Kanz Philosophia A Journal for Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism
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Published By Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Islam (Stfi) Sadra

2407-1056, 2442-5451

Author(s):  
Sangkot Sirait

Most Islamic theologians and sufi orders always have a different view of discovering the truth of God. On the contrary,in the view of Ibn Taymiyya, between Islamic theology and mysticism both strive to deliver people to understand the existence of God, they are so willing to do good and leave the bad. Efforts to do good and leave the bad that bring human beings intothe perfection of the soul. It can be concluded that, Islamic theology (kalam) more theoretical, while mysticism is more practical. It means that  between Islamic theology and mysticism both strive to deliver the people to understand the existence of God. Islamic theology as a theoretical means that  lead man to the logical belief. This logical belief will then be appeared when he was charged by sufism. The study of theology will be more inperfect its meaning if it is filled with mysticism. Instead, theology can serve as a controller of sufism. If there are theories in mysticism that does not comply with the study of theology about God based on Qur’an and Hadith, it must be rectified. This is where the  interrelationships between Islamic theology mysticism. Ibn Taymiyya concluded that it is impossible to attain    knowledge of  God by rational methods, whether those of kala>m (Islamic thelogy) and also impossible the sufi aim of union with God. But his attitude to sufism is complex. He rejects everything resembling ‘union with God’ as the highest aim for human life. Absorption into the One, or even contemplation of the highest God, he felt to be at variance with the shari’a (kala>m). For him, the suprem end was the worship or service (‘iba>da) of God. Keywords: Islamic theology, Mysticism, Ascetic, Epistemology, fit}ra, wah{dat al-wuju>d ABSTRAKKebanyakan teolog dan kaum sufi selalu berdiri sendiri untuk mencari kebenaran Tuhan. Tetapi dalam pandangan ibn Taimiayah, justru sebaliknya, yakni antara kalam dan tasawuf  sama-sama berupaya untuk mengantarkan manusia memahami keberadaan Allah, sehingga bersedia melakukan kebaikan dan meninggalkan keburukan. Upaya untuk melakukan kebaikan dan meninggalkan keburukan itulah yang dapat mengantarkan manusia pada kesempurnaan jiwa.Dapat disimpulkan bahwa, kalam  lebih bersifat teoritis, sementara tasawuf lebih bersifat praktis. Artinya, antara filsafat islam dan tasawuf sama-sama berupaya untuk mengantarkan manusia agar memahami keberadaan Allah. Kalam sebagai sarana teoritis  dapat mengantarkan manusia kepada keyakinan logis. Keyakinan logis inikemudian akan terwujud dalam kenyataan  bila ia diisi oleh  tasawuf. Kajian ilmu kalam akan lebih terasa maknanya jika diisi dengan ilmu tasawuf.  Sebaliknya, ilmu kalam pun dapat berfungsi sebagai pengendali tasawuf. Jika ada teori-teori dalam ilmu tasawuf yang tidak sesuai dengan kajian ilmu kalam tentang Tuhan yang didasarkan pada Qur’an dan Hadis, hal ini mesti dibetulkan. Demikian terlihat hubungan timbal balik di antara ilmu tasawuf dan ilmu kalam. Ibn Taymiyya menyimpulkan ada kemungkinan untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan melalui metode rasional seperti yang ditemukan dalam ilmu kalam dan juga melalui pembersihan hati  seperti dalam tasawuf.   