Objective: To determine the status of existing violence and injury prevention (VIP) efforts and surveillance systems in the Caribbean.
Methods: The Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA) undertook a survey to gather evidence of VIP in 24 CARPHA member states. The survey was administered to national epidemiologists and non-communicable disease focal points in October 2015 using an online tool, ‘Survey Monkey’. Questions were asked about the availability in each country of VIP representative surveys, policies, action plans, laws, victim support services, and surveillance systems.
Results: Nineteen (79%) countries completed the VIP survey. Only three (16%) countries indicated having conducted a nationally representative survey. Twelve (63%) had not developed a national policy, and 14 (74%) had not implemented an action plan on VIP. Each country reported the existence of VIP laws and offered victim support services, though average law enforcement ranged from 40% to 79%. Nine (47%) countries indicated using an injury registry, and 15 (79%) reported collecting injury data using in-patient records, mainly from public hospitals. All 19 countries confirmed that records of reported violent incidents were maintained by the police. Unique identifiers were generally lacking in registries and data collected by the police. Only four (44%) countries with registries, 10 (67%) countries with in-patient injury data, and 12 (63%) countries with police records indicated that the data were shared with other organizations.
Conclusion: Each country reported some level of injury surveillance system. However, such systems should be harmonized to produce more complete baseline data. The use of unique identifiers is required to reduce duplication and effectively link surveillance systems available in countries.
Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the population of Martinique, as part of the survey entitled ‘Mental Health in the General Population – Images and Realities’ (Santé Mentale en Population Générale – Images et Réalités). The survey was a multicentre epidemiological study in the general population, conducted in mainland France and French overseas islands between 1997 and 2006, under the authority of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Training and Research in Mental Health (Lille, France). Methods: The study took place in 2000. Participants aged 18 years or over were recruited in public places, using the quota sampling method, and interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: A total of 900 participants (52.7% women) with a mean age of 43 years completed the survey. Lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was 29%. Mood (15%) and anxiety disorders (17%) were the most frequent. The rate of suicide attempts was low (4.2% lifetime), while the frequency of suicidal thoughts was high (11% past month) and similar to the frequency in mainland France. Conclusion: Mental disorders, especially mood and anxiety disorders, were as frequent in Martinique as in mainland France. The lower rates of suicide attempts, in spite of high rates of suicidal thoughts, might deserve further investigation. Our results should strengthen the development
of a system of diagnosis and care for these disorders, especially to prevent suicidal
behaviours and reduce morbidity and mortality.
Objective: To explore the relationship between substance use and depressive symptomatology among adolescents in Colombia. Methods: Adolescents aged 13–19 years from a rural city in Colombia completed the Spanish version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test and the Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale-6 (KADS-6). Results: Regression analyses indicated that gender, having used cannabis, having used sedatives, and having a family member who used illegal drugs were predictive of higher symptom levels of depression according to KADS-6. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that substance use was associated with depressive symptoms in this sample of Colombian adolescents.
Objective: To determine the role of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from south-western Nigeria. Methods: Twenty-seven carbapenem-resistant isolates that were found to be non-carbapenemase producers (15 Escherichia coli, 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were further studied. These isolates were subjected to analysis including phenotypic and genotypic detection of various β-lactamases, efflux activity, outer membrane protein, plasmids
replicon typing, detection of transferable genes and resistances and typing using random amplified polymorphic DNA tests. Results: No isolates demonstrated de-repression of efflux, but all showed either complete loss or reduced production of outer membrane proteins. Transconjugants from these strains contained various genes including plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. All the transconjugants carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene. The transconjugants
had varying minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems ranging from 0.03 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Varying resistances to other antimicrobial agents were also transferred with the plasmids. The donor isolates were not clonally related by molecular typing. Conclusion: Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in this sample was not mediated only by carbapenemases but also by production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (largely CTX-M-15), accompanied by protein loss. This was an important mechanism underpinning carbapenem resistance in these clinical isolates of various species.