British Journal Of Nutrition
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Published By Cambridge University Press

1475-2662, 0007-1145
Updated Saturday, 16 October 2021

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Yifei Feng ◽  
Xingjin Yang ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Yuying Wu ◽  
Minghui Han ◽  

Abstract To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12,237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007-2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013-2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6.01 (5.09-6.06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest METS-VF quartile was 5.97 (4.28-8.32), with a per 1-standard deviation increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0.0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age, or body mass index.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Chhinder P. Sodhi ◽  
Andres J. Gonzalez Salazar ◽  
Mark Kovler ◽  
William B. Fulton ◽  
Yukihiro Yamaguchi ◽  

Abstract Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity that typically develops after the administration of infant formula, suggesting a link between nutritional components and disease development. One of the most significant complications that develops in patients with NEC is severe lung injury. We have previously shown that the administration of a nutritional formula that is enriched in pre-digested triglycrides that do not require lipase action can significantly reduce the severity of NEC in a mouse model. We now hypothesize that this 'pre-digested fat system (PDF)' may reduce NEC-associated lung injury. In support of this hypothesis, we now show that rearing newborn mice on a nutritional formula based on the 'pre-digested fat (PDF) system’ promotes lung development, as evidenced by increased tight junctions and surfactant protein expression. Mice who were administered this 'PDF fat system’ were significantly less vulnerable to the development of NEC-induced lung inflammation, and the administration of the 'PDF fat system’ conferred lung protection. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, the administration of the PDF system’ significantly enhanced lung maturation and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that the PDF system protects the development of NEC-induced lung injury through effects on lung maturation and reduced reactive oxygen species in the lung, and also increase lung maturation in non-NEC mice.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Damoon Ashtary-Larky ◽  
Reza Bagheri ◽  
Grant M. Tinsley ◽  
Omid Asbaghi ◽  
Sara Salehpour ◽  

Abstract Previous studies evaluating the effects of betaine supplementation on body composition offer contradictory findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of betaine supplementation on body composition indices (body mass [BM], body mass index [BMI], body fat percentage [BFP], fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM]), and dietary intakes. Studies examining the effects of betaine supplementation on body composition and dietary intakes published up to August 2021 were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, SCOPUS, and Ovid databases. Betaine supplementation failed to significantly affect BM [(WMD: −0.40 kg, 95% CI: −1.46 to 0.64), p=0.447], BMI [(WMD: −0.05 kg/m2, 95% CI: −0.36 to 0.25), p=0.719], BFP [(WMD: 0.26%, 95% CI: −0.82 to 1.36), p=0.663], FM [(WMD: −0.57 kg, 95% CI: −2.14 to 0.99), p=0.473], and FFM [(WMD: 0.61 kg, 95% CI: −1.27 to 2.49), p=0.527]. Subgroup analyses based on participant’s age (<40 and >40 years), sex, BMI, trial duration (<8 and ≥8 weeks), betaine supplementation dosage (<4 and ≥4 g), and health status (healthy or unhealthy) demonstrated similar results. Other than a potential negligible increase in protein intake (WMD: 3.56 g, 95% CI: 0.24 to 6.88, p=0.035), no changes in dietary intakes were observed following betaine supplementation compared to control. The present systematic review and meta-analysis does not show any beneficial effects of betaine supplementation on body composition indices (BM, BMI, FM, and FFM).

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-23
Pedro Pimenta ◽  
Carla Lopes ◽  
Daniela Correia ◽  
Duarte Torres ◽  
Sara Rodrigues ◽  

Abstract This study aims to evaluate the interaction effect of socioeconomic environment (SEE) in the relationship between the eating location (EL) and diet quality, in children and adolescents. Data included children and adolescents (3-17y) from a National Dietary Survey Sample (IAN-AF 2015/2016, n=987). Dietary intake was obtained by 2-day food diaries (children) or 2-24-hour-recall (adolescents). Participants were classified into four groups of EL: “Home”, “Other homes”, “School” and “Restaurants”. Diet quality was measured as a higher adherence to a healthy eating pattern. A previous developed socioeconomic classification was used, and participants were grouped as belonging to a low socioeconomic environment (LSE) or middle-high socioeconomic environment (MHSE). Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between EL and diet quality, stratified by the SEE. One-quarter of participants was classified in the “Home” group, 14% in “Other homes”, 17% in “Restaurants” and 45% in “School”. A statistically significant interaction effect was found (p<0.01) for the SEE in the association between eating location and diet quality. After adjustment for potential confounders, in LSE, children and adolescents belonging to “Other homes” (β̂=−2.07; 95%CI:−3.70;−0.44) and “Restaurants” (β̂=−3.31; 95%CI:−5.08;−1.54) had lower scores in the diet quality score, comparing to “Home”. In MHSE, comparing to “Home”, “Restaurants” showed lower diet quality (β̂=−1.56; 95%CI:−2.65;−0.48), while the “School” had better diet quality (β̂=0.90; 95%CI:0.16;1.64). The SEE influences the association between EL and diet quality and, belonging to more disadvantaged SEE, might represent a higher risk of unhealthy eating habits when eating out-of-home compared to when eating at home.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-39
RF O’Neill ◽  
L McGowan ◽  
CT McEvoy ◽  
SM Wallace ◽  
SE Moore ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a peer support intervention to encourage adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean Diet (MD) in established community groups where existing social support may assist the behaviour change process. Four established community groups with members at increased cardiovascular disease risk and homogenous in gender, were recruited and randomised to receive either a 12-month Peer Support (PS) intervention (PSG) (n=2) or a Minimal Support intervention (educational materials only) (MSG) (n=2). The feasibility of the intervention was assessed using recruitment and retention rates, assessing the variability of outcome measures (primary outcome: adoption of a MD at 6 months (using a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS)), and process evaluation measures including qualitative interviews. Recruitment rates for community groups (n=4/8), participants (n=31/51) and peer supporters (n=6/14) were 50%, 61% and 43% respectively. The recruitment strategy faced several challenges with recruitment and retention of participants, leading to a smaller sample than intended. At 12-months, a 65% and 76.5% retention rate for PSG and MSG participants was observed respectively. A >2-point increase in MDS was observed in both the PSG and the MSG at 6-months, maintained at 12-months. An increase in MD adherence was evident in both groups during follow-up, however, the challenges faced in recruitment and retention suggest a definitive study of the peer support intervention using current methods is not feasible and refinement based on the current feasibility study should be incorporated. Lessons learned during the implementation of this intervention will help inform future interventions in this area.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-25
João Neto ◽  
Jeferson Jantsch ◽  
Simone de Oliveira ◽  
Matheus Filipe Braga ◽  
Luís Felipe dos Santos de Castro ◽  

