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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hongxuan Wang ◽  
Lihuan Lan ◽  
Xiaochang Lan ◽  
Peiyun Chen ◽  
Gaoxin Liu ◽  
...  

Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) was established and introduced to measure the craving for alcohol and the severity of alcohol dependence. However, the Chinese version of OCDS is still unavailable and has not been validated in the Chinese population. We tended to translate and validate the OCDS in Chinese. We translated original OCDS into Chinese through bi-direction translations and tested the reliability and validity. We found that Chinese OCDS had high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. The Chinese OCDS also presented good internal structure to reflect the severity of alcohol dependence. The Chinese OCDS could be used in clinical studies and research among the Chinese population.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lu Shen ◽  
Shizhen Zhang ◽  
Kaiyue Wang ◽  
Xiaochen Wang

BackgroundAbout 5%–10% of the breast cancer cases have a hereditary background, and this subset is referred to as familial breast cancer (FBC). In this review, we summarize the susceptibility genes and genetic syndromes associated with FBC and discuss the FBC screening and high-risk patient consulting strategies for the Chinese population.MethodsWe searched the PubMed database for articles published between January 2000 and August 2021. Finally, 380 pieces of literature addressing the genes and genetic syndromes related to FBC were included and reviewed.ResultsWe identified 16 FBC-related genes and divided them into three types (high-, medium-, and low-penetrance) of genes according to their relative risk ratios. In addition, six genetic syndromes were found to be associated with FBC. We then summarized the currently available screening strategies for FBC and discussed those available for high-risk Chinese populations.ConclusionMultiple gene mutations and genetic disorders are closely related to FBC. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend corresponding screening strategies for these genetic diseases. However, such guidelines for the Chinese population are still lacking. For screening high-risk groups in the Chinese population, genetic testing is recommended after genetic counseling.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ping Wang ◽  
Jianbo Shu ◽  
Chunyu Gu ◽  
Xiaoli Yu ◽  
Jie Zheng ◽  
...  

Introduction: Combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria (CMAMMA) is a rare metabolic disease caused by biallelic variants in ACSF3 gene. The clinical phenotype is highly heterogeneous in this disorder, ranging from asymptomatic to severe symptoms. No cases with CMAMMA were reported in China.Materials and Methods: In this study, three Chinese pediatric patients were diagnosed with CMAMMA unexpectedly while being treated for other ailments. To better characterize CMAMMA in a Chinese population, we made a multidimensional analysis with detailed clinical phenotype, semi-quantitative detection of urine organic acid, and analysis of ACSF3 gene variants.Results: The clinical presentation of these patients is quite different; their main complaints were anemia, jaundice, or abnormal urine test, respectively. They showed no symptoms of the classic methylmalonic academia, but urine organic acid analysis showed elevated malonic acid and methylmalonic acid in all the patients repeatedly. Variants were found at four sites in ACSF3 gene. Patient 1 carried the compound heterogeneous variant c.689G> A (p.Trp230*)/c.1456G> A (p.Ala486Thr). A compound heterozygous variant c.473C> T (p.Pro158Leu)/c.1456G> A (p.Ala486Thr) was identified in patient 2. Patient 3 harbored a novel homozygous variant c.1447A> G (p.Lys483Glu).Conclusions: Three Chinese patients were diagnosed with CMAMMA caused by ACSF3 variants. Their clinical course revealed that CMAMMA can be a benign condition that does not affect individual growth and development, but severe clinical phenotype may appear when other triggers exist. This study systematically elaborates CMAMMA in a Chinese population for the first time, broadens the spectrum of gene variant, and provides a strong basis for the etiological study of this disorder.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Max Wiles

<p>The tendency to record only built memory and significant events in architectural practice means that less tangible cultural memory is prone to erasure. This is prevalent in the memories of the other which often diverge from the majority, and so are not considered for preservation. In this context, cultural memory refers to the intangible qualities and experiences which define place, associated with a particular group. While initiatives such as heritage listings can preserve the physical history of place, little is done to preserve intangible history which has been lost through development and gentrification.  To investigate strategies for reasserting cultural memory in urban space, Haining Street in Wellington is engaged as a site. From approximately 1890 to 1960, Haining Street was Wellington’s Chinatown and home to the largest Chinese population in New Zealand. Despite a long, and often controversial history, this legacy has virtually been erased from the contemporary streetscape, creating an area of note only for a vanished past. This thesis proposes that the memory of Haining Street’s Chinese past can be reasserted through an artist in residence scheme, consisting of a gallery, workshop and accommodation.  Architectural intervention within spaces where history has been erased can reassert memory of the other, creating an identifiable place by: memorialising the intangible qualities of place, engaging with the legacy of race in the built environment, and creating a sensual experience of place. This research suggests that architecture has the potential to reconcile conflicted recollections of the past through an active engagement with the memory of place.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Max Wiles

