AIM: To evaluate differences in microparticle profiles in vitreous samples between diabetic and non-diabetic eyes undergoing vitrectomy.
METHODS: Un-masked cross-sectional series of 34 eyes undergoing vitrectomy. Vitreous specimens were collected and processed to evaluate for membrane integrity (DAPI), apoptosis (Annexin-V), and endothelial-cell origin (V-Cadherin). A BD LSR II flow cytometer was used for analysis and standardized sub-micron-sized beads were used for size comparison.
RESULTS: Thirty-four specimens underwent analysis. Greater levels of Annexin-V were found on microparticles from specimens in which blood had entered the vitreous (n=12) compared to those without blood (n=22; 52.3%±30.7% vs 19.6%±27.2%, P=0.002). Patients with diabetes having surgery with hemorrhage (n=7) had greater expression of Annexin-V than those without hemorrhage (n=8; 62.1%±31.7% vs 18.9%±20.9%, P=0.009). However, in patients with non-diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, the level of Annexin-V expression was not significantly different compared to other disease processes (38.6%±25.7%, n=5 vs 20.0%±30.9%, n=14, P=0.087).
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of the apoptotic marker, Annexin-V is detected on vitreous microparticles in diabetes-related vitreous hemorrhage. When evaluating vitreous hemorrhage in patients without diabetes, the apoptotic signal is not significantly different. Vitrectomy in patients with diabetes, and improvement in visual outcomes, may be related to the removal of a serum-derived, pro-apoptotic vitreous. Further investigation is warranted in order to identify the molecular characteristics of microparticles that regulate disease.
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is associated with irreversibly impaired muscle function due to traumatic injury. Experimental approaches to treat VML include the delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or rehabilitative exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of spatially nanopatterned collagen scaffold implants with either bFGF delivery or in conjunction with voluntary exercise. Aligned nanofibrillar collagen scaffold bundles were adsorbed with bFGF, and the bioactivity of bFGF-laden scaffolds was examined by skeletal myoblast or endothelial cell proliferation. The therapeutic efficacy of scaffold implants with either bFGF release or exercise was examined in a murine VML model. Our results show an initial burst release of bFGF from the scaffolds, followed by a slower release over 21 days. The released bFGF induced myoblast and endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. After 3 weeks of implantation in a mouse VML model, twitch force generation was significantly higher in mice treated with bFGF-laden scaffolds compared to bFGF-laden scaffolds with exercise. However, myofiber density was not significantly improved with bFGF scaffolds or voluntary exercise. In contrast, the scaffold implant with exercise induced more re-innervation than all other groups. These results highlight the differential effects of bFGF and exercise on muscle regeneration.
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important microvascular diseases of diabetes. Our previous research demonstrated that bile acid G-protein-coupled membrane receptor (TGR5), a novel cell membrane receptor of bile acid, ameliorates the vascular endothelial cell dysfunction in DR. However, the precise mechanism leading to this alteration remains unknown. Thus, the mechanism of TGR5 in the progress of DR should be urgently explored.Methods: In this study, we established high glucose (HG)-induced human retinal vascular endothelial cells (RMECs) and streptozotocin-induced DR rat in vitro and in vivo. The expression of TGR5 was interfered through the specific agonist or siRNA to study the effect of TGR5 on the function of endothelial cell in vitro. Western blot, immunofluorescence and fluorescent probes were used to explore how TGR5 regulated mitochondrial homeostasis and related molecular mechanism. The adeno-associated virus serotype 8-shTGR5 (AAV8-shTGR5) was performed to evaluate retinal dysfunction in vivo and further confirm the role of TGR5 in DR by HE staining, TUNEL staining, PAS staining and Evans Blue dye.Results: We found that TGR5 activation alleviated HG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis by improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Additionally, TGR5 signaling reduced mitochondrial fission by suppressing the Ca2+-PKCδ/Drp1 signaling and enhanced mitophagy through the upregulation of the PINK1/Parkin signaling pathway. Furthermore, our result indicated that Drp1 inhibited mitophagy by facilitating the hexokinase (HK) 2 separation from the mitochondria and HK2-PINK1/Parkin signaling. In vivo, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, including retinal vascular leakage, acellular capillaries and apoptosis, were poor in AAV8-shTGR5-treated group under DR, but this effect was reversed by pretreatment with the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 or autophagy agonist Rapamycin.Conclusion: Overall, our findings indicated that TGR5 inhibited mitochondrial fission and enhanced mitophagy in RMECs by regulating the PKCδ/Drp1-HK2 signaling pathway. These results revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of TGR5 and suggested that activation of TGR5 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for DR.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by articular cartilage and/or chondrocyte destruction, and although it has long been considered as a primary disease, the importance of meniscus endothelial cell modulation in the subchondral microenvironment has recently drawn attention. Previous studies have shown that apelin could potentially inhibit cellular apoptosis; however, it remains unclear whether apelin could play a protective role in protecting the endothelium in the OA meniscus. In this study, with the advantages of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data, in combination with flow cytometry, we identified two endothelial subclusters in the meniscus, featured by high expression of Homeobox A13 (HOXA13) and Ras Protein-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2 (RASGRF2), respectively. Compared with control patients, both subclusters decreased in absolute cell numbers and exhibited downregulated APJ endogenous ligand (APLN, coding for apelin) and upregulated apelin receptor (APLNR, coding apelin receptor). Furthermore, we confirmed that in OA, decreased endothelial cell numbers, including both subclusters, were related to intrinsic apoptosis factors: one more relevant to caspase 3 (CASP3) and the other to BH3-Interacting Domain Death agonist (BID). In vitro culturing of meniscal endothelial cells purified from patients proved that apelin could significantly inhibit apoptosis by downregulating these two factors in endothelial cell subclusters, suggesting that apelin could potentially serve as a therapeutic target for patients with OA.
Purpose. To investigate the changes of corneal endothelium under different crosslinking conditions and the protective effect of ripasudil. Methods. Corneal crosslinking groups were infiltrated with riboflavin and subsequently irradiated with 0.54 J/cm2 or 1.08 J/cm2 UVA, while noncrosslinking groups included neither UVA nor riboflavin treatment, only 1.08 J/cm2 UVA and only riboflavin treatment. Corneal opacity, variations in corneal endothelial cells, and corneal thickness of all groups were observed by slit lamp, in vivo confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy were performed to evaluate changes in the structure and function of the corneal endothelium. The mice that received a corneal crosslinking dose of 1.08 J/cm2 were instilled with ripasudil to explore its protective effect on the corneal endothelium. Results. Treatment with UVA and riboflavin caused an increase in corneal opacity and corneal thickness and decreased endothelial cell density. Furthermore, treatment with UVA and riboflavin caused endothelial cell DNA damage and destroyed the tight junction and pump function of the endothelium, while riboflavin or the same dose of UVA alone did not affect the endothelium. Ripasudil reduced DNA damage in endothelial cells, increased the density of cells, and protected the endothelium’s integrity and function. Conclusion. Riboflavin combined with UVA can damage the corneal endothelium’s normal functioning. The corneal endothelium’s wound healing is dose-dependent, and the ROCK inhibitor ripasudil maintains the endothelium’s pump and barrier functions.