Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
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Published By Ovid Technologies Wolters Kluwer -American Heart Association

1524-4636, 1079-5642

Fang-Hao Guo ◽  
Ya-Na Guan ◽  
Jun-Jun Guo ◽  
Lu-Jun Zhang ◽  
Jing-Jing Qiu ◽  

Background: Endothelial cells (ECs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. The heterogeneity of ECs has been reported at adult stages, yet it has not been fully investigated. This study aims to assess the transcriptional heterogeneity of developmental ECs at spatiotemporal level and to reveal the changes of embryonic ECs clustering when endothelium-enriched microRNA-126 (miR-126) was specifically knocked out. Methods: C57BL/6J mice embryos at day 14.5 were harvested and digested, followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to enrich ECs. Then, single-cell RNA sequencing was applied to enriched embryonic ECs. Tie2 (Tek receptor tyrosine kinase)-cre–mediated ECs-specific miR-126 knockout mice were constructed, and ECs from Tie2-cre–mediated ECs-specific miR-126 knockout embryos were subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing. Results: Embryonic ECs were clustered into 11 groups corresponding to anatomic characteristics. The vascular bed (arteries, capillaries, veins, lymphatics) exhibited transcriptomic similarity across the developmental stage. Embryonic ECs had higher proliferative potential than adult ECs. Integrating analysis showed that 3 ECs populations (hepatic, mesenchymal transition, and pulmonary ECs) were apparently disorganized after miR-126 being knocked out. Gene ontology analysis revealed that disrupted ECs were mainly related to hypoxia, glycometabolism, and vascular calcification. Additionally, in vivo experiment showed that Tie2-cre–mediated ECs-specific miR-126 knockout mice exhibited excessive intussusceptive angiogenesis; reductive glucose and pyruvate tolerance; and excessive accumulation of calcium. Agonist miR-126-3p agomir significantly rescued the phenotype of glucose metabolic dysfunction in Tie2-cre–mediated ECs-specific miR-126 knockout mice. Conclusions: The heterogeneity of ECs is established as early as the embryonic stage. The deficiency of miR-126 disrupts the differentiation and diversification of embryonic ECs, suggesting that miR-126 plays an essential role in the maintenance of ECs heterogeneity.

Jing Du ◽  
Benjamin R. Thomson ◽  
Tuncer Onay ◽  
Susan E. Quaggin

Background: Schlemm’s canal (SC) is a large vessel residing in the iridocorneal angle and is required to regulate aqueous humor outflow. Normal SC structure and function is indispensable for maintaining normal intraocular pressure, and elevated intraocular pressure is a risk factor for development of glaucoma. Recent reports have identified a key role of the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway for SC development and function; however, the role of the orphan receptor Tie1 has not been clarified. Methods: We used Tie1 knock out mice to study the function of Tie1 in SC development and function. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used to verify Tie1 deletion. High-resolution microscopy of mouse SC whole mount and cross sections were used to study SC morphology. Measurement of intraocular pressure in live mice was used to study the impact of Tie1 on SC function. Results: Tie1 is highly expressed in both human and mouse SC. Tie1 knock out mice display hypomorphic SC and elevated intraocular pressure as a result of attenuated SC development. Conclusions: Tie1 is indispensable for SC development and function, supporting it as a novel target for future SC-targeted glaucoma therapies and a candidate gene for glaucoma in humans.

Eythór Björnsson ◽  
Gudmundur Thorgeirsson ◽  
Anna Helgadóttir ◽  
Daníel F. Gudbjartsson ◽  
Hilma Hólm ◽  

Jeremy D. Furtado ◽  
Giacomo Ruotolo ◽  
Stephen J. Nicholls ◽  
Robert Dullea ◽  
Santos Carvajal-Gonzalez ◽  

