endothelial dysfunction
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 912
Javier Saenz-Medina ◽  
Mercedes Muñoz ◽  
Claudia Rodriguez ◽  
Ana Sanchez ◽  
Cristina Contreras ◽  

An epidemiological relationship between urolithiasis and cardiovascular diseases has extensively been reported. Endothelial dysfunction is an early pathogenic event in cardiovascular diseases and has been associated with oxidative stress and low chronic inflammation in hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke or the vascular complications of diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms of urolithiasis in relation to the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidities. Methods: A non-systematic review has been performed mixing the terms “urolithiasis”, “kidney stone” or “nephrolithiasis” with “cardiovascular disease”, “myocardial infarction”, “stroke”, or “endothelial dysfunction”. Results: Patients with nephrolithiasis develop a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease with a relative risk estimated between 1.20 and 1.24 and also develop a higher vascular disease risk scores. Analyses of subgroups have rendered inconclusive results regarding gender or age. Endothelial dysfunction has also been strongly associated with urolithiasis in clinical studies, although no systemic serum markers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation or oxidative stress could be clearly related. Analysis of urine composition of lithiasic patients also detected a higher expression of proteins related to cardiovascular disease. Experimental models of hyperoxaluria have also found elevation of serum endothelial dysfunction markers. Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction has been strongly associated with urolithiasis and based on the experimental evidence, should be considered as an intermediate and changeable feature between urolithiasis and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress, a key pathogenic factor in the development of endothelial dysfunction has been also pointed out as an important factor of lithogenesis. Special attention must be paid to cardiovascular morbidities associated with urolithiasis in order to take advantage of pleiotropic effects of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers and allopurinol.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Giovanni Cimmino ◽  
Stefano Conte ◽  
Mariarosaria Morello ◽  
Grazia Pellegrino ◽  
Laura Marra ◽  

Background: Thrombosis with cardiovascular involvement is a crucial complication in COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 infects the host by the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 receptor (ACE2r), which is expressed in endothelial cells too. Thus, COVID-related thrombotic events might be due to endothelial dysfunction. IL-6 is one of the main cytokines involved in the COVID-19 inflammatory storm. Some evidence indicates that Vitamin D (VitD) has a protective role in COVID-19 patients, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still debated. Thus, we investigated the effect of VitD on Tissue Factor and adhesion molecules (CAMs) in IL-6-stimulated endothelial cells (HUVEC). Moreover, we evaluated levels of the ACE2r gene and proteins. Finally, we studied the modulation of NF-kB and STAT3 pathways. Methods: HUVEC cultivated in VitD-enriched medium were stimulated with IL-6 (0.5 ng/mL). The TF gene (RT-PCR), protein (Western blot), surface expression (FACS) and procoagulant activity (FXa generation assay) were measured. Similarly, CAMs soluble values (ELISA) and ACE2r (RT-PCR and Western blot) levels were assessed. NF-kB and STAT3 modulation (Western blot) were also investigated. Results: VitD significantly reduced TF expression at both gene and protein levels as well as TF-procoagulant activity in IL-6-treated HUVEC. Similar effects were observed for CAMs and ACE2r expression. IL-6 modulates these effects by regulating NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Conclusions: IL-6 induces endothelial dysfunction with TF and CAMs expression via upregulation of ACE2r. VitD prevented these IL-6 deleterious effects. Thus, it might be speculated that this is one of the hypothetical mechanism(s) by which VitD exerts its beneficial effects in COVID-19 infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 000 (000) ◽  
pp. 000-000
Doris Ogresta ◽  
Anna Mrzljak ◽  
Maja Cigrovski Berkovic ◽  
Ines Bilic-Curcic ◽  
Sanja Stojsavljevic-Shapeski ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 753
Jae-Ah Seo ◽  
Nilofar Danishmalik Sayyed ◽  
Yeon-Ju Lee ◽  
Hye-Yoon Jeon ◽  
Eun-Bin Kim ◽  

