western philosophy
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P. N. Baryshnikov

This article examines some of S. Lem’s statements about his philosophical and worldview positions regarding the mysterious nature of language and the linguistic sign, the connection between language, mind and reality. The main goal of the paper is to understand what texts on the philosophy of language the Polish thinker read and what attitude he has formed towards them. Lem is the follower of an analytical intellectual culture that focuses on the naturalistic worldview and the consequences of the “linguistic turn” in Western philosophy. For Lem, language is not only an interesting philosophical object, but also a complex precise instrument of his own creative thinking. In this regard, the philosophy of language for a writer cannot be based only on logical-linguistic atomistic methodology. Lem seeks (and finds) in his contemporary interdisciplinary methods ways to combine realistic and anti-realist positions. Many concepts, such as “the effect of semantic transparency”, “polymorphic language model”, “variation model” are quite correlated with modern theories of language and require additional philosophical comments.

2022 ◽  
pp. 137-148
John Christopher Woodcock

In modern times, Western philosophy eschews any metaphysical or occult references to invisible reality as being culturally obsolete. Modern culture now privileges language that reflects our unshakeable allegiance to materialism in which the things of the world no longer have any depth of meaning. This chapter compares two modern cultural approaches to invisible reality emerging in the late 20th century in response to the growing world-wide crisis of meaninglessness. The first approach gathers many different methodologies under the umbrella term The New Materialism. The second approach focusses on initiatory experiences once known as Spiritual Emergency. Both approaches are moving us towards a new understanding of matter, based on the reality of the invisible. Throughout the chapter, the author will italicise words such as “invisible,” “life,” “alive,” “alien,” “ether,” “spatial,” “virtual,” “fluid,” and “absence” in order to refer to a new kind of fluid, living, invisible matter that we are bringing to language in modern times.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 151-161
Elena M. Boldyreva

The article considers the work of the Chinese poet Hai Zi (mostly based on works not translated into Russian) as a characteristic example of the spiritual and artistic influence of Sergei Yesenin's work on modern Chinese poetry. The poetic dialogue of Hai Zi and S. Yesenin is considered from the point of view of tanatological poetics, which allows us to present their work as a single meta text, developing various variations of tanatopoetics in order to achieve absolute self-identification by synthesising “self” – death – art. The category of death is considered as the integral basis of the work of S. Yesenin and Hai Zi, which ultimately leads to the realisation of their personal attitude to death as the ontological, epistemological and axiological basis of life and creative work. The article justifies that the “romance with death” of S. Yesenin and Hai Zi is a manifestation of their life-building strategy, consonances in motif and figuration are revealed in the aspect of tanatological poetics, taking into account the different nature of those motifs: the spontaneous-organic feeling of death in S. Yesenin and the tanatological ideology of Hai Zi, based on the synthesis of Western philosophy, Confucianism, Taoism. Particular attention is paid to the consideration of S.Yesenin's poem “The Black Man” and the poem “Spring. Ten Hai Zi” as works that expose the key settings of the poets' tanatological discourse, as well as an analysis of Hai Zi's poem "Life Was Interrupted" as prisms for the reinterpretation of S. Yesenin's life and work within the framework of the tanatological paradigm of "Chinese Yesenin" and the most important act of semiotisation of life and creative work of the Chinese youth, when suicide is positioned as the final statement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 4-26
Georges Dreyfus ◽  
Jay L. Garfield

Abstract This paper examines the work of Nāgārjuna as interpreted by later Madhyamaka tradition, including the Tibetan Buddhist Tsongkhapa (1357–1419). It situates Madhyamaka skepticism in the context of Buddhist philosophy, Indian philosophy more generally, and Western equivalents. Find it broadly akin to Pyrrhonism, it argues that Madhyamaka skepticism still differs from its Greek equivalents in fundamental methodologies. Focusing on key hermeneutical principles like the two truths and those motivating the Svātantrika/Prāsaṅgika schism (i.e., whether followers of Nāgārjuna should offer positive arguments or should proceed on a purely “negative” basis), it argues that the Svātantrika commitment to mere conventional practice is robust and allows for a skepticism consistent with the scientific practices we must take seriously in the modern world. These findings are put forth as an illustration of what the Western tradition might gain by better understanding of non-Western philosophy.

