experimental period
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Sidnei R. de Marchi ◽  
Ricardo F. Marques ◽  
Prissila P. dos S. Araújo ◽  
Ilgner T. D. Silva ◽  
Dagoberto Martins

ABSTRACT The presence of weeds as a consequence of pasture degradation is one of the main problems facing livestock worldwide. Thus, knowing the interference aspects and the appropriate time for weed management is essential for applying a particular control measure. This research aimed to study the weed interference on the morphostructural and nutritional quality of the Marandu palisade grass in conditions of renewal or maintenance of pasture. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design, with four replicates and treatments consisted of eight growth periods of coexistence between Marandu palisade grass and weeds (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 days). Forage grass was characterized at the end of the experimental period, corresponding to 120 days of coexistence, and the main morphostructural and nutritional components were determined. Under the renewal or maintenance process, the weeds interfere in the morphostructural and nutritional quality of pasture areas with Marandu palisade grass. In vitro organic matter digestibility of Marandu palisade grass is negatively influenced by weeds, suggesting that control measures for renewal or maintenance areas should be adopted within 24 and 18 days of coexistence, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e06SC01-e06SC01
Natalia C. Aguiar ◽  

Aim of study: To evaluate the effects of increasing NaCl levels on the zootechnical performance of pacu fingerling. Area of study: The experiments were conducted at the Aquatic Organism Production and Reproduction Systems Laboratory belonging to the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), in the Palotina Sector, Paraná Estate, Brazil. Material and methods: Seven hundred and fifty fingerlings with an average weight of 3.41 ± 0.09 g were distributed in circular boxes, in a completely randomized design consisting of six treatments and five replications. Treatments comprised soybean- and maize-based diets containing increasing levels of NaCl (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25%). The experiments were conducted for 50 days. At the end of the experimental period the fish were fasted for 24 hours, anesthetized, weighed and measured to calculate zootechnical performances. Performance data were subjected to an analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test when significant differences were found between the means (p<0.05). Main results: The influence (p<0.05) of dietary NaCl levels on final weight, feed intake, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, average weight gain, clean trunk production, head carcass yield, headless carcass yield, feed intake and survival was assessed. The results indicate that non-salt treated fingerlings along with the 0.25% salt inclusion treatment led to better feed use, as evidenced by apparent feed conversions of 1.64 and 2.02, respectively. Research highlights: The inclusion of NaCl in pacu fingerling soybean and maize-based diets is not recommended.

Jun-ichi Yamamoto ◽  
Tomohiro Fukui ◽  
Kazutomo Nishii ◽  
Ichiro Kato ◽  
Quang Thahn Pham

Employee engagement has become a critical issue in Japanese companies. One way to develop it is to improve the relationship among employees through gratitude expressions. In the post-COVID-19 remote work environment, digital devices are essential. This paper confirms that expressions of gratitude delivered via digital devices enhance the relationship between employees. We experimented in a small-town government office where participants (n = 88) were asked to (1) use the Thanks App, an app we developed to express gratitude, for two months and (2) respond to an engagement survey we developed before and after the experimental period. Through cross-analysis of the data from the app and questionnaire, we found that the “trust in colleagues” factor had a strong correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) with our new index computed by the app’s data. The results suggest that the use of the Thanks App may help visualize the trust relationship among teams. This study has a practical value in providing a new team management tool for visualizing team trust. In addition, it provides a new research method for emotional and social psychology using digital devices.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Gavin Boerboom ◽  
Elena Ganslmaier ◽  
Josef Oeckl ◽  
Ronald Busink ◽  
Javier Martín-Tereso ◽  

Abstract This study compared the Zn response in selected tissues of weaned piglets fed L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), while challenged with short-term subclinical Zn deficiency (SZD). During a total experimental period of eight days, 96 piglets were fed restrictively (450 g/d) a high phytate (9 g/kg) diet containing added Zn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 45 and 75 mg/kg with and without 200 mg/kg of GLDA. No animals showed signs of clinical Zn deficiency and no phenotypical differences were observed. Broken line analysis of Zn status parameters such as liver Zn and apparently absorbed Zn indicated that the gross Zn requirement threshold was around 55 mg/kg diet. Supplementation of Zn above this threshold led to a saturation of the response in apparently absorbed Zn and linear increase in liver Zn. Bone and serum Zn responded to the dose in a linear fashion, likely due to the time-frame of Zn homoeostatic adaptation. Inclusion of GLDA into the diets yielded a higher intercept for bone Zn (P < 0·05). Liver Zn accumulation and MT1A gene expression was higher for piglets receiving GLDA (P < 0·05), indicating higher Zn influx. This study indicates that a strong chelator such as GLDA mitigates negative effects of phytate in plant-based diets, by sustaining Zn solubility, thereby improving nutritional Zn availability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Kanmuna Ray Talukdar ◽  
Purbajyoti Saikia ◽  
Hirendra N. Sarma

