Brown Adipose
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mojgan Nazari ◽  
Kenneth W. Ho ◽  
Natasha Langley ◽  
Kuan M. Cha ◽  
Raymond Kodsi ◽  

AbstractBeige and brown fat consume glucose and lipids to produce heat, using uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). It is thought that full activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) may increase total daily energy expenditure by 20%. Humans normally have more beige and potentially beige-able fat than brown fat. Strategies to increase beige fat differentiation and activation may be useful for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without the iron chelator deferasirox. Animals fed HFD + deferasirox were markedly lighter than their HFD controls with increased energy expenditure (12% increase over 24 h, p < 0.001). Inguinal fat from HFD + deferasirox mice showed increased beige fat quantity with greater Ucp1 and Prdm16 expression. Inguinal adipose tissue explants were studied in a Seahorse bioanalyser and energy expenditure was significantly increased. Deferasirox was also effective in established obesity and in ob/ob mice, indicating that intact leptin signalling is not needed for efficacy. These studies identify iron chelation as a strategy to preferentially activate beige fat. Whether activating brown/beige fat is effective in humans is unproven. However, depleting iron to low-normal levels is a potential therapeutic strategy to improve obesity and related metabolic disorders, and human studies may be warranted.

Sumiko Yoshida ◽  
Masahiro Hatasa ◽  
Yujin Ohsugi ◽  
Yosuke Tsuchiya ◽  
Anhao Liu ◽  

Preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes is crucial for maternal and child health. Periodontal disease is a risk factor for many systemic diseases including adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. In addition, the administration of the periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis exacerbates obesity, glucose tolerance, and hepatic steatosis and alters endocrine function in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, the effects of having periodontal disease during pregnancy remain unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of P. gingivalis administration on obesity, liver, and BAT during pregnancy. Sonicated P. gingivalis (Pg) or saline (Co) was injected intravenously and administered orally to pregnant C57BL/6J mice three times per week. Maternal body weight and fetal body weight on embryonic day (ED) 18 were evaluated. Microarray analysis and qPCR in the liver and BAT and hepatic and plasma triglyceride quantification were performed on dams at ED 18. The body weight of Pg dams was heavier than that of Co dams; however, the fetal body weight was decreased in the offspring of Pg dams. Microarray analysis revealed 254 and 53 differentially expressed genes in the liver and BAT, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis exhibited the downregulation of fatty acid metabolism gene set in the liver and estrogen response early/late gene sets in the BAT, whereas inflammatory response and IL6/JAK/STAT3 signaling gene sets were upregulated both in the liver and BAT. The downregulation of expression levels of Lpin1, Lpin2, and Lxra in the liver, which are associated with triglyceride synthesis, and a decreasing trend in hepatic triglyceride of Pg dams were observed. P. gingivalis administration may alter lipid metabolism in the liver. Overall, the intravenous and oral administration of sonicated P. gingivalis-induced obesity and modified gene expression in the liver and BAT in pregnant mice and caused fetuses to be underweight.

2022 ◽  
Gabriel Richard ◽  
Denis P. Blondin ◽  
Saad A. Syed ◽  
Laura Rossi ◽  
Michelle E. Fontes ◽  

Diets rich in added sugars, especially high in fructose, are associated with metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Studies have shown a link between these pathologies and changes in the microbiome and its metabolites. Given the reported associations in animal models between the microbiome and brown or beige adipose tissue (BAT) function, and the alterations in the microbiome induced by high glucose or high fructose diets, we investigated the potential causal link between high glucose or fructose diets and BAT dysfunction in humans. We show that BAT glucose uptake, but not thermogenesis, is impaired by a high fructose but not high glucose diet, in the absence of changes in body mass, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and faecal short-chain fatty acids. We conclude that BAT metabolic dysfunction occurs independently from changes in gut microbiome composition, and earlier than other pathophysiological abnormalities associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia during fructose overconsumption in humans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 127 (2) ◽  
pp. 161-164
Paul Trayhurn

I had been working on the endocrine and signalling role of white adipose tissue (WAT) since 1994 following the identification of the ob (Lep) gene(1), this after some 15 years investigating the physiological role of brown adipose tissue. The ob gene, a mutation in which it is responsible for the profound obesity of ob/ob (Lepob/Lepob) mice, is expressed primarily in white adipocytes and encodes the pleiotropic hormone leptin. The discovery of this adipocyte hormone had wide-ranging implications, including that white fat has multiple functions that far transcend the traditional picture of a simple lipid storage organ.

Francesca Cuomo ◽  
Carmela Dell’Aversana ◽  
Teresa Chioccarelli ◽  
Veronica Porreca ◽  
Francesco Manfrevola ◽  

Maintenance of energy balance between intake and expenditure is a prerequisite of human health, disrupted in severe metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), mainly due to accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT undergoes a morphological and energetic remodelling toward brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the BAT activation has anti-obesity potential. The mechanisms or the regulatory factors able to activate BAT thermogenesis have been only partially deciphered. Identifying novel regulators of BAT induction is a question of great importance for fighting obesity and T2D. Here, we evaluated the role of Hif3α in murine pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cell line, a versatile and well characterized biological model of adipogenesis, by gain- and loss-of function approaches and in thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. HIF3A is regulated by inflammation, it modulates lypolysis in adipose tissue of obese adults, but its role in energy metabolism has not previously been investigated. We characterized gene and protein expression patterns of adipogenesis and metabolic activity in vitro and mechanistically in vivo. Overexpression of Hif3α in differentiating adipocytes increases white fat cells, whereas silencing of Hif3α promotes “browning” of white cells, activating thermogenesis through upregulation of Ucp1, Elovl3, Prdm16, Dio2 and Ppargc1a genes. Investigating cell metabolism, Seahorse Real-Time Cell Metabolism Analysis showed that silencing of Hif3α resulted in a significant increase of mitochondrial uncoupling with a concomitant increase in acetyl-CoA metabolism and Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression. The causal Hif3α/Ucp1 inverse relation has been validated in Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) knockout, a thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. Our data indicate that Hif3α inhibition triggers “browning” of white adipocytes activating the beneficial thermogenesis rewiring energy metabolism in vitro and in vivo. HIF3A is a novel player that controls the energy metabolism with potential applications in developing therapy to fight metabolic disorders, as obesity, T2D and ultimately cancer.

