposes, the Monte Carlo method was adopted, followed by the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Considering the results obtained, it was observed that the reliability index is usually higher for lower reinforcement ratios and varies according to the configuration of the cross-section.

2022 ◽  
Vol 258 ◽  
pp. 06001
Matteo Di Carlo ◽  
Maxwell T. Hansen ◽  
Nils Hermansson-Truedsson ◽  
Antonin Portelli

We present a model-independent and relativistic approach to analytically derive electromagnetic finite-size effects beyond the point-like approximation. The key element is the use of electromagnetic Ward identities to constrain vertex functions, and structure-dependence appears via physical form-factors and their derivatives. We apply our general method to study the leading finitesize structure-dependence in the pseudoscalar mass (at order 1/L3) as well as in the leptonic decay amplitudes of pions and kaons (at order 1/L2). Knowledge of the latter is essential for Standard Model precision tests in the flavour physics sector from lattice simulations.

Xinqiang Fang ◽  
Syeda Tazeen Zehra ◽  
Shouang Lan ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Jinggong Liu ◽  

Developing a general method affording optically pure fully-substituted carbon molecules bearing various fluorinated groups is highly important but very challenging. Here we show that using secondary OH as the kinetic...

2022 ◽  
Thanh V. Le ◽  
Olafs Daugulis

A general method for ortho-functionalization of pentafluorosulfanyl arenes has been developed.

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