Midazolam is an anesthetic widely used for anxiolysis and sedation; however, to date, a possible role for midazolam in diabetic kidney disease remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of midazolam on hyperglycemia-induced glomerular endothelial dysfunction and elucidated its mechanism of action in kidneys of diabetic mice and human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (HGECs). We found that, in diabetic mice, subcutaneous midazolam treatment for 6 weeks attenuated hyperglycemia-induced elevation in urine albumin/creatinine ratios. It also ameliorated hyperglycemia-induced adherens junction disruption and subsequent microvascular leakage in glomeruli of diabetic mice. In HGECs, midazolam suppressed high glucose-induced vascular endothelial-cadherin disruption and endothelial cell permeability via inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ elevation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) activation. Notably, midazolam also suppressed hyperglycemia-induced ROS generation and TGase2 activation in glomeruli of diabetic mice and markedly improved pathological alterations in glomerular ultrastructure in these animals. Analysis of kidneys from diabetic Tgm2−/− mice further revealed that TGase2 played a critical role in microvascular leakage. Overall, our findings indicate that midazolam ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced glomerular endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting ROS-mediated activation of TGase2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Daniel G. Sadler ◽  
Jonathan Barlow ◽  
Richard Draijer ◽  
Helen Jones ◽  
Dick H. J. Thijssen ◽  

Introduction. Vascular endothelial dysfunction is characterised by lowered nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, which may be explained by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered cell signalling. (-)-Epicatechin (EPI) has proven effective in the context of vascular endothelial dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms associated with EPI’s effects remain unclear. Objective(s). Our aim was to investigate whether EPI impacts reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production and mitochondrial function of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). We hypothesised that EPI would attenuate ROS production, increase NO bioavailability, and enhance indices of mitochondrial function. Methods. HUVECs were treated with EPI (0-20 μM) for up to 48 h. Mitochondrial and cellular ROS were measured in the absence and presence of antimycin A (AA), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport protein complex III, favouring ROS production. Genes associated with mitochondrial remodelling and the antioxidant response were quantified by RT-qPCR. Mitochondrial bioenergetics were assessed by respirometry and signalling responses determined by western blotting. Results. Mitochondrial superoxide production without AA was increased 32% and decreased 53% after 5 and 10 μM EPI treatment vs. CTRL ( P < 0.001 ). With AA, only 10 μM EPI increased mitochondrial superoxide production vs. CTRL (25%, P < 0.001 ). NO bioavailability was increased by 45% with 10 μM EPI vs. CTRL ( P = 0.010 ). However, EPI did not impact mitochondrial respiration. NRF2 mRNA expression was increased 1.5- and 1.6-fold with 5 and 10 μM EPI over 48 h vs. CTRL ( P = 0.015 and P = 0.001 , respectively). Finally, EPI transiently enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (2.9 and 3.2-fold over 15 min and 1 h vs. 0 h, respectively; P = 0.035 and P = 0.011 ). Conclusion(s). EPI dose-dependently alters RONS production of HUVECs but does not impact mitochondrial respiration. The induction of NRF2 mRNA expression with EPI might relate to enhanced ERK1/2 signalling, rather than RONS production. In humans, EPI may improve vascular endothelial dysfunction via alteration of RONS and activation of cell signalling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Kiruphagaran Thangaraju ◽  
Upendra Katneni ◽  
Imo J. Akpan ◽  
Kenichi Tanaka ◽  
Tiffany Thomas ◽  