Abstract Background Embryo implantation is a tightly regulated sequence of events regulated by ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, and their downstream targets. Ovarian steroids regulate most of the genes involved in embryo implantation and pregnancy. However, some factors are not regulated by ovarian steroids, estrogen, progesterone, or both. Kruppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is an example of an ovarian steroid–independent factor having a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation. The detailed expression profile of Klf5 during uterine receptivity and periimplantation has not been studied till now. In the present research work, an attempt was made to investigate the expression pattern of Klf5 in mice fetal-maternal tissue during periimplantation (day 4–day 8). The expressional and functional independence of Klf5 on the ovarian steroids was studied using estrogen and progesterone antagonist. The study was carried out in female Swiss albino mice of LACA strain during the periimplantation period. KLF5 was localized in the fetal-maternal tissues using the immunofluorescence technique in paraffin-embedded tissues. Ovarian steroid antagonists were administered subcutaneously from day 1 to day 3 of gestation, and the uterus was collected on the morning of day 4. Klf5 protein and mRNA levels were studied by western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), respectively. Results KLF5 was localized in the embryo, uterine luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and proliferating stromal cells during periimplantation. In ovarian steroid antagonist–treated groups, KLF5 was localized in the luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma. Western blot and qPCR confirmed translation and transcription of KLF5 during the experimental period. The KLF5 protein level significantly increased on day 6, day 7, and day 8 when compared with day 4 (P < 0.05). The mRNA level of Klf5 increased significantly on day 7 and day 8 when compared with day 4 (P < 0.05). In ovarian steroid antagonist–treated groups, protein and mRNA corresponding to Klf5 were observed. From this finding, it can be assumed that Klf5 may be a steroid-independent factor expressed during uterine receptivity. Conclusion Spatiotemporal KLF5 expression in fetal-maternal tissue was observed during the experimental period. The results suggest that Klf5 is an ovarian steroid–independent factor that may play a pivotal role in implantation, decidualization, and embryogenesis.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 133
Aslah Mohamad ◽  
Fathin-Amirah Mursidi ◽  
Mohd Zamri-Saad ◽  
Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal ◽  
Salleh Annas ◽  

Vibriosis is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper; thus, substantial efforts are underway to control the disease. This study presents an oral vaccination against multiple Vibrio spp. in a marine fish with double booster immunisation. The Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate was selected from infected groupers Epinephelus sp. in a local farm and was formalin inactivated and combined with commercial feed at a 10% ratio (v/w). A laboratory vaccination trial was conducted for seventy days. The induction of IgM antibody responses in the serum of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer immunised with the oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 was significantly (p < 0.05) increased as early as week one post-primary vaccination. Subsequent administration of the first and second booster for 5 consecutive days, starting on days 14 and 42, respectively, improved the specific antibody level and reached a highly significant (p < 0.05) value at days 35 and 49 before slightly decreasing from day 56 onwards. Antibody titres of the control unvaccinated group remained relatively stable and low throughout the experimental period. At the end of the 70-day vaccination trial, 23 days post final boost, an intraperitoneal challenge with a field strain of Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus, and V. parahaemolyticus was carried out. Our challenge study showed that oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate could induce significant protection, with an RPS of 70–80% against different Vibrio species. Thereafter, a field trial was conducted in a mariculture farm to study the effect of field vaccination using the oral Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 vaccine candidate. A total of 3000 hybrid grouper juveniles were divided into two groups in triplicate. Fish of Group 1 were not vaccinated, while Group 2 were vaccinated with the feed-based vaccine. Vaccinations were carried out on days 0, 14, and 42 via feeding the fish with the vaccine at 4% body weight for 5 consecutive days. At the end of the study period, the fish survival rate was 80% for the vaccinated group, significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 65% seen in the control unvaccinated group. Furthermore, the vaccinated fish showed significantly (p < 0.05) better growth performances. Therefore, the oral Vibrio vaccine from the inactivated Vibrio harveyi strain VH1 is a potential versatile vaccine candidate that could stimulate good immune responses and confer high protection in both Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, and farm hybrid grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × Epinephelus lanceolatus.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Regina van Zanten ◽  
Monique van Dijk ◽  
Joost van Rosmalen ◽  
Denise Beck ◽  
Robert Zietse ◽  