Dia menolak konsep penyatuan diri dengan Tuhan sebagai tujuan utama manusia. Melebur dalam diri Tuhan dan kontemplasi, menurutnya, harus dilihat dari aspek syari’ah. Baginya puncak dari kesatuan adalah penyembahan dan ibadah kepada Tuhan. Keywords: Islamic theology, Mysticism, Ascetic, Epistemology, fit}ra, wah{dat al-wuju>dMost Islamic theologians and sufi orders always have a different view of discovering the truth of God. On the contrary,in the view of Ibn Taymiyya, between Islamic theology and mysticism both strive to deliver people to understand the existence of God, they are so willing to do good and leave the bad. Efforts to do good and leave the bad that bring human beings intothe perfection of the soul. It can be concluded that, Islamic theology (kalam) more theoretical, while mysticism is more practical. It means that  between Islamic theology and mysticism both strive to deliver the people to understand the existence of God. Islamic theology as a theoretical means that  lead man to the logical belief. This logical belief will then be appeared when he was charged by sufism. The study of theology will be more inperfect its meaning if it is filled with mysticism. Instead, theology can serve as a controller of sufism. If there are theories in mysticism that does not comply with the study of theology about God based on Qur’an and Hadith, it must be rectified. This is where the  interrelationships between Islamic theology mysticism. Ibn Taymiyya concluded that it is impossible to attain    knowledge of  God by rational methods, whether those of kala>m (Islamic thelogy) and also impossible the sufi aim of union with God. But his attitude to sufism is complex. He rejects everything resembling ‘union with God’ as the highest aim for human life. Absorption into the One, or even contemplation of the highest God, he felt to be at variance with the shari’a (kala>m). For him, the suprem end was the worship or service (‘iba>da) of God. Keywords: Islamic theology, Mysticism, Ascetic, Epistemology, fit}ra, wah{dat al-wuju>d ABSTRAKKebanyakan teolog dan kaum sufi selalu berdiri sendiri untuk mencari kebenaran Tuhan. Tetapi dalam pandangan ibn Taimiayah, justru sebaliknya, yakni antara kalam dan tasawuf  sama-sama berupaya untuk mengantarkan manusia memahami keberadaan Allah, sehingga bersedia melakukan kebaikan dan meninggalkan keburukan. Upaya untuk melakukan kebaikan dan meninggalkan keburukan itulah yang dapat mengantarkan manusia pada kesempurnaan jiwa.Dapat disimpulkan bahwa, kalam  lebih bersifat teoritis, sementara tasawuf lebih bersifat praktis. Artinya, antara filsafat islam dan tasawuf sama-sama berupaya untuk mengantarkan manusia agar memahami keberadaan Allah. Kalam sebagai sarana teoritis  dapat mengantarkan manusia kepada keyakinan logis. Keyakinan logis inikemudian akan terwujud dalam kenyataan  bila ia diisi oleh  tasawuf. Kajian ilmu kalam akan lebih terasa maknanya jika diisi dengan ilmu tasawuf.  Sebaliknya, ilmu kalam pun dapat berfungsi sebagai pengendali tasawuf. Jika ada teori-teori dalam ilmu tasawuf yang tidak sesuai dengan kajian ilmu kalam tentang Tuhan yang didasarkan pada Qur’an dan Hadis, hal ini mesti dibetulkan. Demikian terlihat hubungan timbal balik di antara ilmu tasawuf dan ilmu kalam. Ibn Taymiyya menyimpulkan ada kemungkinan untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan melalui metode rasional seperti yang ditemukan dalam ilmu kalam dan juga melalui pembersihan hati  seperti dalam tasawuf.   Dia menolak konsep penyatuan diri dengan Tuhan sebagai tujuan utama manusia. Melebur dalam diri Tuhan dan kontemplasi, menurutnya, harus dilihat dari aspek syari’ah. Baginya puncak dari kesatuan adalah penyembahan dan ibadah kepada Tuhan.  