Discourse ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
pp. 28-41
L. A. Pafomova

Introduction. Evolution of views on the value of scientific knowledge in various directions of Western philosophy, from the ancient period to the 20th century is analyzed in the article. The relevance of the article is due to the fact that the view of scientific knowledge as the value of scientific reality is a fairly new phenomenon.Methodology and sources. The methodological basis of the work is the cultural and philosophical analysis of various points of view in the works of both ancient philosophers, philosophers of the Renaissance and the New times (Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, F. Aquinas, Leonard da Vinci, F. Bacon, Locke, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza), as well as in the works of O. Comte, Spencer, Mach, Poincare, Pierce, James, Dewey, Jaspers, B. Russell, etc. (i.e. representatives of positivism, existentialism, neo-Thomism).Results and discussion. Today two directions could be distinguished in the relation to science: either its absolutization, that we name scientism, or the cult of an abstract person opposed to science – anthropologism. This is a consequence of the changes in the views on scientific knowledge that have taken place throughout the history of science. Thus, in the ancient period, the value of science was determined, firstly, not in relation to the practical activity of a human being, but only in relation to science to knowledge and cognition, and secondly, as a way of self-development of the individual. In the Middle Ages, science was the “handmaid” of theology. In the Renaissance science faced new challenges: the first was an anti-religious understanding of the essence of a person, the second was the justification of the role of scientific knowledge both for practice and for the worldview as a whole. It was on this understanding of the meaning of scientific knowledge that the concepts of the philosophers of the XVII–XVIII centuries were built, and they dominated until the middle of the XIX century. From this period, a one-sided approach begins to dominate – the ideological role of the value of science was denied and only its pragmatic value is taken. Along with this, there is also a critical attitude towards science, which then develops into anti-scientism. Today, a pessimistic approach (postmodernism, for example) the approach to the consideration of the value of scientific knowledge is characteristic of modern philosophical trends that deny not only the value of scientific knowledge, but also deny knowledge itself.Conclusion. The evaluation of scientific knowledge in Western philosophy has undergone significant changes. If in classical philosophy, with a few exceptions, the recognition of the comprehensive value of science prevailed, i.e. its ideological, humanistic and practical value, then in the future all these three main aspects of the value of scientific knowledge are analyzed. In the extreme forms, this leads to the emergence of antiscientism, for which it is the development of scientific knowledge is perceived as a source of human misery and suffering.

Виктор Александрович Куприянов

Статья посвящена анализу понятий «механизм» и «организм» в социальной философии С.Л. Франка. Социально-философская концепция Франка помещается в широкий контекст философии XIX-начала XX вв. В статье исследуются связи социальной философии Франка и органических теорий государства и общества. Автор статьи приводит обзор органических теорий: демонстрируется их генезис в немецком классическом идеализме и анализируются подходы, наиболее распространенные в XIX в. В статье обосновывается, что органические теории государства исторически связаны с телеологией И. Канта. Именно в философии Канта впервые появляется важное для философии XIX в. противопоставление организма и механизма. В статье указывается, что специфика этого подхода заключается не столько в естественнонаучной аналогии, сколько в интерпретации отношений части и целого. Автор показывает, что оппозиция механизма и организма сыграла важную роль в истории органических представлений об обществе. Русская социально-философская и политологическая мысль рассматривается в контексте общего развития социальных наук XIX в. Русские философы и обществоведы позаимствовали из западной философии идею оппозиции социального механизма и органицизма. На этой основе в России были выработаны аналогичные философско-правовые концепции, которые также можно отнести к традиции органицизма. Автор относит социально-философскую концепцию С.Л. Франка также к указанной традиции социального органицизма. В статье приводится реконструкция социальной философии Франка и отмечается, что его подход близок к идеям, получившим развитие в немецком классической идеализме. Указывается, что Франк критиковал не органическую теорию как таковую, а распространенную в его время натуралистическую концепцию, отождествлявшую общество с организмом. В этой связи автор показывает вклад Франка в историю органических представлений об обществе. The article is devoted to the analysis of the notions «mechanism» and «organism» in S.L. Frank’s social philosophy. The sociophilosophical conception of S.L. Frank is considered in the context of the philosophy of the XIXth - beginning of the XXth centuries. The article deals with the relations of S.L. Frank’s philosophy to the organic theories of society. The author gives an overview of the organic theories: their genesis in the German idealism and analysis of the widespread approaches in the XIXth century philosophy. The article shows that the organic theories were historically connected with the teleology of I. Kant. I. Kant was the first to propose the very opposition of organism and mechanism. The author points out that the speceficity of this approach consists rather in the interpretation of the relations between the part and the whole, than in the scientific analogy. The author shows that this opposition played a significant role in the organic theory of society. Russian social philosophy and political science are considered in the general context of the social sciences of the XIXth century. Russian philosophers and social sciences borrowed the idea of mechanism and organism from the western philosophy. Based on this approach they developed their own conceptions which can also be referred to the organic tradition. The author refers S.L. Frank’s social philosophy to the tradition of social organism. The article reconstructs the Frank’s social philosophy and points out that his approach is derived from the German classical idealism. It is shown that Frank did not criticized the very organic theory, his criticism was directed against naturalistic theories of his time. The author of the article shows the Frank’s contribution to the organic theory of society.