Abstract Background Recipients of an organ transplantation face a number of challenges and often need to change their health behaviour. Good self-management skills are essential for optimal clinical outcomes. However, few interventions are available to support post-transplant self-management. To fill this gap, we developed a self-management support intervention offered by nurse practitioners. The primary aim of the study is to implement and test the effectiveness of the ZENN intervention in promoting self-management skills among heart, kidney liver and lung transplant recipients in comparison to standard care. The secondary aim is to assess the self-management support skills of nurse practitioners who will deliver the intervention. Methods This multi-centre stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial will take place from September 2020 until May 2023. All departments will commence with inclusion of patients in the control period. Each department will be randomly assigned to a start date (step in the wedge) to commence the experimental period. Patients in the control period will receive standard care and will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline (T0), 6 months (T1) and 12 months (T2), to assess self-management, self-regulation, quality of life and adherence. During the experimental period, patients will receive standard care plus the ZENN intervention and receive the same set of questionnaires as participants in the control period. Nurse practitioners will complete a baseline and follow-up questionnaire to assess differences in self-management support skills. Video recordings of outpatient clinic consultations during the control and experimental periods will determine the differences in nurses’ needs-thwarting and needs-supporting skills between the control and experimental period. Discussion The ZENN intervention could be a useful approach to support patients’ self-management skills after organ transplantation and thus promote clinical outcomes as well as avoid adverse events. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NL8469. Registered on March 19, 2020.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 227
Napapan Kangwan ◽  
Sarawut Kongkarnka ◽  
Nitsara Boonkerd ◽  
Kridsada Unban ◽  
Kalidas Shetty ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of probiotics and synbiotics from traditional Thai fermented tea leaves (Miang) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, in comparison to sulfasalazine. C57BL/6 mice were treated with probiotics L. pentosus A14-6, CMY46 and synbiotics, L. pentosus A14-6 combined with XOS, and L. pentosus CMY46 combined with GOS for 21 days. Colitis was induced with 2% DSS administration for seven days during the last seven days of the experimental period. The positive group was treated with sulfasalazine. At the end of the experiment, clinical symptoms, pathohistological changes, intestinal barrier integrity, and inflammatory markers were analyzed. The probiotics and synbiotics from Miang ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by protecting body weight loss, decreasing disease activity index, restoring the colon length, and reducing pathohistological damages. Furthermore, treatment with probiotics and synbiotics improved intestinal barrier integrity, accompanied by lowing colonic and systemic inflammation. In addition, synbiotics CMY46 combined with GOS remarkedly elevated the expression of IL-10. These results suggested that synbiotics isolated from Miang had more effectiveness than sulfasalazine. Thereby, they could represent a novel potential natural agent against colonic inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yan-Yu Zhang ◽  
Yu-Feng Huang ◽  
Jie Liang ◽  
Hua Zhou

Abstract Background Up-and-down procedure (UDP) was recommended to replace traditional acute toxicity methods. However, it was limited due to the long experimental period (20–42 days). To improve UDP, an improved UDP method (iUDP) was developed by shortening observation time between sequence dosages. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of iUDP to provide a reliable method for the acute toxicity measurement of valuable or minor amount compounds. Methods Oral median lethal dose (LD50) of nicotine, sinomenine hydrochloride and berberine hydrochloride were measured both by iUDP and modified Karber method (mKM). Results LD50 of the three alkaloids measured by iUDP with 23 mice were 32.71 ± 7.46, 453.54 ± 104.59, 2954.93 ± 794.88 mg/kg, respectively. LD50 of the three alkaloids measured by mKM with 240 mice were 22.99 ± 3.01, 456.56 ± 53.38, 2825.53 ± 1212.92 mg/kg, respectively. The average time consumed by the two methods were 22 days and 14 days respectively. Total grams of the alkaloids used by the two methods were 0.0082 and 0.0673 (nicotine), 0.114 and 1.24 (sinomenine hydrochloride), 1.9 and 12.7 (berberine hydrochloride). Conclusion iUDP could replace mKM to detect acute toxicity of substances with comparable and reliable result. And it is suitable for valuable or minor amount substances.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Min-Jin Kwak ◽  
Sun-Woo Choi ◽  
Yong-Soon Choi ◽  
Hanbae Lee ◽  
Kwang-Youn Whang

Abstract Background In animals, weaning stress is the first and most critical stress. Weaning can negatively affect the growth performance of animals physically, psychologically, and pathologically. Our previous studies on the HT-29 cell line and early-weaned rats demonstrated that adequate sophorolipid (SPL) supplementation in feed could enhance the mucin-producing and wound healing capacities of the gut defense system by modulating gut microbiota. Methods We conducted an experiment with one hundred forty 21-day-old early weaned piglets (L x Y x D). They were allocated into 4 treatment and 7 replications (4 pigs per pen) according to their initial body weight. Body weight and feed intake were measured biweekly during experimental period. After 6 weeks, 28 pigs were randomly selected and sacrificed to collect plasma, jejunum, and cecal content samples. Results Dietary SPL supplementation at 5 and 10 mg/kg quadratically increased the average daily gain during the experimental period in the treatment groups when compared with the control group. The albumin levels of piglets fed with the SPL supplemented diet were downregulated to the normal range. Moreover, in feed, SPL supplementation at 5 and 10 mg/kg improved jejunal histological indices and gene expression levels related to mucin secretion and local inflammation markers. Consistent with these results, adequate SPL supplementation (5 and 10 mg/kg) increased the population of Prevotella, a beneficial bacterium, and its short-chain fatty acid production in the ceca of piglets. Conclusions The occurrence of diarrhea after weaning in piglets could be reduced by feeding a 10 ppm of SPL supplemented diet which improves the gut defense system by improving the microbial population and enhancing mucin layer integrity.

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