Author(s):  
Amir H. Zekrgoo ◽  
Leyla H. Tajer

The Mathnawī uses metaphors to presents man’s multi-layered self. . Jalaluddin Rumi (d.1207) communicates through stories with great potential to be developed into various forms of visual and performing arts. Through his creative imagination, and using elements from Persian mystical literature Rumi presents his messages in an attractive and tangible form. Adopting metaphors and symbols he pictures various faces of nafs (self) relating each face, to an individual animal. “The Snake Catcher’s tale” is an excellent artistic display of man's battle with his animal self. It offers a complex religious subject in an easy-to-digest manner that can be visualized and set into play.


Author(s):  
Bagus Laksana

This essay endeavors to look closely at the mystical theological anthropology of Hamzah Fansuri, the first and one of the greatest Sufi writers in the Malay world. Mystical anthropology is arguably the underlying theme of all Fansuri’s poems and he develops this mystical discourse on the theomorphic dignity of every human person, together with the dynamic of return to God, by using some quite original imageries and symbolisms of his own. However, Fansuri’s mystical theological anthropology belongs to the tradition of Ibn al-‘Arabi (the wujudiyyah doctrince), while his works also betray familiarity with and the influence of other great mystics of Islam, such as Attar and Hafez.Keywords : Fansuri, Islamic mysticism, Sufism, anthropology, union with God


Author(s):  
Oladipupo Sunday Layi

Belief in a Supreme Being is an idea that virtually all cultures of the world subscribe to. However, different interpretation could be deduced from the subscriptions. The Yoruba, for example, in Nigeria, is not an exception to this. Olodumare the Yoruba word for Supreme Being has attracted comments, interpretations and misinterpretations from different scholars of both Yoruba and non-Yoruba extractions. For instance, E. Bolaji Idowu, John Ayotunde Bewaji, Kazeem Ademola Fayemi, Kola Abimbola analyses manifest some seemingly contradictions which was hinged upon by Benson O. Igboin, in his paper “Is Olodumare, God in Yoruba Belief, God?” From their explanation, Igboin demand for the true nature of Olodumare having conceded that Olodumare and the Christian God are not and cannot be the same. Specifically, Igboin asked Olodumare, who are you? This paper, therefore, provides an insight to the real nature of Olodumare in Yoruba worldview. It argues that God is nothing other than the English meaning or interpretation of the Supreme Being. The paper posits that Igboin’s pairs of Esu and Olodumare of which one is true and faithful to Yoruba traditional Religion and the other true and faithful to Christianity in Yoruba land does not hold water. Using analytical method of philosophical inquiry, the paper concludes that Olodumare in Yoruba traditional Religion cannot be equated with the concept of God as conceived in Christianity neither could it be bifurcated. Hence, Olodumare is not necessarily God as conceived in Christian thought, but he is sufficiently a Supreme Being in Yoruba theology.


Author(s):  
Abdolmajid Hakimelahi ◽  
Basrir Hamdani

The epistemological approach of evidentialism maintains that a belief must have sufficient evidence in order to be rationally justified. The belief in God is no exception and, hence, it too must pass the litmus test of evidence as a measure of its rational justification. But what counts as evidence? Responding to this question and identifying the nature of the evidence that can be used to justify belief has become a point of contention between philosophers. While some evidentialists have denied the possibility of evidence for the belief in God, others have attacked the very basis of the evidentialist claim by promoting belief in God without evidence. The following paper briefly describes these two currents and culminates by discussing the notion of innate concepts and presential knowledge as proposed by Mulla Sadra. According to the authors, this type of presential knowledge can be included as “evidence” even from the evidentialist point of view which does not limit evidence to conceptual knowledge.


Author(s):  
Nanang Tahqiq

Abstract : This academic manuscript intensely and scrupulously examines convolutions within the definition of Islamic Philosophy. Entirely numerous genres of meanings on the Islamic falsafa lavishly subsist, and the writer has uncovered thirteen outlooks. Each of them holds its own reason, intention and locale background. Apart from definition, the article portrays polemics and paradoxes dealing with terms of falsafa renowned in the Indonesian common parlance. Finally, it considers at a glance the meaning of the Western philosophy just to discuss a juxtapose with Islamic falsafa.    Keywords : Meanings, Concepts, Terms.   Abstrak: : Naskah akademik ini membedah secara mendalam dan komperhensif kompleksitas terkelindan definisi falsafah Islam. Terdapat berbagai macam makna, dan penulis menemukan sebanyak tiga belas batasan. Masing-masing batasan memunyai alasan dan latarbelakang tersendiri. Selain definisi, sang artikel juga menyibak kontroversi dan paradoks melingkupi istilah-istilah dikenal dalam falsafah Islam di Indonesia. Konsekuensi penelitian ini pada akhirnya mengimbas guna menyoal definisi dimiliki falsafah Barat.Kata kunci : Makna, Konsep, Istilah.


