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2022 ◽  
Sanish Bhochhibhoya ◽  
Roisha Maharjan

Abstract. As Nepal is at high risk of earthquakes, the district-wide (VDC/Municipality level) study has been performed for vulnerability assessment of seismic-hazard, and the hazard-risk study is incorporated with social conditions as it has become a crucial issue in recent years. There is an interrelationship between hazards, physical risk, and the social characteristics of populations which are significant for policy-makers and individuals. Mapping the spatial variability of average annual loss (seismic risk) and social vulnerability discretely does not reflect the true nature of parameters contributing to the earthquake risk, so when the integrated risk is mapped, such combined spatial distribution becomes more evident. The purpose of this paper is to compute the risk analysis from the exposure model of the country using OpenQuake and then integrate the results with socio-economic parameters. The methodology of seismic-risk assessment and the way of combining the results of the physical risk and socio-economic data to develop an integrated vulnerability score of the regions has been described. This study considers all 75 districts and corresponding VDC/Municipalities using the available census. The combined vulnerability score has been developed and presented by integrating earthquake risk and social vulnerability aspects of the country and represented in form of the map produced using ArcGIS 10. The knowledge and information of the relationship between earthquake hazards and the demographic characteristics of the population in the vulnerable area are imperative to mitigate the local impact of earthquakes. Therefore, we utilize social vulnerability study as part of a comprehensive risk management framework to recuperate and recover from natural disasters.

2022 ◽  
Ken Richardson

Have you ever wondered why psychologists still can't agree on what intelligence is? Or felt dismayed by debates around individual differences? Criticising the pitfalls of IQ testing, this book explains the true nature of intelligent systems, and their evolution from cells to brains to culture and human minds. Understanding Intelligence debunks many of the myths and misunderstandings surrounding intelligence. It takes a new look at the nature of the environment and the development of 'talent' and achievement. This brings fresh and radical implications for promoting intelligence and creativity, and prompts readers to reconsider their own possibilities and aspirations. Providing a broad context to the subject, the author also unmasks the ideological distortions of intelligence in racism and eugenics, and the suppressed expectations across social classes and genders. This book is a must-read for anyone curious about our own intelligence.

2022 ◽  
Balogun Olabode Olumide ◽  
Akintorinwa Olaoluwa James ◽  
Mogaji Kehinde Anthony

Abstract Delineation of geologic features that are capable of hosting water in economic quantity in the Basement Complex has been a major concern because they are usually localized due to restricted fractured and weathered rock. To effectively evaluate the groundwater potentiality prediction index (GPPI) accuracy of an area, solely depends on the groundwater potentiality predictors (GPPs) considered and the statistical model used in analyzing the data. Therefore, the acquired remotely sensed and geophysical depth sounding database processed using autopartial curve matching software and computer aided iteration to determine was analyzed using the conventional Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model and the machine learning Gradient Boosting Tree (GBT) data driven model. Such a data driven model (GBT) is efficient in solving complex and cognitive problems in high uncertainty and complex environments. Twelve (12) groundwater potentiality predictors (GPPs) namely: Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope (S), Drainage Density (Dd), Land Use (Lu), Aquifer Resistivity (ρa), Aquifer Thickness (h), Overburden Thickness (b), Aquifer Hydraulic Conductivity (k), Aquifer Transmissivity (Tr), Aquifer Storativity (St), Aquifer Diffusivity (D), Aquifer Reflection Coefficient (Rc). The efficacy of GBT model was applied using the Salford Predictive Modeler 8.0 software. The data were partitioned into training and test dataset in ratio 90:10 using k-10 cross validation techniques. Their prediction importance was determined and the groundwater potentiality prediction index calculated and processed in the ArcGIS environment to produce the groundwater potential prediction index (GPPI) map of the investigated area. The investigated area was classed into three (3) zonations of low, moderate and high groundwater potential with about 56% classed within the low groundwater potential zone. Fifteen (15) water column measurement from wells was used to validate the developed model by calculating the predictive correlation accuracy (PCA) using the spearman's correlation analysis. The AHP-GPPI and GBT-GPPI model gave a correlation of (rs = 0.66; p = .007) and (rs = 0.74; p = .002) respectively. In conclusion, the model has proven that the drop in aquifer resistivity doesn't necessitate the presence of groundwater but rather several parameter should be integrated together to better understand the true nature of the aquifer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Kateřina Menšíková ◽  
Radoslav Matěj ◽  
Carlo Colosimo ◽  
Raymond Rosales ◽  
Lucie Tučková ◽  

