British Journal Of Nutrition
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Published By Cambridge University Press

1475-2662, 0007-1145

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-44
Minami Sugimoto ◽  
Elisabeth H.M. Temme ◽  
Sander Biesbroek ◽  
Argyris Kanellopoulos ◽  
Hitomi Okubo ◽  

Abstract A future sustainable dietary pattern for Japanese is yet undefined. This study aimed to explore more sustainable Japanese diets, that are nutritious, affordable, and with low greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and particular emphasis on cultural acceptability. A newly developed Data Envelopment Analysis diet model was applied to 4-d dietary record data among 184 healthy Japanese men and 185 women volunteers aged 21–69 y. Alternative diets were calculated as the linear combinations of observed diets. Firstly, for each individual, four modelled diets were calculated that maximised cultural acceptability (i.e. minimize dietary change from observed diet), maximised nutritional quality assessed by the Nutrient-Rich Food Index (NRF), minimized monetary diet costs, or minimized diet-related GHGE. The final modelled diet combined all four indicators. In the first four models, the largest improvement was obtained for each targeted indicator separately, while relatively small improvements or unwanted changes were observed for other indicator. When all indicators were aimed to optimize, the NRF score and diet-related GHGE was improved by 8–13% with the lower monetary cost than observed diets, although the percentage improvement was a bit smaller than the separate models. The final modelled diets demanded increased intakes for whole grains, fruits, milk/cream/yoghurt, legumes/nuts, and decreased intakes for red and processed meat, sugar/confectionaries, alcoholic and sweetened beverages, and seasonings in both sexes. In conclusion, more sustainable dietary patterns considering several indicators are possible for Japanese while total improvement is moderate due to trade-offs between indicators and methodological limitation of DEA diet model.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Gavin Boerboom ◽  
Elena Ganslmaier ◽  
Josef Oeckl ◽  
Ronald Busink ◽  
Javier Martín-Tereso ◽  

Abstract This study compared the Zn response in selected tissues of weaned piglets fed L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), while challenged with short-term subclinical Zn deficiency (SZD). During a total experimental period of eight days, 96 piglets were fed restrictively (450 g/d) a high phytate (9 g/kg) diet containing added Zn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 45 and 75 mg/kg with and without 200 mg/kg of GLDA. No animals showed signs of clinical Zn deficiency and no phenotypical differences were observed. Broken line analysis of Zn status parameters such as liver Zn and apparently absorbed Zn indicated that the gross Zn requirement threshold was around 55 mg/kg diet. Supplementation of Zn above this threshold led to a saturation of the response in apparently absorbed Zn and linear increase in liver Zn. Bone and serum Zn responded to the dose in a linear fashion, likely due to the time-frame of Zn homoeostatic adaptation. Inclusion of GLDA into the diets yielded a higher intercept for bone Zn (P < 0·05). Liver Zn accumulation and MT1A gene expression was higher for piglets receiving GLDA (P < 0·05), indicating higher Zn influx. This study indicates that a strong chelator such as GLDA mitigates negative effects of phytate in plant-based diets, by sustaining Zn solubility, thereby improving nutritional Zn availability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 127 (2) ◽  
pp. 161-164
Paul Trayhurn

I had been working on the endocrine and signalling role of white adipose tissue (WAT) since 1994 following the identification of the ob (Lep) gene(1), this after some 15 years investigating the physiological role of brown adipose tissue. The ob gene, a mutation in which it is responsible for the profound obesity of ob/ob (Lepob/Lepob) mice, is expressed primarily in white adipocytes and encodes the pleiotropic hormone leptin. The discovery of this adipocyte hormone had wide-ranging implications, including that white fat has multiple functions that far transcend the traditional picture of a simple lipid storage organ.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-29
Dan Tang ◽  
Xiong Xiao ◽  
Liling Chen ◽  
Yixi kangzhu ◽  
Wei Deng ◽  