Objective: Plasma total HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is a heterogeneous mix of many protein-based subspecies whose functions and associations with coronary heart disease vary. We hypothesize that increasing HDL by CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) inhibition failed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, in part, because it increased dysfunctional subspecies associated with higher risk such as HDL that contains apoC3. Approach and Results: We studied participants in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of a CETP inhibitor on a background of atorvastatin treatment: ACCENTUATE (130 mg evacetrapib; n=126) and ILLUMINATE (60 mg torcetrapib; n=80). We measured the concentration of apoA1 in total plasma and 17 protein-based HDL subspecies at baseline and 3 months. Both CETP inhibitors increased apoA1 in HDL that contains apoC3 the most of all HDL subspecies (median placebo-adjusted percent increase: evacetrapib 99% and torcetrapib 50%). They also increased apoA1 in other HDL subspecies associated with higher coronary heart disease risk such as those involved in inflammation (α-2-macroglobulin and complement C3) or hemostasis (plasminogen), and in HDL that contains both apoE and apoC3, a complex subspecies associated with higher coronary heart disease risk. ApoA1 in HDL that contains apoC1, associated with lower risk, increased 71% and 40%, respectively. Only HDL that contains apoL1 showed no response to either drug. Conclusions: CETP inhibitors evacetrapib and torcetrapib increase apoA1 in HDL subspecies that contain apoC3 and other HDL subspecies associated with higher risk of coronary heart disease. Subspecies-specific effects shift HDL subspecies concentrations toward a profile associated with higher risk, which may contribute to lack of clinical benefit from raising HDL by pharmaceutical CETP inhibition.

Danying Liao ◽  
Jesse Sundlov ◽  
Jieqing Zhu ◽  
Heng Mei ◽  
Yu Hu ◽  

Objective: PECAM-1 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) is a 130 kDa member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily that is expressed on the surfaces of platelets and leukocytes and concentrated at the intercellular junctions of confluent endothelial cell monolayers. PECAM-1 Ig domains 1 and 2 (IgD1 and IgD2) engage in homophilic interactions that support a host of vascular functions, including support of leukocyte transendothelial migration and the maintenance of endothelial junctional integrity. The recently solved crystal structure of PECAM-1 IgD1 and IgD2 revealed a number of intermolecular interfaces predicted to play important roles in stabilizing PECAM-1/PECAM-1 homophilic interactions and in formation and maintenance of endothelial cell-cell contacts. We sought to determine whether the protein interfaces implicated in the crystal structure reflect physiologically important interactions. Approach and Results: We assessed the impact of single amino acid substitutions at the interfaces between opposing PECAM-1 molecules on homophilic binding and endothelial cell function. Substitution of key residues within the IgD1-IgD1 and IgD1-IgD2 interfaces but not those within the smaller IgD2-IgD2 interface, markedly disrupted PECAM-1 homophilic binding and its downstream effector functions, including the ability of PECAM-1 to localize at endothelial cell-cell borders, mediate the formation of endothelial tubes, and restore endothelial barrier integrity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results validate the recently described PECAM-1 IgD1/IgD2 crystal structure by demonstrating that specific residues visualized within the IgD1-IgD1 and IgD1-IgD2 interfaces of opposing molecules in the crystal are required for functionally important homophilic interactions. This information can now be exploited to modulate functions of PECAM-1 in vivo.

Nadya M. Morrow ◽  
Natasha A. Trzaskalski ◽  
Antonio A. Hanson ◽  
Evgenia Fadzeyeva ◽  
Dawn E. Telford ◽  

Objective: Nobiletin is a dietary flavonoid that improves insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in mice with metabolic dysfunction. Dysregulation of intestinal lipoprotein metabolism contributes to atherogenesis. The objective of the study was to determine if nobiletin targets the intestine to improve metabolic dysregulation in both male and female mice. Approach and Results: Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion, intracellular triglyceride kinetics, and intestinal morphology were determined in male and female LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor knockout, and male wild-type mice fed a standard laboratory diet or high-fat, high-cholesterol diet ± nobiletin using an olive oil gavage, radiotracers, and electron microscopy. Nobiletin attenuated postprandial TRL levels in plasma and enhanced TRL clearance. Nobiletin reduced fasting jejunal triglyceride accumulation through accelerated TRL secretion and lower jejunal fatty acid synthesis with no impact on fatty acid oxidation. Fasting-refeeding experiments revealed that nobiletin led to higher levels of phosphorylated AKT and FoxO1 (forkhead box O1) and normal Srebf1-c expression indicating increased insulin sensitivity. Intestinal length and weight were diminished by high-fat feeding and restored by nobiletin. Both fasting and postprandial plasma GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1; and likely GLP-2) were elevated in response to nobiletin. Treatment with a GLP-2 receptor antagonist, GLP-2(3-33), reduced villus length in high fat-fed mice but did not impact TRL secretion in any diet group. In contrast to males, nobiletin did not improve postprandial lipid parameters in female mice. Conclusions: Nobiletin opposed the effects of the high-fat diet by normalizing intestinal de novo lipogenesis through improved insulin sensitivity. Nobiletin prevents postprandial lipemia because the enhanced TRL clearance more than compensates for increased TRL secretion.

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