Abstract Obesity is a major public health problem that predisposes to several diseases and higher mortality in patients with COVID-19. Obesity also generates neuroinflammation, which predisposes to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. Since there is a lack of effective treatments for obesity, the search for new strategies to reverse its consequences is urgent. In this perspective, the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA/EPA might reduce the harmful effects of obesity. Here, we used the cafeteria diet model to induce obesity in Wistar rats. Animals received ultra-processed food for 20 weeks, and DHA/EPA supplementation (500mg/Kg/day) was performed between the 16th and the 20th week. At the end of the experiment, it was evaluated: body weight, visceral fat deposition, plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides, and it was also measured the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma and liver, and TNF-α in the prefrontal cortex. The elevated plus-maze test was performed to analyze anxiety-like behaviour. Our results demonstrated that DHA/EPA could not reverse weight and fat gain and did not modify plasma dosages. However, there was a decrease in IL-6 in the liver (DHA/EPA effect: p = 0.023) and TNF-α in the brain (CAF compared to CAF+DHA/EPA, p < 0.05). Also, there was a decrease in the anxiety index in CAF+DHA/EPA compared to the CAF group (p < 0.01). Thus, DHA/EPA supplementation is helpful to reverse the consequences of obesity in the brain.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Faezeh Abaj ◽  
Masoumeh Rafiee ◽  
Fariba Koohdani

Abstract The progression of cardiometabolic diseases is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-diet interactions may therefore be important in modulating the risks of developing metabolic diseases. The objectives were to investigate the effect of the interaction between BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms and Dietary Insulin Index and Insulin Load (DII and DIL) on Cardiometabolic Markers among diabetic patients. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 667 patients. DIL & DII were defined using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Genotyping the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was conducted by the PCR-RFLP method. Interactions between dietary indices and gene variants were evaluated using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM). PGF2a concentrations were significantly higher among Val homozygotes than Met alleles carrier. This study revealed that, compared with individuals with the Val/Val genotype, those with the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype had lower BMI (P-interaction =0.04), TG (P-interaction=0.04), leptin (P-interaction =0.01), LDL (P-interaction=0.04) and TC (P-interaction =0.01) when they consumed diets higher on the DIL index. Moreover, the highest quartile of the DIL, compared to the lowest, showed increased in WC (P-interaction =0.02) and LDL/HDL (P-interaction =0.04) for Val/Val homozygotes compared to Met-allele carriers. BDNF Val66Met variants may interact with DIL and DII, thus be involved in the development of cardiometabolic risk factors. If diabetic patients with Met alleles regulate dietary intakes, they have a protective opportunity to regulate their cardiometabolic markers.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-37
Claire T. McEvoy ◽  
Sarah E. Moore ◽  
Christina M. Erwin ◽  
Meropi Kontogianni ◽  
Sara M Wallace ◽  

Abstract Adhering to a Mediterranean Diet (MD) is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study aimed to explore methods of increasing MD adoption in a non-Mediterranean population at high risk of CVD, including assessing the feasibility of a developed peer support intervention. The Trial to Encourage Adoption and Maintenance of a MEditerranean Diet (TEAM-MED) was a 12-month pilot parallel group RCT involving individuals aged ≥40 y, with low MD adherence, who were overweight, and had an estimated CVD risk ≥20% over ten years. It explored three interventions, a peer support group, a dietician-led support group and a minimal support group to encourage dietary behaviour change and monitored variability in Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) over time and between the intervention groups, alongside measurement of markers of nutritional status and cardiovascular risk. 118 individuals were assessed for eligibility, and 75 (64%) were eligible. After 12 months there was a retention rate of 69% (PSG 59%; DSG 88%; MSG 63%). For all participants, increases in MDS were observed over 12 months (p<0.001), both in original MDS data and when imputed data were used. Improvements in BMI, HbA1c levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the population as a whole. This pilot study has demonstrated that a non-Mediterranean adult population at high CVD risk can make dietary behaviour change over a 12-month period towards a MD. The study also highlights the feasibility of a peer support intervention to encourage MD behaviour change amongst this population group and will inform a definitive trial.

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