Aging and obesity independently contribute toward an endothelial dysfunction that results in an imbalanced VWF to ADAMTS13 ratio. In addition, plasma thrombin and plasmin generation are elevated and reduced, respectively, with increasing age and also with increasing body mass index (BMI). The severity risk of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases in adults older than 65 and in individuals with certain pre-existing health conditions, including obesity (&gt;30 kg/m2). The present cross-sectional study focused on an analysis of the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, including measurements of von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:AG), VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CBA), Factor VIII antigen, ADAMTS13 antigen, and ADAMTS13 activity, in addition to thrombin and plasmin generation potential, in a demographically diverse population of COVID-19 negative (−) (n = 288) and COVID-19 positive (+) (n = 543) patient plasmas collected at the time of hospital presentation. Data were analyzed as a whole, and then after dividing patients by age (&lt;65 and ≥65) and independently by BMI [&lt;18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, &gt;30 (kg/m2)]. These analyses suggest that VWF parameters (i.e., the VWF/ADAMTS13 activity ratio) and thrombin and plasmin generation differed in COVID-19 (+), as compared to COVID-19 (−) patient plasma. Further, age (≥65) more than BMI contributed to aberrant plasma indicators of endothelial coagulopathy. Based on these findings, evaluating both the VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, along with thrombin and plasmin generation, could provide insight into the extent of endothelial dysfunction as well as the plasmatic imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolysis potential, particularly for at-risk patient populations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Claudia Reyes-Goya ◽  
Álvaro Santana-Garrido ◽  
Gema Aguilar-Espejo ◽  
María del Carmen Pérez-Camino ◽  
Alfonso Mate ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Despite numerous reports on the beneficial effects of olive oil in the cardiovascular context, very little is known about the olive tree’s wild counterpart (Olea europaea, L. var. sylvestris), commonly known as acebuche (ACE) in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible beneficial effects of an extra virgin ACE oil on vascular function in a rodent model of arterial hypertension induced by L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). Methods: Four experimental groups of male Wistar rats were studied: 1) normotensive rats (Control group); 2) normotensive rats fed a commercial diet supplemented with 15% (w/w) ACE oil (Acebuche group); 3) rats made hypertensive following administration of L-NAME (L-NAME group); and 4) rats treated with L-NAME and simultaneously supplemented with 15% ACE oil (LN+ACE group). All treatments were maintained for 12 weeks. Results: Besides a significant blood pressure-lowering effect, the ACE oil-enriched diet counteracted the alterations found in aortas from hypertensive rats in terms of morphology and responsiveness to vasoactive mediators. In addition, a decrease in hypertension-related fibrotic and oxidative stress processes was observed in L-NAME-treated rats subjected to ACE oil supplement. Conclusion: Using a model of arterial hypertension via nitric oxide depletion, here we demonstrate the beneficial effects of a wild olive oil based upon its vasodilator, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties. We postulate that regular inclusion of ACE oil in the diet can alleviate the vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction processes typically found in arterial hypertension, thus resulting in a significant reduction of blood pressure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Liping Su ◽  
Xiaocen Kong ◽  
Szejie Loo ◽  
Yu Gao ◽  
Bingli Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Prior studies show that signature phenotypes of diabetic human induced pluripotent stem cells derived endothelial cells (dia-hiPSC-ECs) are disrupted glycine homeostasis, increased senescence, impaired mitochondrial function and angiogenic potential as compared with healthy hiPSC-ECs. In the current study, we aimed to assess the role of thymosin β-4 (Tb-4) on endothelial function using dia-hiPSC-ECs as disease model of endothelial dysfunction. Methods and results Using dia-hiPSC-ECs as models of endothelial dysfunction, we determined the effect of Tb-4 on cell proliferation, senescence, cyto-protection, protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), secretion of endothelin-1 and MMP-1, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cyto-protection in vitro and angiogenic potential for treatment of ischemic limb disease in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in vivo. We found that 600 ng/mL Tb4 significantly up-regulated AKT activity and Bcl-XL protein expression, enhanced dia-hiPSC-EC viability and proliferation, limited senescence, reduced endothelin-1 and MMP-1 secretion, and improved reparative potency of dia-hiPSC-ECs for treatment of ischemic limb disease in mice with T2DM. However, Tb4 had no effect on improving mitochondrial membrane potential and glycine homeostasis and reducing intercellular adhesion molecule-1 protein expression in dia-hiPSC-ECs. Conclusions Tb-4 improves endothelial dysfunction through enhancing hiPSC-EC viability, reducing senescence and endothelin-1 production, and improves angiogenic potency in diabetes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (8) ◽  
pp. 3087
O. A. Osipova ◽  
E. V. Gosteva ◽  
O. N. Belousova ◽  
S. G. Gorelik ◽  
N. I. Klyushnikov ◽  