Author(s):  
Benny Susilo

Prior to Mullā Ṣadrā, the discussion of the gradation (al-tashkīk) was limited on the category of quality and that of quantity, both are known as the differential gradation (al-tashkīk al- tafāḍulī). In Ibn Sīnā’s point of view, the gradation occurs in the accidental matters (al-tashkīk fī al-‘araḍī) while in Suhrawardi’s, it occurs in the quiddity (al-tashkīk fī al-māhiyyah). Mullā Ṣadrā rejects both views and proves that essentially (bi al-dhāt) the gradation, in the specific sense,  occurs  in  the  reality  of  existence  (tashkīk  fī  ḥaqīqat  al-wujūd), while the gradation in the general sense just follows (bi  al-ilḥaq) it.  Using descriptive-analytical method and comparative approache, this article is aimed to show the meeting points as well as separating ones of the thoughts of the three philosophers concerning gradation; also, to point out that after proving the oneness in the reality of existence and asserting the differential gradation in it, Mullā Ṣadrā proceeds to elaborate two other kinds of gradation:  (1) that which is more specific than the differential gradation, i.e., the causal gradation (al-tashkīk al-‘illī), and (2) that which is outside of the differential gradation, i.e., the accidental gradation.Keywords :  gradation,  the  gradation  in  matters,    the  causal  gradation,  the  accidental gradation.   Pembahasan  gradasi  (al-tasykīk)  sebelum  periode  Mullā  Shadrā  terbatas  pada  kategori kualitas  dan  kuantitas,  atau  dikenal  dengan  istilah  gradasi  diferensial  (al-tasykīk  al- tafādhulī).  Dalam  pandangan  Ibn  Sīnā,  gradasi  terjadi  pada  hal-hal  aksidental  (al-tasykīk fī  al-‘aradhī);  sementara  menurut  Suhrawardī,  gradasi  terjadi  pada  quiditas  (al-tasykīk  fī al-māhiyyah). Mullā Shadrā menolak kedua pandangan tersebut dan membuktikan bahwa gradasi, dalam makna spesifik,  secara esensial (bi al-dzāt) terjadi pada hakikat eksistensi (tasykīk  fī  ḥaqīqat  al-wujūd), sedangkan gradasi dalam makna umum terjadi tidak secara esensial melainkan hanya mengikuti (bi al-ilḥaq). Dengan menggunakan metode deskriptif- analitis dan pendekatan komparatif, ulasan artikel ini ditujukan untuk memperlihatkan titik temu dan perbedaan pandangan ketiga filsuf tersebut seputar gradasi; juga, menunjukkan  bagaimana  Mullā  Shadrā,  setelah  membuktikan  klaim  adanya  kesatuan  dan  gradasi diferensial  pada  hakikat  eksistensi,  melanjutkan  mengelaborasi  dua  gradasi  lainnya:  (1) pertama, gradasi yang lebih spesifik (akhashsh) dari gradasi diferensial, yaitu gradasi kausal (al-tasykīk al-‘illī); dan, (2) kedua, gradasi di luar gradasi direfensial, yaitu gradasi aksidental (al-tasykīk al-‘aradhi).  Kata-kata Kunci : gradasi, gradasi dalam materi, gradasi kausal, gradasi aksidental. 