Abstract Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favorably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese Multi-Ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11.2% were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5.7% of total population and 52.7% of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23% decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.83, Ptrend <0.001), and 27% increased odds of MHO (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48, Ptrend =0.001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favorable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Claudia Reyes-Goya ◽  
Álvaro Santana-Garrido ◽  
Gema Aguilar-Espejo ◽  
María del Carmen Pérez-Camino ◽  
Alfonso Mate ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Despite numerous reports on the beneficial effects of olive oil in the cardiovascular context, very little is known about the olive tree’s wild counterpart (Olea europaea, L. var. sylvestris), commonly known as acebuche (ACE) in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible beneficial effects of an extra virgin ACE oil on vascular function in a rodent model of arterial hypertension induced by L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). Methods: Four experimental groups of male Wistar rats were studied: 1) normotensive rats (Control group); 2) normotensive rats fed a commercial diet supplemented with 15% (w/w) ACE oil (Acebuche group); 3) rats made hypertensive following administration of L-NAME (L-NAME group); and 4) rats treated with L-NAME and simultaneously supplemented with 15% ACE oil (LN+ACE group). All treatments were maintained for 12 weeks. Results: Besides a significant blood pressure-lowering effect, the ACE oil-enriched diet counteracted the alterations found in aortas from hypertensive rats in terms of morphology and responsiveness to vasoactive mediators. In addition, a decrease in hypertension-related fibrotic and oxidative stress processes was observed in L-NAME-treated rats subjected to ACE oil supplement. Conclusion: Using a model of arterial hypertension via nitric oxide depletion, here we demonstrate the beneficial effects of a wild olive oil based upon its vasodilator, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties. We postulate that regular inclusion of ACE oil in the diet can alleviate the vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction processes typically found in arterial hypertension, thus resulting in a significant reduction of blood pressure.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Konstantinos D Tambalis ◽  
Demosthenes B Panagiotakos ◽  
Glykeria Psarra ◽  
Labros S Sidossis

Abstract This study aimed to identify the association of recommended dairy intake with several dietary habits, obesity, physical fitness, physical activity, screen time, and sleep. Population data were derived from a health survey on a representative sample of 177091 children aged 8 to 17 years. Dairy intake and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Participants were characterized as “dairy products consumers” based on whether they met current recommendations for milk or dairy consumption (e.g. if they consumed two yogurts and/or 40 g cheese and a cup of milk, daily). Participants who did not consume the above-mentioned quantities were characterized as “non-consumers.” Anthropometric and physical fitness (PF) data were obtained by trained investigators. Physical activity (PA) status, screen time, and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Boys and girls consuming recommended dairy products were 25% (95% CI: 0·71-0·79) and 43% (95% CI: 0·51-0·64) less likely to have low performances in cardiorespiratory fitness tests, Participants from both sexes classified as dairy products consumers had lower odds of central obesity by 10%(95% CI: 0·86-0·95), as compared to non-consumers. Also, boys and girls who consume recommended dairy products had 9% (95% CI: 0·86-0·98) and 11%(95% CI: 0·85-0·94) lower odds to be overweight/obese as compared to non-consumers, after adjusting for several covariates. Moreover, recommended dairy products consumers had lower odds for insufficient sleep by 8% (95% CI: 0·89-0·96) in boys and 14% (95% CI: 0·83-0·90) in girls, for inadequate PA levels by 15% (95% CI: 0·77-0·93) in boys and 16% (95% CI: 0·76-0·90) in girls and for increased screen time by 11% (95% CI: 0·83-0·95) in boys and 9% (95% CI: 0·85-0·97) in girls, than no-consumers. In conclusion, recommended dairy intake is associated with less obesity, better PF, and a healthier lifestyle profile.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Kirstie Canene-Adams ◽  
Ieva Laurie ◽  
Kavita Karnik ◽  
Brian Flynn ◽  
William Goodwin ◽  

Abstract For improving human health, reformulation can be a tool as it allows individuals to consume products of choice while reducing intake of less desirable nutrients, such as sugars and fats, and potentially increasing intake of beneficial nutrients such as fibre. The potential effects of reformulating foods with increased fibre on diet and on health needs to be better understood. The objective of this statistical modelling study was to understand how fibre enrichment can affect the diet and health of consumers. The UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) datasets from 2014 - 2015 and 2015 - 2016 were utilised to evaluate intakes of fibre and Kilocalories with a dietary intake model. Foods and beverages eligible for fibre enrichment were identified (n = 915) based on EU legislation for fibre content claims. Those people who meet Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) and fibre enrichment health outcomes such as weight, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk reductions were quantified pre and post fibre reformulation via Reynolds et al, D’Agostino et al, and QDiabetes algorithms, respectively. The fibre enrichment intervention showed a mean fibre intake in the UK of 19.9 g/day, signifying a 2.2 g/day increase from baseline. Modelling suggested that 5.9% of subjects could achieve a weight reduction, 72.2% a reduction in cardiovascular risk, and 71.7% a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes risk with fibre fortification (all p ≤ 0.05). This study gave a good overview of the potential public health benefits of reformulating food products using a straightforward enrichment scenario.

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