JCI Insight ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jessica D. Kepple ◽  
Jessie M. Barra ◽  
Martin E. Young ◽  
Chad S. Hunter ◽  
Hubert M. Tse

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xi Cao ◽  
Tingting Shi ◽  
Chuanhai Zhang ◽  
Wanzhu Jin ◽  
Lini Song ◽  

Identification of key regulators of energy homeostasis holds important therapeutic promise for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. ACE2 cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) to generate Ang-(1-7) which acts mainly through the Mas1 receptor. Here, we identify ACE2 pathway as a critical regulator in the maintenance of thermogenesis and energy expenditure. We found that ACE2 is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and that cold stimulation increases ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) levels in BAT and serum. Ace2 knockout mice (Ace2-/y) and Mas1 knockout mice (Mas1-/-) displayed impaired thermogenesis. Mice transplanted with brown adipose tissue from Mas1-/- display metabolic abnormalities consistent with those seen in the Ace2 and Mas1 knockout mice. In contrast, impaired thermogenesis of Leprdb/db obese diabetic mice and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were ameliorated by overexpression of Ace2 or continuous infusion of Ang-(1-7). Activation of ACE2 pathway was associated with improvement of metabolic parameters, including blood glucose, lipids and energy expenditure in multiple animal models. Consistently, ACE2 pathway remarkably enhanced the browning of white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, we showed that ACE2 pathway activated Akt/FoxO1 and PKA pathway, leading to induction of UCP1 and activation of mitochondrial function. Our data propose that adaptive thermogenesis requires regulation of ACE2 pathway and highlight novel potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Yuni Susanti Pratiwi ◽  
Melisa Siannoto ◽  
Hanna Goenawan ◽  
Nova Sylviana ◽  
Vita Murniati Tarawan ◽  

The white adipose tissue (WAT) browning process has become one of the promising methods for managing obesity. During this process, WAT is transformed into brown-like adipose tissue, which is also known as beige adipose tissue. The browning process can be activated by several inducers. One of the best candidates is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) is a natural PPARα/γ partial agonist that is known to contribute to the browning effect. This study aimed to explore the potential effect of nutmeg seed extract (NuSE) on body weight reduction and uncoupling protein (UCP)1, UCP2, UCP3, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 PGC-1α levels in aging rats. Eight male Wistar rats (80 weeks old) were divided into control and treatment groups. Both groups were fed a standard diet, and the treatment group was given 8.1 mg/kg body weight/day of NuSE via oral gavage for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the levels of UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, and PGC-1α from both inguinal WAT (iWAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) were examined. We observed that the administration of NuSE has no significant effect to the decreasement of rats body weights (p = 0.464), levels of UCP1 (p = 0.686), UCP2 (p = 0.360), UCP3 (p = 0.076), and PGC-1α (p = 0.200).

Felix T. Yang ◽  
Kristin I. Stanford

Abstract Purpose of Review This review highlights aspects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) communication with other organ systems and how BAT-to-tissue cross-talk could help elucidate future obesity treatments. Recent Findings Until recently, research on BAT has focused mainly on its thermogenic activity. New research has identified an endocrine/paracrine function of BAT and determined that many BAT-derived molecules, termed “batokines,” affect the physiology of a variety of organ systems and cell types. Batokines encompass a variety of signaling molecules including peptides, metabolites, lipids, or microRNAs. Recent studies have noted significant effects of batokines on physiology as it relates whole-body metabolism and cardiac function. This review will discuss batokines and other BAT processes that affect the liver, cardiovascular system, skeletal muscle, immune cells, and brown and white adipose tissue. Summary Brown adipose tissue has a crucial secretory function that plays a key role in systemic physiology.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 181
Fenfen Li ◽  
Shirong Wang ◽  
Xin Cui ◽  
Jia Jing ◽  
Liqing Yu ◽  

While the main function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is to store surplus of energy as triacylglycerol, that of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is to burn energy as heat. Epigenetic mechanisms participate prominently in both WAT and BAT energy metabolism. We previously reported that the histone demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide (Utx) is a positive regulator of brown adipocyte thermogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether Utx also regulates WAT metabolism in vivo. We generated a mouse model with Utx deficiency in adipocytes (AUTXKO). AUTXKO animals fed a chow diet had higher body weight, more fat mass and impaired glucose tolerance. AUTXKO mice also exhibited cold intolerance with an impaired brown fat thermogenic program. When challenged with high-fat diet (HFD), AUTXKO mice displayed adipose dysfunction featured by suppressed lipogenic pathways, exacerbated inflammation and fibrosis with less fat storage in adipose tissues and more lipid storage in the liver; as a result, AUTXKO mice showed a disturbance in whole body glucose homeostasis and hepatic steatosis. Our data demonstrate that Utx deficiency in adipocytes limits adipose tissue expansion under HFD challenge and induces metabolic dysfunction via adipose tissue remodeling. We conclude that adipocyte Utx is a key regulator of systemic metabolic homeostasis.

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