2021 ◽  

Cicero is one of the most important and influential thinkers within the history of Western philosophy. For the last thirty years, his reputation as a philosopher has once again been on the rise after close to a century of very low esteem. This Companion introduces readers to 'Cicero the philosopher' and to his philosophical writings. It provides a handy port-of-call for those interested in Cicero's original contributions to a wide variety of topics such as epistemology, the emotions, determinism and responsibility, cosmopolitanism, republicanism, philosophical translation, dialogue, aging, friendship, and more. The international, interdisciplinary team of scholars represented in this volume highlights the historical significance and contemporary relevance of Cicero's writings, and suggests pathways for future scholarship on Cicero's philosophy as we move through the twenty-first century.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Sabiatul Hamdi ◽  
Muslimah Muslimah ◽  
Khabib Musthofa ◽  
Sardimi Sardimi

The main problem in this study is that there are many misunderstandings about philosophy that are considered to cloud the mind, so heavy, maybe even infidel. Especially in Western philosophy which became the forerunner of the existence of philosophy until now. Therefore, it is important to study more deeply about Western philosophy in order to gain a comprehensive understanding. This study aims to understand: (1) the history of the emergence and periodization of Western philosophy, (2) the characteristics of Western philosophy, and (3) the figures of Western philosophy and their thoughts. The method used in this study is a literature study with content analysis from various references relevant to the study of western philosophy. The results of this study show that: (1) the true philosophy began to be echoed when people began to ask about the origin of everything that exists in this universe, then the thought developed. Western philosophy became the beginning of the forerunner of the philosophers of philosophizing in Greece, starting from the ancient Greek centuries, classical centuries, medieval, to modern and today. (2) The prominent characteristics of western philosophy are that they are still influenced by mythology (ancient Greece), there are philosophers' thoughts that can only be obtained from testimonies/stories, and the way of philosophizing that is guided by the church. (3) Famous Western philosophers include Socrates, Thomas Aquinas and Rene Descartes. These three figures contributed to the world of science. AbstrakPermasalahan utama dalam kajian ini adalah banyaknya kesalahpahaman mengenai filsafat yang dianggap memperkeruh pikiran, begitu berat, bahkan mungkin dapat mengkafirkan. Terlebih pada filsafat Barat yang menjadi cikal bakal dari eksistensi filsafat hingga kini. Karena itu penting menelaah lebih dalam mengenai filsafat Barat agar memperoleh pemahaman yang komprehensif. Kajian ini bertujuan memahami tentang: (1) sejarah kemunculan dan periodisasi filsafat Barat, (2) karakteristik dari filsafat Barat, dan (3) tokoh filsafat Barat beserta pemikirannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan dengan analisis konten dari berbagai referensi-referensi yang relevan dengan kajian filsafat barat. Hasil dari kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1) filsafat sejatinya mulai digemakan ketika orang-orang mulai menanyakan tentang asal dari segala sesuatu yang ada di alam semesta ini, kemudian berkembanglah pemikiran tersebut. Filsafat barat menjadi awal dari cikal bakal para filsuf berfilsafat di Yunani yang dimulai dari abad Yunani kuno, abad klasik, pertengahan, hingga modern dan saat ini. (2) Karakteristik filsafat barat yang menonjol di antaranya masih dipengaruhi oleh mitologi (Yunani kuno), ada pemikiran filsuf yang hanya didapat dari kesaksian/cerita belaka, dan cara berfilsafat yang dibimbing gereja. (3) Tokoh-tokoh filsafat Barat yang terkenal di antaranya Socrates, Thomas Aquinas dan Rene Descartes. Ketiga tokoh tersebut memberi sumbangsih bagi dunia ilmu pengetahuan