<p>The tendency to record only built memory and significant events in architectural practice means that less tangible cultural memory is prone to erasure. This is prevalent in the memories of the other which often diverge from the majority, and so are not considered for preservation. In this context, cultural memory refers to the intangible qualities and experiences which define place, associated with a particular group. While initiatives such as heritage listings can preserve the physical history of place, little is done to preserve intangible history which has been lost through development and gentrification.  To investigate strategies for reasserting cultural memory in urban space, Haining Street in Wellington is engaged as a site. From approximately 1890 to 1960, Haining Street was Wellington’s Chinatown and home to the largest Chinese population in New Zealand. Despite a long, and often controversial history, this legacy has virtually been erased from the contemporary streetscape, creating an area of note only for a vanished past. This thesis proposes that the memory of Haining Street’s Chinese past can be reasserted through an artist in residence scheme, consisting of a gallery, workshop and accommodation.  Architectural intervention within spaces where history has been erased can reassert memory of the other, creating an identifiable place by: memorialising the intangible qualities of place, engaging with the legacy of race in the built environment, and creating a sensual experience of place. This research suggests that architecture has the potential to reconcile conflicted recollections of the past through an active engagement with the memory of place.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gaik-Hong Soon ◽  
Seok Hwee Koo ◽  
Pei Ting Tan ◽  
Lawrence Soon-U Lee ◽  
Chee Kian Tham ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Breast cancer is the top cancer suffered by women worldwide and has been identified to be the greatest killer for women living in Singapore. Unfortunately, most of breast cancer cases were detected only at later stage of disease development. This has crippled the effort of breast cancer therapy. As early detection of breast cancer could greatly improve the outcome of breast cancer therapy, it is of utmost importance to identify relevant biomarkers at the primitive stage of breast cancer development before the transformation of normal breast cells into cancerous cells. These biomarkers provide important clues leading to an efficient and targeted treatment approach in breast cancer preventive care.Methods: 455 breast cancer patients were consented to join this study. Buccal swabs were collected for genotyping on CYP2B6*6, CYP2C19 *2 & CYP2C19*3. The genotyping data were then compared to data collected from healthy individuals. Clinical data were collected from patient notes and analysed. All the statistical analyses were done using SPSS statistical software, version 19.0. Chi-square or Fisher’s Exact test were performed to examine the difference between subject’s characteristics for categorical variables and One-Way Anova was performed to assess age difference across alleles of CYP2B6*6, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3. Binary logistics regression was performed to identify demographic factors associated with breast cancer.Results: We reported thatCYP2B6*6 could be a risk factor leading to earlier onset of breast cancer among Indian population with OR found to be 1.69 (95% C.I.= 0.549-5.191, p=0.359). In the case of CYP2C19*2, OR is 1.57 for Malay (95% C.I. = 0.696-3.522, p=0.278); 1.15 for Chinese population (95% C.I. =0.862-1.545, p=0.335) and 1.03 for Indian (95% C.I. =0.301-3.496, p=0.968). CYP2C19*3 OR in Chinese population is 1.34 (95% C.I. =0.830-2.155, p=0.231) and 0.77 (95% C.I. =0.172-3.394, p=0.724) for Malay population. No CYP2C19*3 was detected in both cohorts of Indian patients and healthy controls. Conclusions: CYP2B6*6 and CYP2C19*2 polymorphisms may confer a risk for breast cancer development in Singaporean breast cancer patients. This is an exploratory study to identify potential breast cancer susceptibility gene polymorphisms, a bigger sample size study could be done to corroborate these findings in future studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Author(s):  
Boran Sun ◽  
Yihao Zhao ◽  
Wenli Lu ◽  
Yongjie Chen

Background and Objective: Few studies have explored the relationship between malnutrition measured by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate the association of malnutrition with cognitive function in the Chinese population.Methods: It was a prospective longitudinal study and used three waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) data in 2011–2012, 2014, and 2017–2018. Participants aged 60 years or older without mental illness and cerebrovascular diseases were eligible. The GNRI was used to assess nutritional status as follows: normal nutrition (a GNRI &gt; 98), mild malnutrition (92 ≤ a GNRI ≤ 98), and moderate-to-severe malnutrition (a GNRI &lt; 92). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. The relationship between the GNRI and cognitive function was analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model.Results: A total of 1,632 subjects were analyzed, including 741 males and 891 females. Of these, 65.0, 19.4, and 15.6% of subjects were at normal nutritional status, mild, and moderate-to-severe malnutrition, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants under mild and moderate-to-severe malnutrition status have a lower MMSE score [β (95% CI): –0.95 (–1.60, –0.25) and –1.39 (–2.21, –0.57), respectively], compared with those having normal nutrition. Also, there was a linear trend in the association of malnutrition risk with cognitive function in the total population [β (95% CI): –0.74 (–1.13, –0.35)]. However, a significant association of malnutrition with cognitive function was observed only among illiterate females aged above 90 years.Conclusion: This study suggested that there was a significant relationship between the GNRI and cognitive function in the Chinese elderly. Furthermore, subjects with more serious malnutrition have a worse cognitive function, especially in the oldest illiterate females. Clinicians should put more emphasis on assessing the nutritional and cognitive status of the elderly to timely intervene and prevent cognitive impairment.


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