AbstractThe current nosological concept of α-synucleinopathies characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) includes Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), for which the term “Lewy body disease” (LBD) has recently been proposed due to their considerable clinical and pathological overlap. However, even this term does not seem to describe the true nature of this group of diseases. The subsequent discoveries of α-synuclein (αSyn), SNCA gene, and the introduction of new immunohistochemical methods have started intensive research into the molecular-biological aspects of these diseases. In light of today’s knowledge, the role of LBs in the pathogenesis and classification of these nosological entities remains somewhat uncertain. An increasingly more important role is attributed to other factors as the presence of various LBs precursors, post-translational αSyn modifications, various αSyn strains, the deposition of other pathological proteins (particularly β-amyloid), and the discovery of selective vulnerability of specific cells due to anatomical configuration or synaptic dysfunction. Resulting genetic inputs can undoubtedly be considered as the main essence of these factors. Molecular–genetic data indicate that not only in PD but also in DLB, a unique genetic architecture can be ascertained, predisposing to the development of specific disease phenotypes. The presence of LBs thus remains only a kind of link between these disorders, and the term “diseases with Lewy bodies” therefore results somewhat more accurate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 005-008
Lombard Charles M

Pseudofungus structures in lymph node tissues have been reported on multiple occasions. Despite a variety of investigative tests including histochemical special stains and energy dispersive spectral analysis, the underlying nature and origin of these pseudofungus structures has never been clearly defined. The most common hypothesis suggests that they represent collagen fibers that become coated with iron and calcium. Herein, evidence is given that the pseudofungus structures identified in the lymph node tissues represent fragments of polyurethane catheters. The evidence includes both a comparison of these pseudofungus structures to fragments of polyurethane well documented in the literature and a comparison of polyurethane catheter scrapings to the pseudofungus structures identified in the literature. In both of these comparisons, the morphology of the polyurethane fragments are identical to the pseudofungus structures. This is the first definitive report identifying polyurethane catheter fragments as representing the true nature and etiology of pseudofungus structures in lymph node tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 924 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Laura J. Prichard ◽  
Marc Rafelski ◽  
Jeff Cooke ◽  
Uros Meštrić ◽  
Robert Bassett ◽  

Abstract Star-forming galaxies are the sources likely to have reionized the universe. As we cannot observe them directly due to the opacity of the intergalactic medium at z ≳ 5, we study z ∼ 3–5 galaxies as proxies to place observational constraints on cosmic reionization. Using new deep Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV F336W and F435W imaging (30 orbits, ∼40 arcmin2, ∼29–30 mag depth at 5σ), we attempt to identify a sample of Lyman continuum galaxies (LCGs). These are individual sources that emit ionizing flux below the Lyman break (<912 Å). This population would allow us to constrain cosmic reionization parameters such as the number density and escape fraction (f esc) of ionizing sources. We compile a comprehensive parent sample that does not rely on the Lyman-break technique for redshifts. We present three new spectroscopic candidates at z ∼ 3.7–4.4 and 32 new photometric candidates. The high-resolution multiband HST imaging and new Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) redshifts make these promising spectroscopic LCG candidates. Using both a traditional and a probabilistic approach, we find that the most likely f esc values for the three spectroscopic LCG candidates are >100% and therefore not physical. We are unable to confirm the true nature of these sources with the best available imaging and direct blue Keck/LRIS spectroscopy. More spectra, especially from the new class of 30 m telescopes, will be required to build a statistical sample of LCGs to place firm observational constraints on cosmic reionization.

