Communicable Disease
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Xia ◽  
Lichun Wu ◽  
Wanxin Tian ◽  
Wenqing Miao ◽  
Xiyu Zhang ◽  
...  

Aims: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) drag the NCD patients' families to the abyss of poverty. Medical insurance due to weak control over medical expenses and low benefits levels, may have actually contributed to a higher burden of out-of-pocket payments. By making a multi-dimensional calculation on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) in Heilongjiang Province over 10 years, it is significant to find the weak links in the implementation of medical insurance to achieve poverty alleviation.Methods: A logistic regression was undertaken to predict the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure.Results: The average CHE of households dropped from 18.9% in 2003 to 14.9% in 2013. 33.2% of the households with three or more NCD members suffered CHE in 2013, which was 7.2 times higher than the households without it (4.6%). The uninsured households with cardiovascular disease had CHE of 12.0%, which were nearly 10% points lower than insured households (20.4–22.4%). For Medical Insurance for Urban Employees Scheme enrolled households, the increasing number of NCD members raised the risk of impoverishment from 3.4 to 20.0% in 2003, and from 0.3 to 3.1% in 2008. Households with hospital in-patient members were at higher risk of CHE (OR: 3.10–3.56).Conclusions: Healthcare needs and utilization are one of the most significant determinants of CHE. Households with NCD and in-patient members are most vulnerable groups of falling into a poverty trap. The targeting of the NCD groups, the poorest groups, uninsured groups need to be primary considerations in prioritizing services that are contained in medical insurance and poverty alleviation.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257037
Author(s):  
Sitasnu Dahal ◽  
Ram Bilakshan Sah ◽  
Surya Raj Niraula ◽  
Rajendra Karkee ◽  
Avaniendra Chakravartty

Background According to WHO, the deaths due to NCDs in Nepal have soared from 60% of all deaths in 2014 to 66% in 2018. The study assessed the prevalence and determinants of non-communicable disease risk factors among adult population of Kathmandu. Materials and methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 among 18–69 years adults residing in municipalities of Kathmandu district. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 245 subjects who were interviewed using WHO NCD STEPS instrument. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were done to explore the determinants of NCD risk factors. Results The prevalence of current smoking, alcohol consumption, low intake of fruits and vegetables and low physical activity was found to be 22%, 31%, 93.9% and 10.2% respectively. More than half (52.2%) of the participants were overweight or obese and the prevalence of raised blood pressure was 27.8%. Smoking was associated significantly with male gender (AOR = 2.37, CI: 1.20–5.13) and respondents with no formal schooling (AOR: 4.33, CI: 1.50–12.48). Similarly, the odds of alcohol consumption were higher among male gender (AOR: 2.78, CI: 1.47–5.26), people who were employed (AOR: 2.30, CI: 1.13–4.82), and those who belonged to Chhetri (AOR: 2.83, CI: 1.19–6.72), Janajati (AOR: 6.18, CI: 2.74–13.90), Dalit and Madhesi, (AOR: 7.51, CI: 2.13–26.35) ethnic groups. Furthermore, respondents who were aged 30–44 years (AOR: 5.15, CI: 1.91–13.85) and 45–59 years (AOR: 4.54 CI: 1.63–12.66), who were in marital union (AOR: 3.39, CI: 1.25–9.13), and who belonged to Janajati (AOR: 3.37, CI: 1.61–7.04), Dalit and Madhesi (AOR: 4.62, CI: 1.26–16.86) ethnic groups were more likely to be associated with overweight or obesity. Additionally, the odds of raised blood pressure were higher among people who were of older age (AOR: 6.91, CI: 1.67–28.63) and those who belonged to Janajati ethnic group (AOR: 3.60, CI: 1.46–8.87) after multivariate analysis. Conclusion The findings of the study highlighted high prevalence of behavioral and metabolic risk factors, which varied on different socio-demographic grounds. Thus, population specific health promotion interventions centered on public health interests is recommended to reduce risk factors of NCDs.