Author(s):  
Amir H. Zekrgoo

<strong>Abstract </strong>:<em> N</em><em>or</em><em>ūz</em>, is among the oldest celebrations in history that is still alive and observed by various peoples that historically share Persian culture. This research presents a multifaceted approach to the subject: historical, religious, symbolic and scientific., and is aimed at tracing <em>Norūz </em>in the history, its significance in the setting of an accurate solar calendar, its evolvement in various religious traditions and, eventually, the process of its Islamization. It also provides an analytical account of the “<em>Haft-sīn </em>Spread” – a setting of seven items that are closely associated with the celebration of <em>Norūz </em>– and their symbolic significance.<div class="WordSection1"><p><strong>Ke</strong><strong>ywords : </strong><em>N</em><em>orūz, </em><em>H</em><em>aft-Sīn</em><em>,</em><em> </em><em>F</em><em>estival, </em><em>P</em><em>ur</em><em>im</em><em>,</em><em> </em><em>Easter, </em><em>I</em><em>ntangible </em><em>C</em><em>ultural heritage.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><p><strong>Abstrak</strong> :<em> No</em><em>rūz </em>merupakan salah satu perayaan tertua sepanjang sejarah yang masih hidup dan dirayakan oleh  beragam kalangan yang  memiliki ikatan  sejarah  dengan  kebudayaan Persia.  Penelitian  ini  menyuguhkan  pedekatan  dari  berbagai sisi: historis, religious, simbolis, dan ilmiah, yang ditujukan untuk menelusuri <em>Norūz </em>dalam perjalanan sejarah, menelaah signifikansinya dalam menentukan sebuah penanggalan matahari yang akurat, perkembangannya dalam beragam tradisi keagamaan dan, akhirnya, proses Islamisasi atasnya. Kajian ini juga menyuguhkan telaah analitis atas  “Jamuan <em>Haft-Sīn</em>”— tujuh hal tertentu yang disajikan terkait perayaan <em>Norūz—</em>beserta muatan makna simbolis di baliknya.</p><p><strong>K</strong><strong>ata-kata Kunci<em> : </em></strong><em>N</em><em>orūz, </em><em>H</em><em>aft-Sīn</em><em>, </em><em>P</em><em>erayaan, </em><em>P</em><em>ur</em><em>im</em><em>, </em><em>P</em><em>askah, </em><em>W</em><em>arisan kultural tak kasat mata</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p></div>


Author(s):  
Syamsun Ni`am
Keyword(s):  

<p><strong>Abstract</strong> : Attār is one to be accounted amongst the greatest sufi poets of Persia sufis in the history of Sufism who has notable contibution to the esoteric Islam (Sufism). He packed his mystical teachings in the form of poetry and verse, -to be more interactive and expressive- though his teachings are not different with his predecessors, particularly of those who inspired by the principle of mystical union; and Attār is among the Sufis who have managed to reach the highest peak in the mystical journey. According to Attār , there are seven valleys that must be passed by spiritual traveler (<em>sālik</em>) in his mystical journey, as mentioned in <em>Manthiq al-Thayr</em>. In this work he use the language of poetry to reveal the process of a servant to God through the stages (<em>maqāmāt</em>), and Attār  gives the parable <em>maqāmāt </em>is like a bird -burung flying looking for the king. Attār call <em>maqāmāt </em>is the term valleys, of which there are seven valleys.</p><p><strong>Ke</strong><strong>ywords : </strong><em>Maqāmāt, seven valleys, fanā’, </em><em>divine love</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><p><strong>Abstrak</strong> : Attar adalah salah satu sufi besar Persia yang pernah dikenal dalam sejarah tasawuf. Attār telah banyak memberikan kontribusi pemikirannya dalam khasanah keilmuan Islam esoteris (tasawuf). Ia mengemas ajaran tasawufnya dalam bentuk puisi dan syair, —sehingga tampak lebih menarik— meskipun ajaran-ajaran yang disampaikan kurang lebih sama dengan para sufi pendahulunya, terutama yang menganut paham <em>mystical union</em>; dan Attār adalah di antara sufi yang telah berhasil mencapai puncak tertinggi dalam perjalanan mistisnya itu. Menurut Attār, ada tujuh lembah yang harus dilalui <em>sālik </em>dalam menempuh perjalanan mistisnya, sebagaimana disebutkan dalam <em>Manthiq al-Thayr</em>. Dalam karyanya ini, Attār menggunakan bahasa puisi dan syair untuk mengungkap proses seorang hamba menuju Tuhan melalui tahapan-tahapan (<em>Maqāmāt</em>), dan Attār memberikan perumpamaan <em>maqāmāt </em>tersebut seperti burung-burung yang terbang mencari rajanya. Attār  menyebut <em>maqāmāt </em>tersebut dengan istilah lembah-lembah, yang jumlahnya ada tujuh lembah</p><div class="WordSection1"><p><strong>K</strong><strong>ata-kata Kunci: </strong><em>Maqāmāt, </em><em>tujuh lembah, fanā’, cinta ilahi<br /></em></p></div>


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