Aim. To compare the effect of beta-blocker therapy (bisoprolol and nebivolol) on the dynamics of fibrotic and vascular endothelial dysfunction markers in elderly hypertensive patients after ischemic stroke (IS).Material and methods. This prospective cohort study included 75 hypertensive patients who were admitted to the hospital due to IS. The mean age of patients was 67±6 years. The average National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 7±3. The followup period was 6 months. The control group consisted of 20 elderly people with hypertension without prior myocardial infarction. The patients were divided into groups based on received therapy: group 1 (n=38) — bisoprolol; group 2 (n=37) — nebivolol. The level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAKit, USA). Vascular ultrasound was carried out using a LOGIQP9 (GE) system according to the Celermajer method.Results. After 6-month nebivolol, we revealed a decrease in the level of MMP-9 by 30,2% (p<0,01), TIMP-1 by 15,6% (p<0,05). After 6-month bisoprolol therapy, the level of MMP-9 decreased by 14,5% (p<0,05), while TIMP-1 did not change. Intergroup comparison found that when using nebivolol, there was a higher decrease in the level of MMP-9 by 15,7% (p<0,05), TIMP-1 by 9,7% (p<0,05), MMP-9/TIMP-1 by 7,8% (p<0,05) than with bisoprolol therapy. After 6-month bisoprolol therapy, there was a decrease in the proportion of patients with severe endothelial dysfunction (ED) by 7,9% (p<0,05). Two patients from the nebivolol group moved into mild ED category. The number of patients with moderate ED increased by 19% (p<0,01), while prevalence of severe ED decreased by 24,4% (p<0,01).Conclusion. The results obtained indicate that the beta-blocker nebivolol at an average dose of 8,55+1,75 mg/day significantly reduces the vascular fibrosis, normalizes the ratio of collagen synthesis and degradation markers, improves the vasodilation brachial artery properties in comparison with bisoprolol in elderly hypertensive patients after IS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Dai-Shi Tian ◽  
Chuan Qin ◽  
Luo-Qi Zhou ◽  
Sheng Yang ◽  
Man Chen ◽  

AbstractRevascularization and angiogenesis, as substrates of sustained collateral circulation, play a crucial role in determining the severity and clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Developing an adjunct biomarker to help identify and monitor collateral status would aid stroke diagnosis and prognosis. To screen the potential biomarkers, proteomic analysis was performed in this study to identify those distinct plasma protein profiles in AIS due to LVO with different collateral status. Interestingly, we found that levels of Plasma Factor VII Activating Protease (FSAP) significantly increased in those AIS patients with poor collaterals, and were correlated with worse neurological outcome. Furtherly, both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke were used to explore pathological mechanisms of FSAP in endothelial dysfunction. We demonstrated that the FSAP inhibitor, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), enhanced the pro-angiogenic vascular factors, improved the integrity of brain blood barrier, and promoted newly formed cerebral microvessels in the ischemic penumbra, consequently improving neurological function. To elucidate the pathways that might contribute to revascularization during LVO, we applied transcriptomic analysis via unbiased RNA sequencing and showed that Wnt signaling was highly involved in FSAP mediated endothelial dysfunction. Notably, inhibition of Wnt5a largely reversed the protective effects from HMW-HA treatment, implying that FSAP might aggravate endothelial dysfunction and neurological deficits by regulating Wnt5a signaling. Therefore, FSAP may represent a potential biomarker for collateral status after LVO and a promising therapeutic target to be explored in the treatment of stroke.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document