Author(s):  
Chiyembekezo Kachimanga ◽  
Yusupha Dibba ◽  
Marta Patiño ◽  
Joseph S. Gassimu ◽  
Daniel Lavallie ◽  
...  

AbstractThis study is an evaluation of the first cohort of patients enrolled in an outpatient non-communicable disease clinic in Kono, Sierra Leone. In the first year, the clinic enrolled 916 patients. Eight months after the enrollment of the last patient, 53% were still active in care, 43% had been lost to follow-up (LTFU) and 4% had defaulted. Of the LTFU patients, 47% only came for the initial enrollment visit and never returned. Treatment outcomes of three patient groups [HTN only (n = 720), DM only (n = 51), and HTN/DM (n = 96)] were analyzed through a retrospective chart review. On average, all groups experienced reductions in blood pressure and/or blood glucose of approximately 10% and 20%, respectively. The proportions of patients with their condition controlled also increased. As NCDs remain underfunded and under-prioritized in low-income countries, the integrated program in Kono demonstrates the possibility of improving outpatient NCD care in Sierra Leone and similar settings.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Roy Axel Gordon-Firing Sandberg

Challenges pertaining to the study of migrant health have been reported in medical and sociological literature. A literature review was thus conducted to gauge what research currently holds about the risk of non-communicable disease within migrant populations globally. The search strategy is outlined; CASP checklists were used to critically appraise articles, and the relevant data was synthesised and analysed. The research identifies several overarching quantitative themes regarding risk patterns. Recommendations are made.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (17) ◽  
pp. 8169
Author(s):  
Domenico Iacopetta

Cancer is a reputed non-communicable disease, namely a non-transmittable illness affecting humankind, which represents a major public health issue and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide [...]


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (02) ◽  
pp. 1448-1454
Author(s):  
Jayvikramjit Vikram Singh ◽  
◽  
Mohamad Fuad Mohamad Anuar ◽  
Azli Baharudin ◽  
Suhaila Abdul Ghaffar ◽  
...  

ntroduction Fall is a health problem for older persons. This study investigates the potential factors of concern: the nutritional status of the elderly and non-communicable disease association with incidents of falls. Methods and Materials This study used data from NHMS 2018, a cross-sectional design, applied two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistics such as the percentage of each variable were done. Factors associated with falls were determined at both univariate and multivariable levels using simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression. The data were presented as standard values for each analysis and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI with p values (<0.05). Results A total of 3,867 from 3,977 elderly (mean age 68.2+ 6.85) were recruited with the response rate of 97.2%. Factors associated with fall were 70 years old and above (AOR= 1.34, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.64), obesity (AOR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.98), undernutrition (AOR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.94), persons with 2 NCDs (AOR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.92) and persons with 3 NCDs (AOR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.16). Discussion and Conclusion Advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, and having two or more NCD are associated with falls in the NHMS 2018 study. In conclusion, falls are prevalent among older persons. There is an urgent need for public health strategies to decrease the incidence and early identification of those at risk. Implementation of fall preventive programs can also significantly reduce falls among the elderly.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sung-Yong Hong ◽  
Ephraim Lansky ◽  
Sam-Sog Kang ◽  
Mihi Yang

Abstract Background Pears have been world-widely used as a sweet and nutritious food and a folk medicine for more than two millennia. Methods We conducted a review from ancient literatures to current reports to extract evidence-based functions of pears. Results We found that pears have many active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phenolic acids including arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, etc. Most of researchers agree that the beneficial compounds are concentrated in the peels. From various in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, the medicinal functions of pears can be summarized as anti-diabetic,-obese, −hyperlipidemic, −inflammatory, −mutagenic, and -carcinogenic effects, detoxification of xenobiotics, respiratory and cardio-protective effects, and skin whitening effects. Therefore, pears seem to be even effective for prevention from Covid-19 or PM2.5 among high susceptible people with multiple underlying diseases. Conclusion For the current or post Covid-19 era, pears have potential for functional food or medicine for both of communicable and non-communicable disease.


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