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. p1
Elias Ifeanyi E. Uzoigwe

This study is centered on The Place of Skepticism in the 21st Century Gnoseological Debate: Selecting Logical Positivism and Postmodernism. Within the context of Western philosophy, skepticism, which arguably began in the ancient times with the likes of Gorgias neither ends with the Contra Academicos of St. Augustine nor with Kant’s noumena as some scholars argued. Skepticism is an indispensable part of epistemic discourse that cuts across diverse ages of philosophical discipline ranging from the ancient, medieval, modern, and contemporary; and also permeates all the branches of philosophy. The philosophical postulates of the logical positivists who unequivocally argued that any proposition that cannot be subjected to their verification principle is meaningless, was occasioned by skepticism. The postmodernist philosophers’ argument against objective knowledge, grand totalizing, and their downplaying of foundationalism, was orchestrated by skepticism. It is the position of this study that skepticism is not only a continuum, but most importantly, the episteme-vitae (the life-wire of epistemology). As a necessary evil in the philosophical discipline skepticism is an inevitable driving force in the 21st century gnoseological debate, and instrumentum laboris (instrument of labour) in the hands of philosophers. The research methods employed in this work include: analytic, contextual, historical, and textual.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 415-435
Supriyanto Supriyanto

Abstract: Human dualism is a debatable philosophical concept in various schools of philosophy. Through their leading thinkers, Greek philosophy, Western philosophy, and Islamic philosophy have contributed to the debate in the discourse of human dualism. Zaki Naquib Mahmud, an Egyptian rationalist philosopher, opposed the previous philosophers' dichotomous concept of human dualism. This article describes the conceptual correlation of Zaki Naquib Mahmud's dualism with religious moderation. Through a literature review of Zaki Naquib Mahmud's work, the results showed that (1) Zaki tended to reject the dichotomous thought of human dualism; (2) the implication of the rejection was the conceptual distinction between religion, being religious and religious knowledge; and (3) the inclusive awareness of the three concepts could extend a more moderate understanding in strengthening the concept of religious moderation philosophically.الملخص: مازالت الثنائية الفلسفية حول البشرية موضوع نقاش حار لدى المدارس الفلسفية المختلفة. قد ساهمت الفلسفة اليونانية والغربية والاسلامية على ايدي مفكريهم الرائدين اسهامات كبيرة في هذا البحث. قد عارض زكي نجيب محمود ، الفيلسوف العقلاني المصري ، مفهوم الثنائية البشرية الكلاسيكية من الفلاسفة القدماء. يجد هذا المقال العلاقة الفعالة بين ثنائية زكي نجيب محمود ومفهوم الوسطية الدينية. من خلال القراءة لاعمال زكي نجيب محمود نستنتج من هذه الدراسة ما يلي : (1) يميل زكي إلى رفض فكرة الثنائية المقسمة للازدواجية البشرية. (2) يؤدي هذا الرفض من زكي الى التفرقة بين مفهوم الدين والتدين والعلم الديني. (3) ويتولد من الوعي الصحيح بمعاني هذه الثلاثة الاعتدال والتوسط في إدراك المفاهيم الدينية، ويقوي فلسفيًا الوسطية الدينية الاسلامية.Abstrak: Dualisme manusia menjadi konsep filosofis yang terus menjadi bahan perdebatan dalam berbagai aliran filsafat. Filsafat Yunani, Filsafat Barat dan Filsafat Islam turut serta menyumbang perdebatan dan berkontribusi dalam diskursus dualisme manusia melalui para pemikir unggulannya. Zaki Naquib Mahmud, seorang filsuf rasionalis Mesir menentang konsep dualisme manusia yang dikotomis dari para filosof terdahulu. Artikel ini mendeskripsikan korelasi konseptual dualism manusia Zaki Naquib Mahmud dengan moderasi beragama. Melalui kajian kepustakaan terhadap karya Zaki Naquib Mahmud, hasil penelitian ini adalah (1) Zaki cenderung menolak pemikiran dualisme manusia yang dikotomis; (2) implikasi dari penolakan tersebut adalah pembedaan konseptual antara agama, beragama dan ilmu agama; dan (3) kesadaran terhadap pembedaan makna dari ketiga konsep tersebut dapat melahirkan pemahaman yang cenderung moderat karena adanya kesadaran inklusif sehingga memperkuat secara filosofis terkait dengan konsep moderasi beragama.

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