Galaxies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Pierre Boldrini

This review deals with the inconsistency of inner dark matter density profiles in dwarf galaxies, known as the cusp–core problem. In particular, we aim to focus on gas-poor dwarf galaxies. One of the most promising solutions to this cold dark matter small-scale issue is the stellar feedback, but it seems to be only designed for gas-rich dwarfs. However, in the regime of classical dwarfs, this core mechanism becomes negligible. Therefore, it is required to find solutions without invoking these baryonic processes as dark matter cores tend to persist even for these dwarfs, which are rather dark-matter-dominated. Here, we have presented two categories of solutions. One consists of creating dark matter cores from cusps within cold dark matter by altering the dark matter potential via perturbers. The second category gathers solutions that depict the natural emergence of dark matter cores in alternative theories. Given the wide variety of solutions, it becomes necessary to identify which mechanism dominates in the central region of galaxies by finding observational signatures left by them in order to highlight the true nature of dark matter.

2021 ◽  
Amal Wijenayaka

As a new food delivery system has emerged to capture a larger share of the industry's sales, the online food delivery sector has risen. This new business delivery system has gained widespread acceptance, particularly among young, active, and hardworking individuals. Furthermore, this business has become more competitive due to the increasing number of new business entries and the expectations of users as a result of the anxiety associated with online ordering and the convenience of ordering at any time. In order to succeed in this emerging market, Customers require online service providers to understand the true nature and requirements of their customers and all essential points of the online service industry. This study aims to gather the information that will assist online food service providers to understand the requirements and characteristics of this new service delivery system, which is currently under development. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between customers' perceived service quality for online food delivery and its effect on customer satisfaction by adopting a questionnaire from the Mobile Service Quality Study (M-S-QUAL).

Buildings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Francisco Salguero-Andujar ◽  
Fulgencio Prat-Hurtado ◽  
Inmaculada Rodriguez-Cunill ◽  
Joseph Cabeza-Lainez

The purpose of this article is to disclose the hidden architectural proportions and true nature of the Korean national treasure in Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju. The authors compare its features with those of other ancient hypogeal or ashlar constructions with the intention of rediscovering its relevant configuration and latent structural properties in order to demonstrate its uniqueness. The methods employed in the research belong initially to architectural design and composition to advance in the later stages to the nuances of stone masonry, lighting effects and especially cohesive construction. In this discussion and thorough analysis diverse philosophical and scientific subtleties are brought to the surface. The results demonstrate significant potential thanks to recent architectural developments, such as Tadao Ando’s Buddha Hill in Hokkaido (2017) and the authors’ own proposal for a Buddhist monument.

Ágnes Bálint ◽  

Abstract. A Cathedral Built on Swearing? Interrelations between Counselling and Spirituality in the Book of Job. Given its enormous exegetical potential, pastoral care could clearly lay hold more of the Book of Job’s kerygmatic rather than its psychological certainties. In addition to the Book of Job being often read as a case study about the suffering person’s sense of justice and quest for meaning, Job’s experience has a spiritual overtone as well: he is faced with the question of the true nature of God and the need to find an adequate human response to it. Also, the Book is indicative of how people respond to the suffering and what witness and support they offer. In this paper, I evaluate the counselling strategies in the Book of Job identified by Manfred Oeming. I pay special attention to Job’s wife, and I argue that she should not be considered a proper counsellor, as she herself is stricken by the same tragic events as is Job. Instead, she is a fellow sufferer, although acknowledged as such only by extracanonical literature. What is more, she may be identified as the partner or the first and foremost caregiver of the sufferer whose challenges and difficulties remain unidentified, unspoken of, and unaddressed most of the time. As for the spiritual issues aroused by suffering, I suggest that both counsellor and counsellee must reach spiritual maturity to be able to understand and accept their experience of suffering as a genuine experience of God, and so, given time, this may make space for God’s theophany and healing presence. Keywords: Book of Job, suffering, spirituality, pastoral care, counselling, fellow sufferer, caregiver

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